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Table 4 Summaries of superordinate themes from thematic analysis of discussion surrounding anthelmintic strategies in donkeys and other species

From: Participatory study of medicinal plants used in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in Eastern Shewa and Arsi zones of Oromia region, Ethiopia

Superordinate (key) themes Example sub-themes
Attitudes to medicines from the clinic Preferences for either clinic or traditional plant based medicine.
Clinic medicines are perceived as more modern, professional or scientific.
Attitudes and beliefs surrounding traditional plant based medicine Preferences for either traditional or clinic medicines.
Significance of societal influences upon these preferences.
Traditional plant based medicines considered a ’past trend’.
Interpretation of the response to plant based medicines within the animal as indicative of strength / efficacy and reported side effects.
Spiritual connections and plant based medicine.
Origins of traditional plant based medicine Evolved from cattle preparations.
Inherited knowledge from fathers, passed down through the generations.
Religious texts.
Beliefs of when to worm donkeys Interpretation of clinical signs as gastrointestinal parasites.
Selection of individuals or group to de-worm.
Frequency of worming.
Sources of advice.
Other non-plant based preparations for de-worming Including: fermented butter, lake water, rotten egg, oil seed, alcohol.