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Table 3 Comparison of the results of measurement of height and width of the cervical foramina (C4-5, C5-6, and C6-C7)

From: Morphological changes of the caudal cervical intervertebral foramina due to flexion-extension and compression-traction movements in the canine cervical vertebral column

Comparisons Differencea (mm) 95 % Confidence. Intervala (CI) p-valueb
Height: Neutral/Compression vs. Neutral/None −0.17 −0.26 − −0.07 0.004
Height: Neutral/Traction vs. Neutral/None 0.15 0.05 − 0.24 0.011
Height: Extension/None vs. Neutral/None −0.74 −0.84 − −0.64 <0.001
Height: Flexion/None vs. Neutral/None 0.48 0.38 − 0.58 <0.001
Height: Flexion/None vs. Extension/None 1.22 1.12 − 1.31 <0.001
Width: Neutral/Compression vs. Neutral/None −0.40 −0.64 − −0.16 0.008
Width: Neutral/Traction vs. Neutral/None 0.03 −0.21 − 0.27 >0.99
Width : Extension/None vs. Neutral/None −1.26 −1.5 − −1.02 <0.001
Width: Flexion/None vs. Neutral/None 0.39 0.15 − 0.63 0.001
Width: Flexion/None vs. Extension/None 1.65 1.41 − 1.89 <0.001
  1. aDifference and CI in millimeters (mm)
  2. b p-values adjusted by the Holm’s procedure to conserve the overall type I error at 0.05