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Table 1 Factors associated with pig herd level African swine fever seropositivity of 144 pig herds in southwest Nigeria, 2013

From: Sero-prevalence and risk factors associated with African swine fever on pig farms in southwest Nigeria

Variables Seropositive n = 40 (%) Seronegative n = 104 (%) OR (95 % CI)a P Value
State Location     
   Lagos 4 (10) 27 (26) Ref  
   Ondo 4 (10) 16 (15) 1.7 (0.3; 10.3) 0.76
   Ekiti 4 (10) 13 (12.5) 2.1 (0.3; 12.9) 0.58
   Osun 5 (12.5) 19 (18) 1.8 (0.3; 10.1) 0.67
   Oyo 6 (15) 16 (15) 2.5 (0.5; 13.9) 0.34
   Ogun 17 (42.5) 13 (12.5) 8.8 (2.2; 41.8) 0.001
Total No. of pigs on farm     
   Large holder farms (101 – 567) 7 (17.5) 19 (18) Ref  
   Medium holder farms (51 – 100) 8 (20) 30 (29) 0.7 (0.2; 2.8) 0.80
   Small holder farms (<= 50) 25 (62.5) 55 (53) 1.2 (0.4; 3.9) 0.88
Season     
   Dry 21 (52.5) 18 (17) 5.3 (2.2; 12.7) 0.00
   Rainy 19 (47.5) 86 (83)   
Having slaughter slabs within 1 km radius of the farm     
   Yes 5 (12.5) 23 (22) 0.5 (0.1; 1.5) 0.28
   No 35 (87.5) 81 (78)   
Having rubbish heap within 1 km radius of the farm     
   Yes 29 (72.5) 64 (61.5) 1.6 (0.7; 4.1) 0.30
   No 11 (27.5) 40 (38.5)   
Having a quarantine/isolation unit within 100 m radius of the regular pen     
   Yes 13 (32.5) 13 (12.5) 3.3 (1.3; 8.9) 0.01
   No 27 (67.5) 91 (87.5)   
Farm workers having designated working clothes     
   Yes 28 (70) 85 (82) 0.5 (0.2; 1.3) 0.19
   No 12 (30) 19 (18)   
Taking of shower/bath at work     
   Yes 26 (65) 52 (50) 1.9 (0.8; 4.3) 0.15
   No 14 (35) 52 (50)   
Lending out of service boars     
   Yes 8 (20) 33 (32) 0.5 (0.2; 1.4) 0.23
   No 32 (80) 71 (68)   
Daily cleaning of pen floor     
   Yes 36 (90) 95 (91) 0.9 (0.2; 4.0) 1.00
   No 4 (10) 9 (19)   
Daily disinfection of pen floor     
   Yes 8 (20) 25 (24) 0.8 (0.3; 2.1) 0.78
   No 32 (80) 79 (76)   
Daily cleaning of working utensils     
   Yes 28 (70) 71 (68) 1.1 (0.4; 2.6) 1.00
   No 12 (30) 33 (32)   
Daily disinfection of working utensils     
   Yes 9 (22.5) 21 (20) 1.1 (0.4; 3.0) 0.92
   No 31 (77.5) 83 (80)   
Snacking or eating while working     
   Yes 10 (25) 19 (18) 1.5 (0.6; 3.8) 0.50
   No 30 (75) 85 (82)   
Wearing of work clothes outside of farm     
   Yes 8 (20) 15 (14) 1.5 (0.5; 4.2) 0.56
   No 32 (80) 89 (86)   
Source of replacement stock     
   External source 31 (62.5) 54 (52) 3.2 (1.3; 8.3) 0.01
   Internal source 9 (37.5) 50 (48)   
Feeding of swill     
   Yes 22 (55) 59 (57) 0.9 (0.4; 2.1) 1.00
   No 18 (45) 45 (43)   
Having carcass disposal or burying site within 1 km radius of farm     
   Yes 27 (67.5) 59 (57) 1.6 (0.7; 3.7) 0.32
   No 13 (32.5) 45 (43)   
Presence of nearby pig farms (within 1 km radius)     
   Yes 21 (52.5) 59 (57) 0.8 (0.4; 1.9) 0.79
   No 19 (47.5) 45 (43)   
Sharing of farm workers among fellow farmers     
   Yes 4 (10) 13 (12.5) 0.8 (0.2; 2.8) 0.93
   No 36 (90) 91 (87.5)   
Sharing of working utensils among fellow farmers     
   Yes 3 (7.5) 5 (5) 1.6 (0.2; 8.7) 0.78
   No 37 (92.5) 99 (95)   
Farm workers having a designated work footwear     
   Yes 27 (67.5) 77 (74) 0.7 (0.3; 1.8) 0.56
   No 13 (32.5) 27 (26)   
  1. aOdds ratio (95 % Confidence interval)