Base excess values and D-lactate concentrations of calves at times of examination. A: Blood base excess and D-lactate concentrations in 121 calves with neonatal diarrhea on admission. Values of five calves that had to be treated alternatively for reasons of expected treatment failure are indicated by ◊. Values of calves in which metabolic acidosis was not corrected successfully are indicated by □. B: Outcome of therapy regarding blood base excess and D-lactate concentrations in 116 diarrheic calves that were treated according to the developed decision tree. Therapy was considered to be successful, if base excess values ranged between −5 and +5 mmol/l at the end of the 24 h study period. After 24 hours eight calves still showed base excess values below −5 mmol/l, whereas a metabolic alkalosis (base excess above +5 mmol/l) was present in 55 calves.