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Table 2 Serum E2, P4 and PRL concentrations in dogs with mammary neoplasms

From: Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms: serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors

  E2 (pg/ml) P4 (ng/ml) PRL (ng/ml)
all dogs (n = 32) 7.85 ± 4.70 9.57 ± 21.50 3.97 ± 1.92
  spayed (n = 8) 2.35 ± 1.12a 0.30 ± 0.27 2.97 ± 1.16b
  intact (n = 24) 9.85 ± 3.79a 12.67 ± 24.14 4.31 ± 2.02b
  anestrous (n = 13) 8.09 ± 4.08c 0.47 ± 0.40d 3.99 ± 2.13
  diestrous (n = 11) 11.95 ± 2.05c 27.08 ± 30.31d 4.69 ± 1.90
  1. Values are shown as mean ± SD. Same superscripts within a column denote significant differences at p < 0.05 (assessed with a t-test).