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Table 3 Prognostic factors significantly associated with overall survival

From: Identification of prognostic factors in canine mammary malignant tumours: a multivariable survival study

Variable Univariate Multivariable*
  Hazard ratio 95% CI P Hazard ratio 95% CI P
Tumour size       
< 3 cm Referent      
≥ 3 cm 2.79 1.16-6.68 0.022    NS
Mode of growth       
Expansive Referent      
Invasive 4.63 1.08-19.85 0.039    NS
Histological type       
Complex carcinomas Referent      
Simple carcinomas 2.75 0.62-12.17 NS    
Others 6.48 1.34-31.22 0.020    NS
Histological grade       
I + II Referent      
III 2.52 1.09-5.82 0.031    NS
MIB1 L.I. (%)       
< 40 Referent    Referent   
≥ 40 4.60 1.79-11.85 0.002 4.06 1.56-10.58 0.004
uPA (%)       
< 10 Referent      
≥ 10 5.28 1.23-22.60 0.025    NS
MMP-9 (%)       
< 50 Referent    Referent   
≥ 50 4.21 1.76-1.09 0.001 3.67 1.52-8.89 0.004
  1. * Cox proportional hazard model: forward stepwise method – likelihood ratio.
  2. NS – not significant.