Sambucus nigra extracts inhibit infectious bronchitis virus at an early point during replication
© Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 12 July 2013
Accepted: 10 January 2014
Published: 16 January 2014
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic chicken coronavirus. Currently, vaccination against IBV is only partially protective; therefore, better preventions and treatments are needed. Plants produce antimicrobial secondary compounds, which may be a source for novel anti-viral drugs. Non-cytotoxic, crude ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea roots, Nigella sativa seeds, and Sambucus nigra fruit were tested for anti-IBV activity, since these safe, widely used plant tissues contain polyphenol derivatives that inhibit other viruses.
Dose–response cytotoxicity curves on Vero cells using trypan blue staining determined the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of each plant extract. To screen for IBV inhibition, cells and virus were pretreated with extracts, followed by infection in the presence of extract. Viral cytopathic effect was assessed visually following an additional 24 h incubation with extract. Cells and supernatants were harvested separately and virus titers were quantified by plaque assay. Variations of this screening protocol determined the effects of a number of shortened S. nigra extract treatments. Finally, S. nigra extract-treated virions were visualized by transmission electron microscopy with negative staining.
Virus titers from infected cells treated with R. rosea and N. sativa extracts were not substantially different from infected cells treated with solvent alone. However, treatment with S. nigra extracts reduced virus titers by four orders of magnitude at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 in a dose-responsive manner. Infection at a low MOI reduced viral titers by six orders of magnitude and pretreatment of virus was necessary, but not sufficient, for full virus inhibition. Electron microscopy of virions treated with S. nigra extract showed compromised envelopes and the presence of membrane vesicles, which suggested a mechanism of action.
These results demonstrate that S. nigra extract can inhibit IBV at an early point in infection, probably by rendering the virus non-infectious. They also suggest that future studies using S. nigra extract to treat or prevent IBV or other coronaviruses are warranted.
KeywordsInfectious bronchitis virus Coronavirus Sambucus nigra Nigella sativa Rhodiola rosea
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a gamma-coronavirus, infects the respiratory tract of chickens and causes the production of eggs with deformed and weakened shells [1, 2]. The poultry and egg industries have consequently suffered large economic losses due to IBV infections [3, 4]. Current vaccination strategies target specific serotypes of the virus. However, vaccines have not proven wholly effective in protecting against new infections due to the highly recombinant nature of the virus [5, 6]. More efficient methods of IBV prevention or treatment are clearly needed. Plant extracts may be a potential source of agents for defending against IBV.
Historically, plant extracts have been widely used to treat various medical conditions [7–9]. Some of the best-known examples include quinine isolated from Cinchona pubescens (Cinchona tree) for treating malaria, digoxin from Digitalis purpurea (foxglove) for treating cardiac conditions, morphine from Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) used for pain, and aspirin synthesized from the bark of various Salix (willow) species. In many of these cases, the active chemicals isolated from these plants have been the basis for developing additional medications that are used today. Additionally, myriad plant extracts have shown activity, both in vitro and in vivo, against a large range of viral pathogens, including hepatitis B and C viruses, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, poliovirus, dengue viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus . Plant secondary metabolites, particularly polyphenols, are also increasingly recognized as potent antimicrobials . In some cases this ability to use plant metabolites to combat animal pathogens may rise from the similarities in plant and animal innate immune systems . Some commonalities include the use of similar pathogen recognition receptors and MAP-kinase signaling pathways to upregulate cellular immune responses, as well as reactive oxygen species and defensins to protect against invading microbes. Therefore, it is not surprising that the secondary metabolites used by plants for their own defense have been effective inhibitors, in some cases, of animal infectious agents . One such secondary metabolite is catechin. In Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Carmellia sinensis (Chinese tea leaf), catechin-synthesizing genes are upregulated in response to fungal infection and are correlated with increased resistance to infection [14, 15]. In humans, ingestion of or gargling with catechin-containing plant extracts results in lower rates of influenza virus infection [16, 17]. Quercetin is another secondary metabolite involved in plant and animal pathogen defense. Treatment with quercetin reduces susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana (mouse-ear cress) to Pseudomonas syringae infection . In vitro and in vivo studies have both shown that quercetin and its derivatives inhibit influenza virus and poliovirus replication, while in vitro treatment of the human pathogen, Salmonella enterica, results in microbe death [19–24].
The use of plant extracts as an alternative or supplementary IBV treatment or prevention strategy has not been extensively investigated. The range of plants that have been surveyed for their potential as anti-IBV agents is also limited, although, purified compounds isolated from Glycyrrhiza radix (licorice root)  and Forsythia suspensa (weeping forsythia)  have shown effectiveness against IBV in vitro. However, the use of these extracts or the active ingredients from these extracts for long-term treatment or prevention strategies poses some toxicity concerns [27–29]. These concerns, combined with the difficulties often encountered when translating in vitro research into in vivo treatments , suggest that in vitro identification of a number of different antiviral plants for future in vivo studies is important.
This study investigated the effects of extracts of three plant species – Rhodiola rosea (goldenroot), Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Sambucus nigra (common elderberry) – on avian IBV replication. To our knowledge, our study is the first to test the effects of these plants on IBV replication. We chose to study these plants due to their known antiviral properties. For example, R. rosea extract has shown antiviral activity against coxsackievirus B3 by preventing the virus from attaching and entering host cells . R. rosea extracts also contain a number of antiviral chemicals, including gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and catechin , which have inhibited the replication of human rhinoviruses , hepatitis B virus , and influenza virus [16, 17]. N. sativa extract has shown antimicrobial properties against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and other bacteria . Studies of murine cytomegalovirus infection and hepatitis C infection lend support to the plant’s antiviral potential in vivo, as well [36, 37]. Additionally, N. sativa compound extracts, especially its saponins, alkaloids, and flavonols, show similarities with known antiviral chemicals [38–40]. Finally, S. nigra extract has successfully inhibited influenza A and B viruses in vitro and in vivo. S. nigra extracts are also characterized by a high content of antiviral flavonoid anthocyanins . Additionally, the antiviral compound quercetin is largely present in both S. nigra and in Amelanchier alnifolia (Saskatoon serviceberry) , a known inhibitor of the bovine coronavirus, in vitro. Combined, these studies suggested that extracts of R. rosea, N. sativa, and S. nigra might possess broad antimicrobial or antiviral properties.
Here we show that non-cytotoxic, crude ethanol extracts of R. rosea roots and N. sativa seeds did not inhibit IBV infection in vitro, while S. nigra fruit extracts inhibited IBV by several orders of magnitude. This inhibition was dose-responsive in that it decreased with decreasing S. nigra extract concentrations and increased with decreasing virus concentrations. Treatment of virus with S. nigra extracts prior to infection was necessary, but not sufficient, for full virus inhibition. Additionally, electron microscopy of virions treated with S. nigra extracts showed compromised envelopes and the presence of membrane vesicles. These results demonstrate that S. nigra extract can inhibit IBV at an early point in infection and suggest that it does so by compromising virion structure. Overall these studies identified a plant extract with previously unknown effects against IBV, which could potentially lead to effective treatments or prevention of this or similar coronaviruses.
Cells and viruses
Vero cells were maintained in high-glucose Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) (Invitrogen Corporation, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (Atlanta Biologicals, Norcross, GA) and 0.1 mg/ml Normocin (Invivogen, San Diego, CA). The previously described Vero-adapted Beaudette strain of IBV  was used in all IBV infection experiments. Infections and titers were performed with Vero cells.
Preparation of plant extracts
0.6 g of R. rosea powdered root (Starwest Botanicals Sacramento, CA) was incubated in 5 ml of 70% ethanol (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) for 24 h at room temperature . 1.5 g of N. sativa seeds (Frontier Natural Products Co-op, Norway, IA) was homogenized in 10 ml of 85% ethanol and incubated for 7 d at room temperature [46, 47]. 32.0 g of S. nigra fruit (San Francisco Herb Company, San Francisco, CA) was homogenized in 40 ml of 80% ethanol and incubated for 4 d at room temperature . Following these incubations, extract solutions were centrifuged at 1900 × g for 5 min at room temperature to remove debris and the remaining supernatant was syringe filtered through a 0.22 μm polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (Fisher Scientific Company, Fair Lawn, NJ). All extract solutions were stored at 4°C.
Cells were plated in 35-mm dishes in duplicate for approximately 1 d before being treated with plant extracts for 48 h. Concentrations ranged from 7.5 × 10-5 g/ml to 1.2 × 10-3 g/ml for R. rosea extract, from 9.4 × 10-5 g/ml to 1.5 × 10-3 g/ml for N. sativa extract, and from 5.0 × 10-4 g/ml to 8.0 × 10-3 g/ml for S. nigra extract. The final concentration of solvent was kept constant in all wells at 0.04% ethanol for R. rosea extract treatments, 0.2% ethanol for N. sativa extract treatments, and 0.4% ethanol for S. nigra extract treatments. At 48 h post-treatment, supernatants containing dead cells were collected and combined with adherent cells that had been harvested using 0.05% trypsin (Invitrogen Corporation) in Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). 20 ml of this solution was then combined with an equal volume of 0.6% trypan blue (Sigma-Aldrich). The number of live cells per ml in each dish was counted in duplicate using light microscopy and a hemocytometer. The relative cell viability was calculated as live cells per ml in extract-treated dishes relative to solvent-treated dishes.
Infection in the presence of plant extracts
To screen for anti-IBV effects, cells were plated in 35-mm dishes for approximately 2 d before being treated with 3.75 × 10-4 g/ml of N. sativa extract, 1.5 × 10-4 g/ml of R. rosea extract, or 4.0 × 10-3 g/ml of S. nigra extract for 24 h. Control cells for R. rosea, N. sativa, and S. nigra extract treatments were incubated in final concentrations of 0.04% ethanol, 0.2% ethanol and 0.4% ethanol, respectively. Prior to infection with IBV, virus was incubated with these same concentrations of plant extract (or solvent alone) for 20 min at room temperature. IBV infection was then performed at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of either 1 or 0.1 by allowing virus to absorb to cells in a small volume of serum-free DMEM supplemented with plant extract or solvent alone for 1 h at 37°C. Cells were then transferred to fresh DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, and plant extract or solvent for an additional 24 h. Viral cytopathic effect was then assessed visually using light microscopy, and virus-infected supernatants and cells were harvested separately. Supernatants were collected, centrifuged at 1900 × g for 5 min at room temperature to remove cellular debris, and stored at -80°C until virus titers could be determined. Cells were transferred to fresh DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and antibiotics before being lysed by three rounds of freeze-thaw. Centrifugation at 1900 × g for 5 min at room temperature removed cellular debris and the remaining supernatant was stored at -80°C until virus titers could be determined.
After initial screening, the following S. nigra extract treatments were assessed for their ability to inhibit IBV either alone or in combination: (1) exposing cells to extract prior to infection, (2) exposing cells to extract following infection, (3) exposing virus to extract prior to infection, (4) exposing both cells and virus to extract during infection. Infections were done at an MOI of 0.1 as indicated above, except that exposure to solvent alone was substituted for exposure to S. nigra extract if a specific treatment was omitted. For example, to determine the effects of only exposing cells to S. nigra extract prior to infection, cells were first incubated with 4 mg/ml of S. nigra extract for 24 h prior to infection. Virus was then incubated in solvent alone for 20 min prior to infection and solvent was present during infection. Cells were then incubated in solvent alone for an additional 24 h following infection before being harvested, as described above.
Virus titers were quantified via plaque assay. First, serial dilutions of virus were absorbed to confluent Vero cells for 1 h in a small amount of serum free DMEM. Virus was then removed from cells and an agarose overlay (equal volumes of 2× DMEM and 1.8% melted agarose (Invitrogen Corporation)) was added. After 2 d, an additional agarose overlay containing 0.015% neutral red (MP Biomedicals, LLC, Solon, OH) was added to cells. Approximately 24 h later, clear plaques were counted and virus titers were calculated in particle forming units/ml (pfu/ml).
To purify virus, 30 ml of cell culture supernatant was overlaid on 4 ml of 20% sucrose in TNE buffer (50 mM Tris, pH 7.4, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA) and 2 ml of 55% sucrose in TNE in an SW 28 tube (Beckman-Coulter, Brea, CA). Samples were spun for 3 h at 25 k RPM in an SW 28 rotor. Purified virus was collected from the 20%-55% sucrose interface, diluted with TNE and pelleted for 2 h at 55 k RPM in an SW 55Ti rotor. Pellets were resuspended in 40–60 μl TNE and kept on ice for immediate use.
Purified virus was treated with 8.0 × 10-3 g/ml of S. nigra extract or 0.8% ethanol as a vehicle control in PBS for 15 min at room temperature. Samples were then spotted onto a glow discharged, carbon coated copper grid (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Hatfield, PA) and incubated for 2 min. Grids were rinsed with water, and stained for 1 min with 2% phosphotungstinic acid, pH 7.4. Samples were examined on a Hitachi 7600 transmission electron microscope under 80 kV, and micrographs collected using AMT Image Capture Engine software controlling an AMT ER50 5 megapixel CCD camera (Advanced Microscopy Techniques Corp., Danvers, MA).
The research protocol used for this study was approved by the Health & Biosafety Committee at Emory University (Biosafety File #: 08-2528-11). No human or animal subjects were used.
Determining non-cytotoxic concentrations of plant extracts
N. sativa and R. rosea extracts do not inhibit IBV, while S. nigraextracts do
Antiviral agents may exhibit an effect via myriad mechanisms. Therefore, screening was performed using extract before, during, and after infection to maximize the possibility of detecting antiviral action. Cells were treated for 24 h prior to infection with the indicated concentration of extract. Virus was treated for 20 min prior to infection and extract was present during the 1 h absorption of virus to cells. Cells were then treated for an additional 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Treatment with solvent alone was used as a control. At 24 h p.i. cells were visually assessed for viral cytopathic effect (CPE). Supernatants and cells were harvested separately and viral titers were quantified.
S. nigraextracts inhibit IBV at an early step in the infection process
S. nigraextract compromises IBV virion structure
Vaccination against IBV, a pathogen that causes large economic losses among the egg and poultry industries, has not proven wholly effective; therefore, alternative treatment or prevention strategies are needed. Here we screened non-cytotoxic (Figure 1), crude ethanol extracts from S. nigra berries, N. sativa seeds, and R. rosea roots for antiviral effects. Only S. nigra extracts inhibited viral replication, reducing viral titers by four to six orders of magnitude in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 2). S. nigra extract treatment of only virus prior to infection drastically inhibited the virus (Figure 3), indicating that S. nigra extract inhibits IBV at an early point in the infection process. Electron microscopy of S. nigra extract-treated IBV revealed compromised virion structures and membranous vesicles (Figure 5), which were not present in the extract alone. Therefore, S. nigra extract disrupts IBV virion structure, likely rendering it non-infectious.
Our results raise questions about which compounds within the crude S. nigra extract inhibit IBV, as well as their mechanisms of action. Polyphenols are a likely source of this inhibition, as plants with high polyphenol concentrations often have antiviral properties . In fact, two flavonols extracted from S. nigra berries can bind to virions from specific influenza virus strains and prevent infection in vitro, although whether these flavonols disrupted virion structure is unknown. Perhaps these or similar compounds in our S. nigra extract also inhibited IBV. Intriguingly, S. nigra extract has now been shown to inactivate two enveloped viruses, in the case of IBV by compromising its membrane directly. The membranes of these two viruses are chemically distinct, with IBV membranes being derived from the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment, while influenza membranes are derived from the plasma membrane. These results suggest that S. nigra extract may have broad anti-viral effects against other enveloped viruses.
In addition to polyphenols, lectins are commonly found in plant extracts and often show antiviral activity by binding to viral proteins or host receptors, preventing their interaction [49–54]. S. nigra berry extracts are known to contain three plant lectins [55–59]. Two of these lectins possess specificity for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine, while the other one preferentially binds α2,6-linked sialic acid. Although IBV, a gamma-coronavirus, depends upon sialylated host receptors for entry into cells, it specifically uses α2,3-linked moieties, not α2,6-linked moieties . Therefore, it is unlikely that S.nigra lectins block access to host-cell receptors used by IBV. Our results support this idea, since treatment of cells prior to infection had no effect on viral replication (Figure 3). On the other hand, IBV proteins, such as the spike protein, contain several consensus sequences that signal the addition of N-linked oligosaccharides . Possibly, S. nigra lectins could bind directly to viral proteins and inhibit infection. Lectins bound to the virions of both an alpha- and beta-coronavirus did inhibit infection , lending support to this idea. How binding by S. nigra lectins and virion disruption (Figure 5) would be related is unclear and might occur by separate mechanisms.
While N. sativa and R. rosea extracts did not inhibit IBV, many of their phytochemicals are thought to be antiviral. For example, N. sativa seed extracts predominantly contain saponins, glycosides, terpenoids and alkaloids [38, 63–67], many of which are similar to known antiviral chemicals [38–40, 68]. On the other hand, R. rosea root extracts consist of many kaempferol, herbacetin, dihydromyricetin, and myricetin derivatives . Of these R. rosea compounds, kaempferol, gossypetin, and salidroside have shown strong antiviral effects against influenza and Coxsackie viruses [69, 70]. S. nigra is also rich in cyanidin, kaempferol, myricetin, dihydromyricetin, and quercetin derivatives [42, 71, 72], making it much more similar chemically to R. rosea than to N. sativa. However, chemicals that are found in S. nigra berry extracts, but not in either R. rosea or N. sativa extracts, are particularly attractive candidates for future tests into the chemical nature of S. nigra extract inhibition. These S. nigra chemicals include several cyanidin derivatives; 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid; kaempferol 3-rutin; rutin; pelargonidin 3-glucoside; isorhamnetin 3-rutin; and isorhamnetin 3-glucoside. Cyanidins, kaempferols, and isorhamnetins are known antiviral chemicals . Additionally, the two flavonols (5,7,3’,4’-tetra-O-methylquercetin and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)chroman-3-yl-3,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate), which bind to and inhibit influenza virus , are found in S. nigra and not in R. rosea or N. sativa, making them potential candidates as well. Alternatively, testing different fractions of S. nigra extracts for antiviral capabilities, along with direct chemical identification, could identify which, if any, of these chemicals are responsible for the early inhibition of IBV replication. In addition, other plant extracts with chemicals that are similar to those in S. nigra extracts might also be considered for future anti-IBV tests. For example, extracts from A. alnifolia berries, branches, and leaves have chemicals (3-carreolyquinic acid and cyanidin 3-glucoside) that are found in S. nigra but not in R. rosea or N. sativa[42, 71, 73]. And indeed, A. alnifolia branch extracts inhibited the bovine coronavirus in vitro. Finally, a currently unidentified chemical or combination of chemicals may be responsible for the ability of S. nigra extract to compromise IBV virion structure. One possibility may be cholesterol chelators, since they are known to compromise the membrane integrity of other viruses, resulting in a loss of infectivity . Currently, none of the chemicals known to be present in S. nigra berry extracts chelate cholesterol or have vesiculating effects on lipid membranes; however, future studies may demonstrate otherwise.
Various combinations of S. nigra extract treatments also showed synergistic inhibition. For example, complete inhibition occurred when pre-treatment of virus was done in combination with post-infection treatment (Figure 4). Potentially, this synergy is due solely to compromised virion structure, since these experiments were done at a low MOI and allowed more than one round of replication to occur. Specifically, virions that survive the pre-treatment intact would be competent for infection, and their progeny would face no further challenge from the extract in the absence of post-infection treatment. Alternatively, the synergistic inhibition of infected cells seen when pre-treatment of virus and pre-treatment of cells were combined may indicate that more than one mechanism is at work and that more than one active compound is present in the crude extract. Again, testing of S. nigra extract fractions will help explore this possibility.
If polyphenols in S. nigra extract are the cause of inhibition, growing conditions and cultivars could greatly affect the antiviral properties of the plant extracts. For example, the Korsør, Haschberg, and Rubini cultivars of S. nigra vary in their phenolic concentrations [42, 71, 75]. In addition, within each cultivar of S. nigra, the polyphenols vary throughout different growing seasons . If in vivo tests also demonstrate IBV inhibition by S. nigra extract, identifying the most efficient cultivar and growing conditions for S. nigra may be important for any practical treatment or prophylactic applications of this research.
Additionally, it should be noted that the attenuated Beaudette strain was used for all experiments presented in this paper. In vitro screening using the Beaudette strain has led to the identification of virucidal botanicals that were effective in chicken populations . Therefore, some precedence exists for successful prediction of in vivo efficacy using this attenuated strain. This success may be due, in part, to the high amino acid identity (96.3%) between the spike proteins of the Beaudette strain and the highly pathogenic Massachusetts M41 strain of IBV . Experiments using S. nigra in chicken populations infected with virulent strains will be important for directly assessing the in vivo potential of this plant extract.
Interestingly, while vaccination is the main method for inhibiting IBV in poultry populations , its effectiveness on new strains is often minimal, leading to outbreaks in even vaccinated populations [78–80]. Perhaps vaccination in conjunction with administering the active polyphenol could have a synergistic effect, similar to that seen when the polyphenol isoquercetin was administered with the influenza medicine amantadine in vitro. Finally, these results have the potential to translate into treatments for other coronaviruses, including those that affect humans. These human coronaviruses (HCoV) include ones that may cause up to 20% of the common cold (HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43); HCoV NL63 and HCoV HKU1, which cause mild to severe respiratory diseases; the SARS CoV, which emerged in 2003 with a 10% mortality rate; and the recently emerged MERS CoV, which currently has a 57% case fatality rate [81, 82]. Some evidence supports this idea, in that glycyrrhizin, the active chemical from G. radix extracts, inhibited not only IBV, but also the SARS CoV [25, 83].
Taken together, our studies have identified a plant extract from Sambucus nigra with previously unknown inhibitory effects against IBV. We have also identified the likely mechanism of this inhibition. Our results could potentially lead to effective treatments or prevention of IBV or similar coronaviruses.
Infectious bronchitis virus
Multiplicity of infection
Treatment of cells with plant extract for 24 h prior to infection
Treatment of virus with plant extract for 20 min prior to infection
Treatment with plant extract for 24 h following infection.
We would like to thank Dr. Carolyn Machamer of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine for providing us with virus and cells. This research was made possible by funding from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (Grant No. 52005873), the Summer Undergraduate Research at Emory program, the Pierce Institute for Leadership and Community Engagement at Oxford College of Emory University, the Harrison Foundation Equipment Grant, and the President’s Supplemental Fund for Scholarship at Emory University. DMZ. and EH were supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (GM85024).
- Sevoian M, Levine PP: Effects of infectious bronchitis on the reproductive tracts, egg production, and egg quality of laying chickens. Avian Dis. 1957, 1: 136-10.2307/1587727.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Raj GD, Jones RC: Infectious bronchitis virus: immunopathogenesis of infection in the chicken. Avian Pathol. 1997, 26: 677-706. 10.1080/03079459708419246.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cavanagh D: Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds. Avian Pathol. 2005, 34: 439-448. 10.1080/03079450500367682.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Perlman S: Pathogenesis of coronavirus-induced infections. Review of pathological and immunological aspects. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998, 440: 503-513.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gelb J, Weisman Y, Ladman BS, Meir R: S1 gene characteristics and efficacy of vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus field isolates from the United States and Israel (1996 to 2000). Avian Pathol. 2005, 34: 194-203. 10.1080/03079450500096539.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu S, Chen J, Han Z, Zhang Q, Shao Y, Kong X, Tong G: Infectious bronchitis virus: S1 gene characteristics of vaccines used in China and efficacy of vaccination against heterologous strains from China. Avian Pathol. 2006, 35: 394-399. 10.1080/03079450600920984.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rishton GM: Natural products as a robust source of new drugs and drug leads: past successes and present day issues. Am J Cardiol. 2008, 101 (10): S43-S49. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.007.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sharma P, Sharma JD: Plants showing antiplasmodial activity–from crude extracts to isolated compounds. Indian J Malariol. 1998, 35: 57-110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tagboto S, Townson S: Antiparasitic properties of medicinal plants and other naturally occurring products. Adv Parasitol. 2001, 50: 199-295.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mukhtar M, Arshad M, Ahmad M, Pomerantz RJ, Wigdahl B, Parveen Z: Antiviral potentials of medicinal plants. Virus Res. 2008, 131: 111-120. 10.1016/j.virusres.2007.09.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Daglia M: Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012, 23: 174-181. 10.1016/j.copbio.2011.08.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Baarlen P, van Belkum A, Thomma BPHJ: Disease induction by human microbial pathogens in plant-model systems: potential, problems and prospects. Drug Discov Today. 2007, 12: 167-173. 10.1016/j.drudis.2006.12.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wink M: Evolutionary advantage and molecular modes of action of multi-component mixtures used in phytomedicine. Curr Drug Metab. 2008, 9: 996-1009. 10.2174/138920008786927794.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Danielsson M, Lundén K, Elfstrand M, Hu J, Zhao T, Arnerup J, Ihrmark K, Swedjemark G, Borg-Karlson A-K, Stenlid J: Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce genotypes with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection. BMC Plant Biol. 2011, 11: 154-10.1186/1471-2229-11-154.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Punyasiri PAN, Abeysinghe ISB, Kumar V: Preformed and induced chemical resistance of tea leaf against Exobasidium vexans Infection. J Chem Ecol. 2005, 31: 1315-1324. 10.1007/s10886-005-5288-z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada H, Takuma N, Daimon T, Hara Y: Gargling with tea catechin extracts for the prevention of influenza infection in elderly nursing home residents: a prospective clinical study. J Altern Complement Med. 2006, 12: 669-672. 10.1089/acm.2006.12.669.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Matsumoto K, Yamada H, Takuma N, Niino H, Sagesaka YM: Effects of green tea catechins and theanine on preventing influenza infection among healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011, 11: 15-10.1186/1472-6882-11-15.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jia Z, Zou B, Wang X, Qiu J, Ma H, Gou Z, Song S, Dong H: Quercetin-induced H2O2 mediates the pathogen resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010, 396: 522-527. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.04.131.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi HJ, Song JH, Park KS, Kwon DH: Inhibitory effects of quercetin 3-rhamnoside on influenza A virus replication. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009, 37: 329-333. 10.1016/j.ejps.2009.03.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neznanov N, Kondratova A, Chumakov KM, Neznanova L, Kondratov R, Banerjee AK, Gudkov AV: Quercetinase Pirin Makes Poliovirus Replication Resistant to Flavonoid Quercetin. DNA & Cell Biology. 2008, 27: 191-198. 10.1089/dna.2007.0682.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Paolillo R, Romano Carratelli C, Rizzo A: Effect of resveratrol and quercetin in experimental infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011, 11: 149-156. 10.1016/j.intimp.2010.10.019.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davis JM, Murphy EA, McClellan JL, Carmichael MD, Gangemi JD: Quercetin reduces susceptibility to influenza infection following stressful exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008, 295: R505-R509. 10.1152/ajpregu.90319.2008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi HJ, Song JH, Kwon DH: Quercetin 3-rhamnoside exerts antiinfluenza A virus activity in mice. Phytother Res. 2012, 26: 462-464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim Y, Narayanan S, Chang K-O: Inhibition of influenza virus replication by plant-derived isoquercetin. Antiviral Res. 2010, 88: 227-235. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.08.016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Yin J, Sui X, Li G, Ren X: Comparative analysis of the effect of glycyrrhizin diammonium and lithium chloride on infectious bronchitis virus infection in vitro. Avian Pathol. 2009, 38: 215-221. 10.1080/03079450902912184.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li H, Wu J, Zhang Z, Ma Y, Liao F, Zhang Y, Wu G: Forsythoside a inhibits the avian infectious bronchitis virus in cell culture. Phytother Res. 2011, 25: 338-342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Celik MM, Karakus A, Zeren C, Demir M, Bayarogullari H, Duru M, Al M: Licorice induced hypokalemia, edema, and thrombocytopenia. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2012, 31: 1295-1298. 10.1177/0960327112446843.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Uum SHM, Lenders JWM, Hermus ARMM: Cortisol, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and hypertension. Semin Vasc Med. 2004, 4: 121-128. 10.1055/s-2004-835369.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palermo M, Quinkler M, Stewart PM: Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome: an overview. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2004, 48: 687-696. 10.1590/S0004-27302004000500015.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Markowitz J, Zhu H-J: Limitations of in vitro assessments of the drug interaction potential of botanical supplements. Planta Med. 2012, 78: 1421-1427.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Song X, Liu Z, Wang H, Xin Y, Wang X, Chen J, Shi Y, Zhang C, Hui R: QiHong prevents death in coxsackievirus B3 induced murine myocarditis through inhibition of virus attachment and penetration. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007, 232: 1441-1448. 10.3181/0704-RM-110.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Panossian A, Wikman G, Sarris J: Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine. 2010, 17: 481-493. 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi HJ, Song JH, Bhatt LR, Baek SH: Anti-human rhinovirus activity of gallic acid possessing antioxidant capacity. Phytother Res. 2010, 24: 1292-1296. 10.1002/ptr.3101.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang G-F, Shi L-P, Ren Y-D, Liu Q-F, Liu H-F, Zhang R-J, Li Z, Zhu F-H, He P-L, Tang W, Tao P-Z, Li C, Zhao W-M, Zuo J-P: Anti-hepatitis B virus activity of chlorogenic acid, quinic acid and caffeic acid in vivo and in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2009, 83: 186-190. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.05.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hanafy MS, Hatem ME: Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin). J Ethnopharmacol. 1991, 34: 275-278. 10.1016/0378-8741(91)90047-H.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Salem ML, Hossain MS: Protective effect of black seed oil from Nigella sativa against murine cytomegalovirus infection. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000, 22: 729-740. 10.1016/S0192-0561(00)00036-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barakat EMF, El Wakeel LM, Hagag RS: Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt. World J Gastroenterol. 2013, 19: 2529-2536. 10.3748/wjg.v19.i16.2529.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mehta B, Sharma U, Agrawal S, Pandit V, Joshi N, Gupta M: Isolation and characterization of new compounds from seeds of Nigella sativa. Med Chem Res. 2008, 17: 462-473. 10.1007/s00044-007-9080-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu X, Abd El-Aty AM, Cho S-K, Yang A, Park J-H, Shim J-H: Characterization of secondary volatile profiles in Nigella sativa seeds from two different origins using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012, 26: 1157-1162. 10.1002/bmc.2671.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ali BH, Blunden G: Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother Res. 2003, 17: 299-305. 10.1002/ptr.1309.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zakay-Rones Z, Varsano N, Zlotnik M, Manor O, Regev L, Schlesinger M, Mumcuoglu M: Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an Elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama. J Altern Complement Med. 1995, 1: 361-369. 10.1089/acm.1995.1.361.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Veberic R, Jakopic J, Stampar F, Schmitzer V: European elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) rich in sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and selected polyphenols. Food Chem. 2009, 114: 511-515. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.080.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mazza G: Anthocyanins and Other Phenolic Compounds of Saskatoon Berries Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. J Food Sci. 1986, 51: 1260-1264. 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb13100.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McCutcheon AR, Roberts TE, Gibbons E, Ellis SM, Babiuk LA, Hancock REW, Towers GHN: Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995, 49: 101-110. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)90037-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Machamer CE, Rose JK: A specific transmembrane domain of a coronavirus E1 glycoprotein is required for its retention in the Golgi region. J Cell Biol. 1987, 105: 1205-1214. 10.1083/jcb.105.3.1205.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Martineau L, Vuong T, Meddah B, Madiraju P, Settaf A, Haddad PS: The In Vivo Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa Is Mediated through Activation of the AMPK Pathway and Increased Muscle Glut4 Content. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011, 2011: 538671.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Swamy SM, Tan BK: Cytotoxic and immunopotentiating effects of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000, 70: 1-7. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00241-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roschek B, Fink RC, McMichael MD, Li D, Alberte RS: Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry. 2009, 70: 1255-1261. 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.06.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hidari KIPJ, Abe T, Suzuki T: Crabohydrate-related inhibitors of dengue virus entry. Viruses. 2013, 5: 605-618. 10.3390/v5020605.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- François KO, Balzarini J: Potential of carbohydrate-binding agents as therapeutics against enveloped viruses. Med Res Rev. 2012, 32: 349-387. 10.1002/med.20216.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu L, Bao J-K: Anti-tumor and anti-viral activities of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectins. Glycoconj J. 2013, 30: 269-279. 10.1007/s10719-012-9440-z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stuart AD, Brown TDK: Alpha2,6-linked sialic acid acts as a receptor for Feline calicivirus. J Gen Virol. 2007, 88 (Pt 1): 177-186.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Breedam W, Pöhlmann S, Favoreel HW, de Groot RJ, Nauwynck HJ: Bitter-sweet symphony: glycan–lectin interactions in virus biology. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2013, Epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
- Balzarini J: Targeting the glycans of glycoproteins: a novel paradigm for antiviral therapy. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007, 5: 583-597. 10.1038/nrmicro1707.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Damme EJ, Barre A, Rougé P, Van Leuven F, Peumans WJ: Characterization and molecular cloning of Sambucus nigra agglutinin V (nigrin b), a GalNAc-specific type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein from the bark of elderberry (Sambucus nigra). Eur J Biochem. 1996, 237: 505-513. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.0505k.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peumans WJ, Roy S, Barre A, Rouge P, van Leuven F, van Damme EJ: Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) contains truncated Neu5Ac(alpha-2,6)Gal/GalNAc-binding type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins. FEBS Lett. 1998, 425: 35-39. 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00193-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Vandenbussche F, Rougé P, Proost P, Peumans WJ, Van Damme EJM: A complex fruit-specific type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is correctly processed and assembled in transgenic tobacco plants. Eur J Biochem. 2002, 269: 2897-2906. 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.02962.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mach L, Kerschbaumer R, Schwihla H, Glössl J: Elder (Sambucus nigra L.)-fruit lectin (SNA-IV) occurs in monomeric, dimeric and oligomeric isoforms. Biochem J. 1996, 315 (3): 1061.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mach L, Scherf W, Ammann M, Poetsch J, Bertsch W, März L, Glössl J: Purification and partial characterization of a novel lectin from elder (Sambucus nigra L.) fruit. Biochem J. 1991, 278 (3): 667-671.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Winter C, Herrler G, Neumann U: Infection of the tracheal epithelium by infectious bronchitis virus is sialic acid dependent. Microbes Infect. 2008, 10: 367-373. 10.1016/j.micinf.2007.12.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Binns MM, Boursnell ME, Tomley FM, Brown DK: Comparison of the spike precursor sequences of coronavirus IBV strains M41 and 6/82 with that of IBV Beaudette. J Gen Virol. 1986, 67 (Pt 12): 2825-2831.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van der Meer FJUM, de Haan CAM, Schuurman NMP, Haijema BJ, Verheije MH, Bosch BJ, Balzarini J, Egberink HF: The carbohydrate-binding plant lectins and the non-peptidic antibiotic pradimicin A target the glycans of the coronavirus envelope glycoproteins. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007, 60: 741-749. 10.1093/jac/dkm301.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ansari AA, Hassan S, Kenne L: Atta-Ur-Rahman, Wehler T: structural studies on a saponin isolated from Nigella sativa. Phytochemistry. 1988, 27: 3977-3979. 10.1016/0031-9422(88)83062-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mehta BK, Mehta P, Gupta M: Note: a new naturally acetylated triterpene saponin from Nigella sativa. Carbohydr Res. 2009, 344: 149-151. 10.1016/j.carres.2008.10.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mehta BK, Verma M, Gupta M: Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn). J Braz Chem Soc. 2008, 19: 458-462. 10.1590/S0103-50532008000300012.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Merfort I, Wray V, Barakat HH, Hussein SAM, Nawwar MAM, Willuhn G: Flavonol triglycosides from seeds of Nigella sativa. Phytochemistry. 1997, 46: 359-363. 10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00296-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morikawa T, Xu F, Kashima Y, Matsuda H, Ninomiya K, Yoshikawa M: Novel dolabellane-type diterpene alkaloids with lipid metabolism promoting activities from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Org Lett. 2004, 6: 869-872. 10.1021/ol036239c.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Naithani R, Huma LC, Holland LE, Shukla D, McCormick DL, Mehta RG, Moriarty RM: Antiviral activity of phytochemicals: a comprehensive review. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008, 8: 1106-1133. 10.2174/138955708785909943.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jeong HJ, Ryu YB, Park S-J, Kim JH, Kwon H-J, Kim JH, Park KH, Rho M-C, Lee WS: Neuraminidase inhibitory activities of flavonols isolated from Rhodiola rosea roots and their in vitro anti-influenza viral activities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009, 17: 6816-6823. 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.08.036.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang H, Ding Y, Zhou J, Sun X, Wang S: The in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea L. against coxsackievirus B3. Phytomedicine. 2009, 16: 146-155. 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.07.013.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Finn CE: Anthocyanins and other polyphenolics in American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) and European elderberry (S. nigra) cultivars. J Sci Food Agric. 2007, 87: 2665-2675. 10.1002/jsfa.3029.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmitzer V, Veberic R, Slatnar A, Stampar F: Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) wine: a product rich in health promoting compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2010, 58: 10143-10146. 10.1021/jf102083s.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lavola A, Karjalainen R, Julkunen-Tiitto R: Bioactive Polyphenols in Leaves, Stems, and Berries of Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) Cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2012, 60: 1020-1027. 10.1021/jf204056s.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Graham DRM, Chertova E, Hilburn JM, Arthur LO, Hildreth JEK: Cholesterol depletion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Simian Immunodeficiency virus with β-Cyclodextrin inactivates and permeabilizes the virions: evidence for virion-associated lipid rafts. J Virol. 2003, 77: 8237-8248. 10.1128/JVI.77.15.8237-8248.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaack K, Austed T: Interaction of vitamin C and flavonoids in elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) during juice processing. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1998, 52: 187-198. 10.1023/A:1008069422202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jackwood MW, Rosenbloom R, Petteruti M, Hilt DA, McCall AW, Williams SM: Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus susceptibility to botanical oleoresins and essential oils in vitro and in vivo. Virus Res. 2010, 149: 86-94. 10.1016/j.virusres.2010.01.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guozhong Z, Feng J, Yanxin H, Zhijun M, Qi Y, Jixun Z, Xiaodong L: Virulent Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012, 18: 1994-2001. 10.3201/eid1812.120552.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wit JJ D, Bijlenga G, Cook JKA, Gelb J: Development and use of the H strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus from the Netherlands as a vaccine: a review. Avian Pathol. 2004, 33: 550-557. 10.1080/03079450400013154.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li L, Xue C, Chen F, Qin J, Xie Q, Bi Y, Cao Y: Isolation and genetic analysis revealed no predominant new strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus circulating in South China during 2004–2008. Vet Microbiol. 2010, 143: 145-154. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hadipour MM, Habibi PG GH: The role of avian influenza, newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis viruses during the respiratory disease outbreak in commercial broiler farms of Iran. Int J Anim Vet Adv. 2011, 3: 69-72.Google Scholar
- Lim PL, Lee TH, Rowe EK: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV): Update 2013. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2013, 15: 295-298. 10.1007/s11908-013-0344-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wevers BA, van der Hoek L: Recently discovered human coronaviruses. Clin Lab Med. 2009, 29: 715-724. 10.1016/j.cll.2009.07.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, Chandra P, Rabenau H, Doerr HW: Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet. 2003, 361: 2045-2046. 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13615-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.