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Table 1 Summary of the BPHS scores of a batch level report and their typical causes, according to BPEX guidelines [13, 14]

From: BPEX Pig Health Scheme: a useful monitoring system for respiratory disease control in pig farms?

Score Description Typical Causes
Enzootic pneumonia (EP) like lesion score EP-like lesions in the anterior lobes of the lungs. The report shows the average score (minimum = zero: no lesions, maximum = 55), for all lungs examined. Each pair of lungs is divided into 7 lobes; the cranial lobes, cardiac lobes, diaphragmatic lobes and a single accessory (intermediate) lobe. Depending on the level of disease, each cranial and cardiac lobe is scored from 0 to 10 and the cranial areas of the diaphragmatic lobes and intermediate lobe are scored from 0 to 5. M. hyopneumoniae
Viral-like pneumonia Lesions of viral pneumonia: lobular pattern with consolidation, rubbery texture, congestion or collapsed areas. Percentage of pigs and the number of individuals with viral-like pneumonia is given. Porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV), swine influenza (SI), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2)
Chronic pleuropneumonia Bronchopneumonia with overlying pleurisy, usually affecting caudal or middle lung lobes. A severe form of pleurisy usually associated with APP. The percentage of pigs and the number of individuals with chronic pleuropneumonia-like lesions. The presence of old lesions suggests past infection and variable immunity in herds with endemic pleuropneumonia. APP
Acute pleuropneumonia As above but fresh, active lesions. The report presents the percentage of pigs and the actual number of individuals with acute pleuropneumonia-like lesions. The presence of new, active lesions indicates recent infection. APP
Mild or localised pleurisy The percentage and number of pigs with any discrete area of parietal or visceral pleurisy. The affected area of the lung may be stuck to the chest wall. The presence of pleurisy provides evidence that a lung infection had occurred prior to slaughter. Haemophilus parasuis Mycoplasma spp., Actinobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp. Bordetella bronchiseptica, etc.
Severe or extensive pleurisy The percentage and number of pigs with pleurisy involving in excess of approximately 20% of the total lung area, is classed as extensive. as above, but more likely to be APP
Pericarditis The number and percentage of pigs with pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium). Haemophilus parasuis and other causes of pleurisy