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Table 5 Reasons for diagnosis of FMD and tests performed at the NRLs and at the collaborating laboratories

From: Laboratory capacity for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in Eastern Africa: implications for the progressive control pathway

Country/ region Reasons for diagnosis of FMD Tests performed at NRLs Collaborating laboratories Test performed through Collaboration
Serology FMDV identification Serology FMDV identification
Burundi Cob ELISA Ag ELISA nc   
Djibouti Sur, Mve NSP - LQCD, Djibouti NSP LPBE PCRa
Eritrea Sur SPCE, LPBE, NSP PCRb, VI IAH,Pirbright, UK - Ag ELISA, PCR a, VI, sequencing
Ethiopia Sur, Vmat, Res LPBE, NSP Ag ELISA, PCRa,b IAH, Pirbright, UK - PCR a,b, VI, Sequencing
Kenya Sur, Vmat, Cob, Mve, Res VNT, LPBE, NSP Ag ELISA, CFT, PCRb*, VI IAH Pirbright, UK - Ag ELISA, PCR a,b, Sequencing
Puntland Sur, Vmat, VNT Ag ELISA FNL, Kenya VNT -
Rwanda Sur, Vmat, Cob LPBE - OVI, South Africa Pirbright, UK LPBE Ag ELISA, PCR a,b
Somalia Sur, Vmat NSP - FNL, Kenya - Ag ELISA
Somaliland Sur, Vmat NSP - FNL, Kenya - Ag ELISA
South Sudan Sur, Vmat, Cob - Ag ELISA FNL, Kenya - PCR a,b** , Sequencing**
Sudan Sur, Vmat, Cob, Res VNT, LPBE, NSP Ag ELISA, VI IAH, Pirbright, UK VNT, LPBE, SPCE Ag ELISA, PCR a,b, VI, Sequencing
Tanzania Sur,Vmat, Cob, Res SPCE, LPBE, NSP Ag ELISA, PCR a,b* BVI, Botswana IAH, Pirbright, UK NSP Ag ELISA, PCR a,b, VI Sequencing
Uganda Sur, Vmat, Cob, Res SPBE, LPBE, NSP PCRa,b Lindholm, Denmark IAH, Pirbright, UK OVI, South Africa VNT Ag ELISA, sequencing, VI
  1. Cob: confirmation of outbreaks, Sur: surveillance, Mve: monitoring vaccine efficacy, Vmat: vaccine matching, Res: research, PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction, a: real time PCR, b: conventional PCR, VI: virus isolation, Ag: antigen, CFT: complement fixation test, LPBE: liquid phase blocking ELISA, NSP: non-structural protein based antibody ELISA, SPBE: solid phase blocking ELISA, SPCE: solid phase competition ELISA, VNT: virus neutralization test, *:not used for diagnostic but undergoing validation, -: not done, **:Tests performed by IAH, Pirbright, UK through the collaborating laboratory, nc: no collaboration, LQCD: Lab quarantin center-Dammerjog.