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Table 2 Depicting breed-specific data regarding seizure type and seizure remission

From: International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force’s current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs

Breed Seizure type History of cluster seizures or status epilepticus Remission rate Reference
Australian Shepherd 36 % generalised epileptic seizures 20 % cluster seizures 12 % Weissl et al. 2012 [9]
26 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures 12 % status epilepticus
38 % both seizure types 48 % history of both
52 % showed also focal epileptic seizures (in addition to their generalised epileptic seizures or focal
epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures)
Belgian Shepherd 18 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Berendt et al. 2008 [23]
25 % focal
53 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
4 % unclassified
  6 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Berendt et al. 2009 [41]
83 % focal epileptic seizures or focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
11 % unclassified
  n.s. 33 % cluster seizures 13.7 % Gulløv et al. 2012 [37]
  18 % generalised epileptic seizures 33 % cluster seizures n.s. Seppala et al. 2012 [34]
7 % focal epileptic seizures
37 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised epileptic seizures
34 % generalised epileptic seizures with unknown onset
4 % unclassified
Bernese Mountain dog 98 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Kathmann et al. 1999 [45]
2 % focal epileptic seizures
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
Border Collie 8 % generalised epileptic seizures 45 % cluster seizures 18 % Hülsmeyer et al. 2010 [8]
78 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures 4 % status epilepticus
14 % unclassified 49 % history of both
45 % showed also focal epileptic seizures (in addition to their generalised epileptic seizures or focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures)
Border Terrier 68 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Kloene et al. 2008 [56]
32 % focal epileptic seizures
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
Cavalier King Charles 39 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Driver et al. 2013 [59]
36 % focal epileptic seizures
25 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
Collie (rough and smooth) Predominantly generalised 35 % cluster seizures n.s. Munana et al. 2012 [64]
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
Dalmatian 20 % generalised epileptic seizures 63.6 % cluster seizures n.s. Licht et al. 2002 [65]
80 % focal epileptic seizures or focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
English Springer Spaniel 47 % generalised epileptic seizures 38 % cluster seizures n.s. Patterson et al. 2005 [74]
33 % focal epileptic seizures
20 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
Finnish Spitz 1 % generalised epileptic seizures 16.2 % cluster seizures n.s. Viitmaa et al. 2013 [82]
54 % focal epileptic seizures
31 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
7 % generalised with unknown onset
7 % completely unclassified
Golden Retriever 83 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Lengweiler&Jaggy 1999 [86]
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
  92 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Srenk et al. 1994 [84]
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
Hungarian (Magyar) Vizsla 21 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Patterson et al. 2003 [87]
62 % focal epileptic seizures
17 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
Irish Wolfhound Predominantly generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Casal et al. 2006 [24]
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
Italian Spinone 23 % generalised epileptic seizures   n.s. DeRisio et al. 2015 [93]
51 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
26 % generalised epileptic seizures with unknown onset
Labrador Retriever 24 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Berendt et al. 2002 [26]
70 % focal epileptic seizures or focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
  91 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Heynold et al. 1997 [94]
9 % focal epileptic seizures
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
  96 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Jaggy et al. 1998 [95]
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
Lagotto Romagnolo Mainly focal epileptic seizures n.s. by 8–13 weeks of age Jokinen et al. 2007 [105]
Petit Baset Griffon Vendeen 5 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Gulløv et al. 2011 [25]
41 % focal epileptic seizures
52 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
2 % unclassified
Shetland Sheepdog Predominantly generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Morita et al. 2002 [109]
Distinction between (primary) generalised epileptic seizures and focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures was not performed.
Standard Poodle 3.5 % generalised epileptic seizures n.s. n.s. Licht et al. 2007 [113]
33 % focal epileptic seizures
60 % focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures
3.5 % generalised epileptic seizures with unknown onset
  Predominantly focal epileptic seizures or focal epileptic seizures evolving into generalised seizures 34 % cluster seizures n.s. Licht et al. 2002 [65]
  1. n.s. not specified