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Table 5 Risk factors associated with the prevalence level of MAP excretion within infected herds

From: Observed management practices in relation to the risk of infection with paratuberculosis and to the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosisin Swiss dairy and beef herds

Variables OR1 95% CI2 p-value
All herds    
 Direct contamination of heifer area3 1.94 1.12-3-33 0.017
 Heifers kept in the same building as cows 1.79 1.02-3.17 0.044
 Direct contamination of heifer water supply4 3.00 1.61-5.59 0.0005
 Calving pen used as sick cow pen 0.47 0.26-0.87 0.017
Dairy herds    
 Direct contamination of heifer area3 2.40 1.18-4.88 0.016
 Direct contamination of heifer water supply4 2.99 1.44-6.22 0.003
 Heifers kept on contaminated pastures5 2.43 1.09-5.43 0.030
 Type of calving pen6 2.11 1.07-4.15 0.031
 Calving pen used as sick cow pen 0.33 0.16-0.71 0.004
 Cleaning calving pen with high-pressure washer > 1x/year 2.13 1.07-4.26 0.031
 Animal purchase7 0.51 0.26-0.99 0.048
Beef herds    
 No significant factors    
  1. 1OR = odds ratio.
  2. 295% CI = 95% confidence interval.
  3. 3Farms where direct contamination of the heifer area by manure spilling from adult animals could happen compared to farms where such contamination was not possible.
  4. 4Farms where direct contamination of the water supply of the heifers by manure spilling from adult animals could happen compared to farms where such contamination was not possible.
  5. 5Pastures contaminated through pasturing of cows or slurry spread earlier in season.
  6. 6No calving pen in free stall or boxes as in free stalls associated with higher prevalence than box with deep straw bedding and calving in tethered stable.
  7. 7Farms that purchased two or more animals per year on average compared to farms that purchased up to one animal per year on average.