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Virology

Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson and Tillie Cryer

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Oral fluid collected by means of ropes has the potential to replace serum for monitoring and surveillance of important swine pathogens. Until now, the most commonly used method to collect oral fluid is by hang...

    Authors: Inge Decorte, Wander Van Breedam, Yves Van der Stede, Hans J Nauwynck, Nick De Regge and Ann Brigitte Cay

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:134

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in both humans and animals, particularly pigs, worldwide. Several evidences, including human infection following consumption of raw contaminated meat, suggest a zo...

    Authors: Eleonora Ponterio, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Ginevra Orrù, Manuel Liciardi, Fabio Ostanello and Franco Maria Ruggeri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:133

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The European (EU) genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (Genotype-I PRRSV) has recently emerged in China. The coexistence of Genotype-I and -II PRRSV strains could cause seriously aff...

    Authors: Jing-Qiang Ren, Wen-Chao Sun, Hui-Jun Lu, Shu-Bo Wen, Jie Jing, Fu-Long Yan, Hao Liu, Cun-Xia Liu, Peng-Peng Xiao, Xing Chen, Shou-Wen Du, Rui Du and Ning-Yi Jin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:128

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Maternal antibodies can interfere with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. In this study we determined whether intratypic heterologous vaccination could help to improve herd immunity.

    Authors: Aldo Dekker, Phaedra Eblé, Norbert Stockhofe and Gilles Chénard

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:127

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The course of swine influenza in pigs is reported to be similar to human influenza. Occasionally abortions and other reproduction disorders have been associated with influenza A virus (IAV) infection in pigs. ...

    Authors: Krzysztof Kwit, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól and Iwona Markowska-Daniel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:123

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is considered to be a viral agent central to the development of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). The Cap protein, a structural protein encoded by the cap (or C1) gene of PiCV, has be...

    Authors: Guan-Hua Lai, Yen-Chang Lin, Yi-Lun Tsai, Yi-Yang Lien, Ming-Kuem Lin, Hsi-Jien Chen, Wen-Te Chang, Jason T C Tzen and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:115

    Content type: Methodology article

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  7. Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has swept through the major part of Europe in the period 2011–2013. A vaccine against SBV has been developed and may be a possible preventive instrument against infection. Presently, ...

    Authors: Armin RW Elbers, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden and Wim HM van der Poel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:103

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available conc...

    Authors: Pedro Castanheira, Ana Duarte, Solange Gil, Clara Cartaxeiro, Manuel Malta, Sara Vieira and Luis Tavares

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:91

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Argentina. As prevention of the spread from infected animals is of primary importance in breaking the cycle of BLV transmission, it is...

    Authors: Gerónimo Gutiérrez, Irene Alvarez, Ramiro Merlini, Flavia Rondelli and Karina Trono

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:82

    Content type: Research article

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  10. By using animal sera as sentinels, natural TBEV foci could be identified and further analyses including investigations of ticks could be initiated. However, antibody response against TBEV-related flaviviruses ...

    Authors: Christine Klaus, Ute Ziegler, Donata Kalthoff, Bernd Hoffmann and Martin Beer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:78

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Zinc (Zn) supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence of diarrhea and to protect animals from intestinal diseases, but the mechanisms of this protective effect against virus infection in vivo have not ...

    Authors: Weidong Chai, Silke S Zakrzewski, Dorothee Günzel, Robert Pieper, Zhenya Wang, Sven Twardziok, Pawel Janczyk, Nikolaus Osterrieder and Michael Burwinkel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:75

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. JEV can cause febrile illness and encephalitis mainly in humans and horses, and occasionally in cattle.

    Authors: Naomi Kako, Seiji Suzuki, Norie Sugie, Tomoko Kato, Tohru Yanase, Makoto Yamakawa and Hiroaki Shirafuji

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:63

    Content type: Case report

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  13. The inability of current vaccines to provide effective protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is not fully understood. One of the reasons might be the presence...

    Authors: Ying Yu, Xuehui Cai, Gang Wang, Ning Kong, Yonggang Liu, Yihong Xiao, Chong Zhang, Yang Mu, Shuqi Xiao, Qin Zhao, Chengbao Wang, Gaiping Zhang, Julian A Hiscox and En-Min Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:39

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic chicken coronavirus. Currently, vaccination against IBV is only partially protective; therefore, better preventions and treatments are needed. Plants produce a...

    Authors: Christie Chen, David M Zuckerman, Susanna Brantley, Michka Sharpe, Kevin Childress, Egbert Hoiczyk and Amanda R Pendleton

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:24

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goats. The disease is characterized by severe pyrexia, oculo-nasal discharge, pneumonia, necrosis and ulc...

    Authors: Tsegalem Abera, Ardhanary Thangavelu, Navamani Daniel Joy Chandran and Angamuthu Raja

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:22

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in e...

    Authors: Thea B Klem, Espen Rimstad and Maria Stokstad

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:15

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections; causing a high economic loss in all continents. Use of marker vaccines in IBR eradication programs is wide...

    Authors: Sonia Alejandra Romera, Mariana Puntel, Valeria Quattrocchi, Paula Del Médico Zajac, Patricia Zamorano, Javier Blanco Viera, Consuelo Carrillo, Shafiqul Chowdhury, Manuel V Borca and Ana M Sadir

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:8

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists reportedly have potent antiviral and antitumor activities and may be a new kind of adjuvant for enhancing immune efficacy. Resiquimod (R848) is an imidazoquinoline compound wi...

    Authors: Chun-Xue Zhou, Dong Li, Ying-Li Chen, Zeng-Jun Lu, Pu Sun, Yi-Mei Cao, Hui-Fang Bao, Yuan-Fang Fu, Ping-Hua Li, Xing-Wen Bai, Bao-Xia Xie and Zai-Xin Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:2

    Content type: Research article

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  19. African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs leading to serious socio-economic impact on people’s livelihoods. ASF is endemic in Uganda and t...

    Authors: David Kalenzi Atuhaire, Mathias Afayoa, Sylvester Ochwo, Savannah Mwesigwa, Frank Norbert Mwiine, Julius Boniface Okuni, William Olaho-Mukani and Lonzy Ojok

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:263

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In the framework of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) surveillance programme, samples with non-conclusive results using the OIE confirmatory techniques have been repeatedly found. It is therefore nece...

    Authors: Rocío Sarasa, Dietmar Becher, Juan J Badiola and Marta Monzón

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:212

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) cause extensive intra-ocular and neural infections in humans and are closely related to Felid herpes virus 1 (FeHV-1). We report the extent of in...

    Authors: Wendy M Townsend, Susan Jacobi, Shih-Han Tai, Matti Kiupel, Annabel G Wise and Roger K Maes

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:185

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The detection of pathogens at early stages of infection is a key point for disease control in aquaculture. Therefore, accurate diagnostic procedures are a must. Real-time PCR has been a mainstay in diagnostics...

    Authors: Dagoberto Sepúlveda, Harry Bohle, Álvaro Labra, Horst Grothusen and Sergio H Marshall

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:183

    Content type: Methodology article

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  23. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a RNA virus with high genetic variation. This virus causes significant economic losses in most pig-producing countries. The clinical presentation ...

    Authors: Chao-Nan Lin, Wei-Hao Lin, Li-Ning Hung, Sheng-Yuan Wang and Ming-Tang Chiou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:181

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retroviridae family and infect goats and sheep worldwide. Detection of specific antibodies using AGID and ELISA is the most commonly used means of diagnosing ...

    Authors: Urška Kuhar, Darja Barlič-Maganja and Jože Grom

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:172

    Content type: Methodology article

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  25. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), including scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are ...

    Authors: Catherine E Vrentas, Justin J Greenlee, Thierry Baron, Maria Caramelli, Stefanie Czub and Eric M Nicholson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:167

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important viral pathogen that causes anemia and severe immunodeficiency syndrome in chickens worldwide. Generally, CAV infection occurs via vertical transmission in young chick...

    Authors: Guan-Hua Lai, Ming-Kuem Lin, Yi-Yang Lien, Jiun-Hau Fu, Hsi-Jien Chen, Chi-Hung Huang, Jason TC Tzen and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:161

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis;...

    Authors: Aaron R Morawski, Christina M Carlson, Haeyoon Chang and Christopher J Johnson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:157

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused bird die-offs in Austria, Hungary and Switzerland between 2001 and 2009. While the zoological gardens of ...

    Authors: Nicola Buchebner, Wolfgang Zenker, Christian Wenker, Hanspeter W Steinmetz, Endre Sós, Helga Lussy and Norbert Nowotny

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:153

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and vete...

    Authors: Jodi D Smith, Eric M Nicholson and Justin J Greenlee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:151

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infe...

    Authors: Miyako Yoshioka, Yuichi Matsuura, Hiroyuki Okada, Noriko Shimozaki, Tomoaki Yamamura, Yuichi Murayama, Takashi Yokoyama and Shirou Mohri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:134

    Content type: Research article

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  31. African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious fatal acute haemorrhagic viral disease of pigs currently has no treatment or vaccination protocol and it threatens the pig industry worldwide. Recent outbreaks we...

    Authors: Folorunso O Fasina, Oyinlola O Olaokun, Olusola O Oladipo, Margaret M Fasina, Adesoji A Makinde, Livio Heath and Armanda DS Bastos

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:120

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Several types and subtypes of bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5) have been associated to different clinical conditions of cattle, making type/subtype differentiation essential to understand the p...

    Authors: Silvina Soledad Maidana, Cintia Débora Morano, Daniela Cianfrini, Fabrício Souza Campos, Paulo Michel Roehe, Bianca Siedler, Gabriel De Stefano, Axel Mauroy, Etienne Thiry and Sonia Alejandra Romera

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:111

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Postweaning diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli, in particular verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), has caused significant economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. However, there is limited info...

    Authors: Wing Sze Ho, Lai Kuan Tan, Peck Toung Ooi, Chew Chieng Yeo and Kwai Lin Thong

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:109

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In the last 20 years, Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) has been responsible for many die-offs in marine mammals worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) epizootics of 1990–1992 and...

    Authors: Consuelo Rubio-Guerri, Mar Melero, Fernando Esperón, Edwige Nina Bellière, Manuel Arbelo, Jose Luis Crespo, Eva Sierra, Daniel García-Párraga and Jose Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:106

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Evidence for scrapie transmission from VRQ/VRQ ewes to lambs via milk was first reported in 2008 but in that study there were concerns that lateral transmission may have contributed to the high transmission rate ...

    Authors: Timm Konold, S Jo Moore, Susan J Bellworthy, Linda A Terry, Leigh Thorne, Andrew Ramsay, F Javier Salguero, Marion M Simmons and Hugh A Simmons

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:99

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cau...

    Authors: Carlos Javier Panei, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Takashi Omori, Tetsuo Nunoya, William C Davis, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Kazuhiro Matoba and Yoko Aida

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:95

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Sheep poxvirus (SPPV), Goat poxvirus (GTPV) and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. They are double stranded DNA viruses of the genus Capripoxvirus, (subfamily Chordopoxv...

    Authors: Lee Murray, Lorraine Edwards, Eeva SM Tuppurainen, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Chris AL Oura, Valerie Mioulet and Donald P King

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:90

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In classical scrapie, the disease-associated abnormal isoform (PrPSc) of normal prion protein accumulates principally in the nervous system and lymphoid tissues of small ruminants. Lymph nodes traffic leukocytes ...

    Authors: Rohana P Dassanayake, Thomas C Truscott, M Özgür Özyiğit, Dongyue Zhuang, David A Schneider and Katherine I O’Rourke

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:82

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic and highly contagious disease in small ruminants of Pakistan. Despite the fact that an effective vaccine is available, outbreaks are regularly occurring in the co...

    Authors: Muhammad Anees, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Khushi Muhammad, Jawad Nazir, Muhammad Abu Bakar Shabbir, Jonas J Wensman and Muhammad Munir

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:60

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease for the pig industry. In this study, we analysed the genetic variability of PRRS virus (PRRSV) as well as the relationship betw...

    Authors: Bouabid Badaoui, Roberto Grande, Stefano Calza, Maria Cecere, Mario Luini, Alessandra Stella and Sara Botti

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:58

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The identity of herpesviruses isolated in Europe from domestic pigeons (Columbid herpesvirus-1 - CoHV-1) as well as falcons and owls remains unknown. All these herpesviruses are antigenically and genetically r...

    Authors: Grzegorz J Woźniakowski, Elżbieta Samorek-Salamonowicz, Piotr Szymański, Piotr Wencel and Marek Houszka

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:52

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Active and passive surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is widespread in commercial poultry worldwide, therefore optimization of sample collection and transport would ...

    Authors: Erica Spackman, Janice C Pedersen, Enid T McKinley and Jack Gelb Jr

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:35

    Content type: Methodology article

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  43. Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without appare...

    Authors: Sudkhate Molthathong, Sarocha Jitrakorn, Yutthana Joyjinda, Chuenchit Boonchird, Boonsirm Witchayachamnarnkul, Pattira Pongtippatee, Timothy Flegel and Vanvimon Saksmerprome

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:33

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The mechanisms that differentiate rabies infections into furious and paralytic forms remain undetermined. There are no neuropathological features in human brains that distinguish furious and paralytic rabies. ...

    Authors: Shanop Shuangshoti, Nischol Thepa, Pornchai Phukpattaranont, Akanitt Jittmittraphap, Nirun Intarut, Veera Tepsumethanon, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Paul Scott Thorner and Thiravat Hemachudha

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:31

    Content type: Research article

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  45. To assess the effectiveness of emergency vaccination for reducing the contact-induced infection and pathological damage caused by the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HPPR...

    Authors: Xiao Li, Li Qiu, Zengqi Yang, Ruiyi Dang and Xinglong Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:26

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER). To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly repr...

    Authors: Niccolò Vendramin, Pierpaolo Patarnello, Anna Toffan, Valentina Panzarin, Elisabetta Cappellozza, Perla Tedesco, Antonio Terlizzi, Calogero Terregino and Giovanni Cattoli

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:20

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Accurate diagnosis is pertinent to any disease control programme. If Eastern Africa is to work towards control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) using the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) as a tool,...

    Authors: Alice Namatovu, Sabenzia Nabalayo Wekesa, Kirsten Tjørnehøj, Moses Tefula Dhikusooka, Vincent B Muwanika, Hans Redlef Siegsmund and Chrisostom Ayebazibwe

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:19

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Prions, the causative agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are notoriously difficult to inactivate. Current decontamination recommendations by the World Health Organization include prolonge...

    Authors: Jodi D Smith, Eric M Nicholson, Gregory H Foster and Justin J Greenlee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:8

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus, belonging to Rhadinovirus genus, with no clear association with disease. However, there is increasing evidence of its secondary pathogenic role in cases of ...

    Authors: Valentina Franceschi, Antonio Capocefalo, Sandro Cavirani and Gaetano Donofrio

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:6

    Content type: Research article

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  50. The capacity for herpesvirus to cause disease in cetaceans is unclear and may be varied depending on the different conditions of individuals and between different species. Kidney pathology and intralesional vi...

    Authors: Manuel Arbelo, Edwige N Bellière, Eva Sierra, Simona Sacchinni, Fernando Esperón, Marisa Andrada, Miguel Rivero, Josue Diaz-Delgado and Antonio Fernández

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:243

    Content type: Research article

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