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Table 3 Animal-level seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in three states of northern Nigeria, by breed, sex, age, management system, pregnancy status and lactation status, adjusted for sampling weights and test sensitivity and specificity

From: A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

Variable and level n Adjusted prev. (%) 95% CI (%) P-value*
All Animals     
State     0.496
  Adamawa 1827 29.2 22.5-36.9  
  Kaduna 1870 23.3 18.9-28.3  
  Kano 1048 26.7 18.8-36.7  
Management system     <0.001
  Zero-grazing 101 23.8ab 6.8-59.2  
  Commercial 642 15.9a 9.5-25.5  
  Agro-pastoral 2758 22.0a 17.3-27.8  
  Pastoral 1244 45.1b 38.6-51.9  
Breed     0.392
  Bunaji 3052 27.5 22.5-33.2  
  Gudali 863 26.3 22.1-31.1  
Bos taurus 118 15.1 6.6-31.0  
B. taurus x B. indicus 267 21.8 11.7-37.0  
  Other B. indicus 445 24.7 17.8-33.5  
Sex     <0.001
  Males 596 38.2a 31.7-45.2  
  Females 4149 24.7b 20.4-29.5  
Age     <0.001
  < 4 years 559 13.5a 8.9-19.9  
  4 - 5 years 2038 23.8b 19.9-28.1  
  5 - 7 years 1312 29.8c 22.6-38.2  
  > 7 years 804 35.0c 28.5-42.3  
Females Only     
Pregnancy status     <0.001
  Pregnant 1367 17.2a 13.6-21.5  
  Non-pregnant 2835 27.8b 22.9-33.5  
Lactation status     0.635
  Lactating 1819 25.3 20.7-30.5  
  Non-lactating 2386 23.2 19.3-29.9  
Total 4745 26.3 22.1-31.0  
  1. Figures with different superscripts within the same variable differ significantly (P < 0.05).
  2. * P-value determined using the Chi-square test, corrected for the survey design using the second-order correction of Rao and Scott [53].