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Table 2 Results of power analyses for salivary cortisol, heart rate, and duration moving

From: Physiological and behavioral reactions elicited by simulated and real-life visual and acoustic helicopter stimuli in dairy goats

Salivary cortisol
(baseline standard deviation: 0.23)
Heart rate
(baseline standard deviation: 12.01)
Duration moving
(baseline standard deviation: 22.97)
% mean N % mean N % mean N
350 1.51 3 200 158.20 2 300 79.02 4
300 1.29 3 180 142.38 3 260 68.48 5
250 1.08 4 160 126.56 3 220 57.95 7
200 0.86 5 140 110.74 3 180 47.41 12
150 0.65 10 120 94.92 6 140 36.87 40
100 0.43   100 79.10   100 26.34  
80 0.34 54 90 71.19 16 80 21.07 152
60 0.26 15 80 63.28 6 60 15.80 40
40 0.17 8 70 55.37 4 40 10.54 19
#    60 47.46 3 20 5.27 12
  1. Power analyses were performed for α = 0.05 and β = 0.80.
  2. #: lower cortisol values not considered, because average decreases below detection limit.
  3. %: change in percent from baseline value, with baseline value set to 100%
  4. The means and standard deviations of the baseline measure, i.e. of the 12-minute observation periods before stimuli were used for the power calculations. The daily baseline of cortisol was calculated as mean of the cortisol measurements preceding presentation of the first non-neutral stimulus (Table 1, last column).