Quantitative PCR was performed for P311 expression. In contrast to MAFbx, P311 expression was down-regulated in all PCS muscle samples. Results of each litter are expressed as mean ± standard deviation from triplicate samples within the same experiment. Combined results of 4 sets of PCS piglets also tested for significance (*p < 0.05) in differences between pair-wise combinations of the least square means. Norm = normal; PCS = porcine congenital splayleg.