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Table 1 Functions of the ER stress-induced genes considered in this study

From: Up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress induced genes of the unfolded protein response in the liver of periparturient dairy cows

Component1 Function Reference
ATF4 Indicator of PERK activation, transcription factor which contributes to the transcriptional activation of chaperones and foldases [5]
BAK1 ER stress induced pro-apoptotic gene of the BCL-2 family proteins [10]
BAX ER stress induced pro-apoptotic gene of the BCL-2 family proteins [26]
HSPA5 (encoding BiP) Chaperon, master regulator of UPR [5, 27]
CASP3, CASP8, CASP9 (encoding caspases 3, 8, 9) ER stress induced members of a family of cysteine proteases which are critical mediators of apoptosis [9, 13, 27, 28]
DDIT3 (encoding CHOP) Non ER localised transcription factor, induced by ER stress through PERK and ATF6, mediates ER stress induced apoptosis [29]
EDEM1 ER stress induced target of IRE, component of the ER-associated degradation system (ERAD) [29, 30]
HERPUD1 (encoding HERP) ER stress induced target of ATF6, a resident membrane protein involved in the ERAD complex [31]
PDIA4 ER stress induced target of PERK, one of the most important ER resident protein folding enzymes with chaperone activity in preventing the aggregation of unfolded substrates [25]
DNAJC3 (encoding P58IPK) ER stress induced target of IRE, a molecular chaperone [32]
WARS ER stress induced target of PERK, ATF4 target gene, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase involved in protein synthesis [33]
XBP1 ER stress induced target of IRE, transcription factor which induces the transcriptional activation of chaperones [5]
  1. 1ATF4 = activating transcription factor 4; BAK1 = BCL2-antagonist/killer 1; BAX = BCL2-associated X protein; CASP = apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase; DDIT3 = DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3; DNAJC3 = DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 3; EDEM1 = ER degradation enhancer, mannosidase alpha-like 1; HERPUD1 = homocysteine-inducible, endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1; HSPA5 = heat shock 70 kDa protein 5; PDIA4 = protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 4; WARS = tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase; XBP1 = X-box binding protein 1.