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Table 2 Univariable logistic regression model with random effects (site and animal) showing associations between Clostridium difficile status and raccoon age (adult or juvenile), sex, location type (farm or conservation area), and season (May to July or August to October)

From: Longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile shedding in raccoons on swine farms and conservation areas in Ontario, Canada

Predictor Sub-category (n = sample size) % C. difficile positive (95 % CI)a Univariable modelsb
    Odds ratio 95 % CI Covariance parameter estimates (95 % CI) P
      Site level Animal leveld  
Agec Juvenile (n = 83) 2.4 (0.3–8.4) Referent     
Adult ( n= 360) 10.0 (7.113.6) 4.79 1.11–20.60 0.28 (0.04–1.8)   0.036
Location type Conservation (n = 225) 7.1 (4.1–11.3) Referent     
Swine farm (n = 219) 10.0 (6.4–14.8) 1.42 0.573.59 0.21 (0.02–1.8)   0.448
Sex Female (n = 245) 8.6 (5.4–12.8) Referent     
Male (n = 199) 8.5 (5.1–13.3) 0.93 0.461.88 0.27 (0.04–1.9) 0.14e 0.831
Season Aug. to Oct. (n = 165) 3.0 (1.0–6.9) Referent     
  May to July ( n= 279) 11.8 (8.3–16.2) 4.81 1.80–12.87 0.21 (0.06–1.8)   0.002
  1. aCI = confidence interval
  2. bSignificant differences are in bold
  3. cAge for 1 individual was unknown
  4. dThe random effect for animal was not included in the models for age, location type, and season because it explained 5.3 × 10-31 to 4.2 × 10-30 of the variance, and its removal from the model changed the coefficients little and did not change the model according to AIC and BIC
  5. eThe 95 % confidence interval was estimated to be between 3.6 × 10-11 and 5.6 × 108