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Virology

The virology section publishes research finding which focus on clinical, macro pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of animal viruses. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equines, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging infections are also accepted.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists reportedly have potent antiviral and antitumor activities and may be a new kind of adjuvant for enhancing immune efficacy. Resiquimod (R848) is an imidazoquinoline compound wi...

    Authors: Chun-Xue Zhou, Dong Li, Ying-Li Chen, Zeng-Jun Lu, Pu Sun, Yi-Mei Cao, Hui-Fang Bao, Yuan-Fang Fu, Ping-Hua Li, Xing-Wen Bai, Bao-Xia Xie and Zai-Xin Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:2

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  2. Content type: Research article

    African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs leading to serious socio-economic impact on people’s livelihoods. ASF is endemic in Uganda and t...

    Authors: David Kalenzi Atuhaire, Mathias Afayoa, Sylvester Ochwo, Savannah Mwesigwa, Frank Norbert Mwiine, Julius Boniface Okuni, William Olaho-Mukani and Lonzy Ojok

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:263

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  3. Content type: Research article

    In the framework of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) surveillance programme, samples with non-conclusive results using the OIE confirmatory techniques have been repeatedly found. It is therefore nece...

    Authors: Rocío Sarasa, Dietmar Becher, Juan J Badiola and Marta Monzón

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:212

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) cause extensive intra-ocular and neural infections in humans and are closely related to Felid herpes virus 1 (FeHV-1). We report the extent of in...

    Authors: Wendy M Townsend, Susan Jacobi, Shih-Han Tai, Matti Kiupel, Annabel G Wise and Roger K Maes

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:185

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  5. Content type: Methodology article

    The detection of pathogens at early stages of infection is a key point for disease control in aquaculture. Therefore, accurate diagnostic procedures are a must. Real-time PCR has been a mainstay in diagnostics...

    Authors: Dagoberto Sepúlveda, Harry Bohle, Álvaro Labra, Horst Grothusen and Sergio H Marshall

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:183

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a RNA virus with high genetic variation. This virus causes significant economic losses in most pig-producing countries. The clinical presentation ...

    Authors: Chao-Nan Lin, Wei-Hao Lin, Li-Ning Hung, Sheng-Yuan Wang and Ming-Tang Chiou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:181

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  7. Content type: Methodology article

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retroviridae family and infect goats and sheep worldwide. Detection of specific antibodies using AGID and ELISA is the most commonly used means of diagnosing ...

    Authors: Urška Kuhar, Darja Barlič-Maganja and Jože Grom

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:172

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), including scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are ...

    Authors: Catherine E Vrentas, Justin J Greenlee, Thierry Baron, Maria Caramelli, Stefanie Czub and Eric M Nicholson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:167

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important viral pathogen that causes anemia and severe immunodeficiency syndrome in chickens worldwide. Generally, CAV infection occurs via vertical transmission in young chick...

    Authors: Guan-Hua Lai, Ming-Kuem Lin, Yi-Yang Lien, Jiun-Hau Fu, Hsi-Jien Chen, Chi-Hung Huang, Jason TC Tzen and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:161

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis;...

    Authors: Aaron R Morawski, Christina M Carlson, Haeyoon Chang and Christopher J Johnson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:157

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused bird die-offs in Austria, Hungary and Switzerland between 2001 and 2009. While the zoological gardens of ...

    Authors: Nicola Buchebner, Wolfgang Zenker, Christian Wenker, Hanspeter W Steinmetz, Endre Sós, Helga Lussy and Norbert Nowotny

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:153

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and vete...

    Authors: Jodi D Smith, Eric M Nicholson and Justin J Greenlee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:151

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infe...

    Authors: Miyako Yoshioka, Yuichi Matsuura, Hiroyuki Okada, Noriko Shimozaki, Tomoaki Yamamura, Yuichi Murayama, Takashi Yokoyama and Shirou Mohri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:134

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  14. Content type: Research article

    African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious fatal acute haemorrhagic viral disease of pigs currently has no treatment or vaccination protocol and it threatens the pig industry worldwide. Recent outbreaks we...

    Authors: Folorunso O Fasina, Oyinlola O Olaokun, Olusola O Oladipo, Margaret M Fasina, Adesoji A Makinde, Livio Heath and Armanda DS Bastos

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:120

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Several types and subtypes of bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5) have been associated to different clinical conditions of cattle, making type/subtype differentiation essential to understand the p...

    Authors: Silvina Soledad Maidana, Cintia Débora Morano, Daniela Cianfrini, Fabrício Souza Campos, Paulo Michel Roehe, Bianca Siedler, Gabriel De Stefano, Axel Mauroy, Etienne Thiry and Sonia Alejandra Romera

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:111

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Postweaning diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli, in particular verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), has caused significant economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. However, there is limited info...

    Authors: Wing Sze Ho, Lai Kuan Tan, Peck Toung Ooi, Chew Chieng Yeo and Kwai Lin Thong

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:109

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  17. Content type: Case report

    In the last 20 years, Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) has been responsible for many die-offs in marine mammals worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) epizootics of 1990–1992 and...

    Authors: Consuelo Rubio-Guerri, Mar Melero, Fernando Esperón, Edwige Nina Bellière, Manuel Arbelo, Jose Luis Crespo, Eva Sierra, Daniel García-Párraga and Jose Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:106

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Evidence for scrapie transmission from VRQ/VRQ ewes to lambs via milk was first reported in 2008 but in that study there were concerns that lateral transmission may have contributed to the high transmission rate ...

    Authors: Timm Konold, S Jo Moore, Susan J Bellworthy, Linda A Terry, Leigh Thorne, Andrew Ramsay, F Javier Salguero, Marion M Simmons and Hugh A Simmons

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:99

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cau...

    Authors: Carlos Javier Panei, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Takashi Omori, Tetsuo Nunoya, William C Davis, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Kazuhiro Matoba and Yoko Aida

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:95

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Sheep poxvirus (SPPV), Goat poxvirus (GTPV) and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. They are double stranded DNA viruses of the genus Capripoxvirus, (subfamily Chordopoxv...

    Authors: Lee Murray, Lorraine Edwards, Eeva SM Tuppurainen, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Chris AL Oura, Valerie Mioulet and Donald P King

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:90

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  21. Content type: Research article

    In classical scrapie, the disease-associated abnormal isoform (PrPSc) of normal prion protein accumulates principally in the nervous system and lymphoid tissues of small ruminants. Lymph nodes traffic leukocytes ...

    Authors: Rohana P Dassanayake, Thomas C Truscott, M Özgür Özyiğit, Dongyue Zhuang, David A Schneider and Katherine I O’Rourke

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:82

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic and highly contagious disease in small ruminants of Pakistan. Despite the fact that an effective vaccine is available, outbreaks are regularly occurring in the co...

    Authors: Muhammad Anees, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Khushi Muhammad, Jawad Nazir, Muhammad Abu Bakar Shabbir, Jonas J Wensman and Muhammad Munir

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:60

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease for the pig industry. In this study, we analysed the genetic variability of PRRS virus (PRRSV) as well as the relationship betw...

    Authors: Bouabid Badaoui, Roberto Grande, Stefano Calza, Maria Cecere, Mario Luini, Alessandra Stella and Sara Botti

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:58

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The identity of herpesviruses isolated in Europe from domestic pigeons (Columbid herpesvirus-1 - CoHV-1) as well as falcons and owls remains unknown. All these herpesviruses are antigenically and genetically r...

    Authors: Grzegorz J Woźniakowski, Elżbieta Samorek-Salamonowicz, Piotr Szymański, Piotr Wencel and Marek Houszka

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:52

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  25. Content type: Methodology article

    Active and passive surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is widespread in commercial poultry worldwide, therefore optimization of sample collection and transport would ...

    Authors: Erica Spackman, Janice C Pedersen, Enid T McKinley and Jack Gelb Jr

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:35

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without appare...

    Authors: Sudkhate Molthathong, Sarocha Jitrakorn, Yutthana Joyjinda, Chuenchit Boonchird, Boonsirm Witchayachamnarnkul, Pattira Pongtippatee, Timothy Flegel and Vanvimon Saksmerprome

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:33

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The mechanisms that differentiate rabies infections into furious and paralytic forms remain undetermined. There are no neuropathological features in human brains that distinguish furious and paralytic rabies. ...

    Authors: Shanop Shuangshoti, Nischol Thepa, Pornchai Phukpattaranont, Akanitt Jittmittraphap, Nirun Intarut, Veera Tepsumethanon, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Paul Scott Thorner and Thiravat Hemachudha

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:31

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  28. Content type: Research article

    To assess the effectiveness of emergency vaccination for reducing the contact-induced infection and pathological damage caused by the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HPPR...

    Authors: Xiao Li, Li Qiu, Zengqi Yang, Ruiyi Dang and Xinglong Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:26

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER). To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly repr...

    Authors: Niccolò Vendramin, Pierpaolo Patarnello, Anna Toffan, Valentina Panzarin, Elisabetta Cappellozza, Perla Tedesco, Antonio Terlizzi, Calogero Terregino and Giovanni Cattoli

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:20

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Accurate diagnosis is pertinent to any disease control programme. If Eastern Africa is to work towards control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) using the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) as a tool,...

    Authors: Alice Namatovu, Sabenzia Nabalayo Wekesa, Kirsten Tjørnehøj, Moses Tefula Dhikusooka, Vincent B Muwanika, Hans Redlef Siegsmund and Chrisostom Ayebazibwe

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:19

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Prions, the causative agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are notoriously difficult to inactivate. Current decontamination recommendations by the World Health Organization include prolonge...

    Authors: Jodi D Smith, Eric M Nicholson, Gregory H Foster and Justin J Greenlee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:8

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus, belonging to Rhadinovirus genus, with no clear association with disease. However, there is increasing evidence of its secondary pathogenic role in cases of ...

    Authors: Valentina Franceschi, Antonio Capocefalo, Sandro Cavirani and Gaetano Donofrio

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:6

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The capacity for herpesvirus to cause disease in cetaceans is unclear and may be varied depending on the different conditions of individuals and between different species. Kidney pathology and intralesional vi...

    Authors: Manuel Arbelo, Edwige N Bellière, Eva Sierra, Simona Sacchinni, Fernando Esperón, Marisa Andrada, Miguel Rivero, Josue Diaz-Delgado and Antonio Fernández

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:243

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), frequently lethal in cattle, is associated with significant agricultural economic losses due to neurological disease. Cattle and rabbits are frequently used as models to stu...

    Authors: Tereza C Cardoso, Juliana B Novais, Talita F Antello, Camila Silva-Frade, Marina C Ferrarezi, Heitor F Ferrari, Roberto Gameiro and Eduardo F Flores

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:242

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Orf is a zoonotic and epitheliotrophic contagious disease that mainly affects sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans with a worldwide distribution. To date, there is little information on the characterizatio...

    Authors: Wei Li, Zhangyong Ning, Wenbo Hao, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Kui Zhao, Xiaoqing Liao, Ming Li, Daniel L Rock and Shuhong Luo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:229

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) is a method that facilitates the detection of prions from many sources of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Sheep scrapie represents a unique diversi...

    Authors: Leigh Thorne, Thomas Holder, Andrew Ramsay, Jane Edwards, Maged Mohamed Taema, Otto Windl, Ben Charles Maddison, Kevin Christopher Gough and Linda Ann Terry

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:223

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative i...

    Authors: Laura C Miller, Damarius Fleming, Andrew Arbogast, Darrell O Bayles, Baoqing Guo, Kelly M Lager, Jamie N Henningson, Sarah N Schlink, Han-Chun Yang, Kay S Faaberg and Marcus E Kehrli Jr

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:208

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the humoral and cellular immune response mechanisms by which a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine reduces the PCV2 viremia. Forty PCV2 seronega...

    Authors: Hwi Won Seo, Yeonsu Oh, Kiwon Han, Changhoon Park and Chanhee Chae

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:194

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Sapoviruses are single stranded positive sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. The virus is detected in different species including the human and the porcine species as an enteric pathogen caus...

    Authors: Axel Mauroy, Wim H M Van der Poel, Renate Hakze-Van der Honing, Christine Thys and Etienne Thiry

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:193

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Ebolaviruses induce lethal viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in humans and non-human primates, with the exceptions of Reston virus (RESTV), which is not pathogenic for humans. In human VHF cases, extensive analy...

    Authors: Satoshi Taniguchi, Yusuke Sayama, Noriyo Nagata, Tetsuro Ikegami, Mary E Miranda, Shumpei Watanabe, Itoe Iizuka, Shuetsu Fukushi, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yoshiyuki Ishii, Masayuki Saijo, Hiroomi Akashi, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Shigeru Kyuwa and Shigeru Morikawa

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:189

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is worldwide distributed and highly endemic in Argentina. Among the strategies to prevent BLV dissemination, a control plan based on the selective segregation of animals according t...

    Authors: Gerónimo Gutiérrez, Hugo Carignano, Irene Alvarez, Cecilia Martínez, Natalia Porta, Romina Politzki, Mariela Gammella, Marina Lomonaco, Norberto Fondevila, Mario Poli and Karina Trono

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:187

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving pathogen of swine. At present, there is a high demand for safe and more effective vaccines that can be adapted regularly to...

    Authors: Marc F Geldhof, Merijn Vanhee, Wander Van Breedam, Jan Van Doorsselaere, Uladzimir U Karniychuk and Hans J Nauwynck

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:182

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Concurrent infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known as one of the major causes for porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Du...

    Authors: Yi-Chieh Tsai, Hui-Wen Chang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Tsang-Long Lin, Chun-Ming Lin, Cho-Hua Wan and Victor Fei Pang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:174

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  44. Content type: Methodology article

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) infection is common in young calves. This viral infection causes acute diarrhea leading to death. Rapid identification of infected calves is essential to control BRV successfully. Theref...

    Authors: Zhixun Xie, Qing Fan, Jiabo Liu, Yaoshan Pang, Xianwen Deng, Zhiqin Xie, Xie Liji and Mazhar I Khan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:133

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  45. Content type: Research article

    DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines in the development of effective vaccines against avian influenza virus (AIV). However, one of the limitations of the DNA vaccine in poultry is t...

    Authors: Kian-Lam Lim, Seyed Davoud Jazayeri, Swee Keong Yeap, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed Alitheen, Mohd Hair Bejo, Aini Ideris and Abdul Rahman Omar

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:132

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  46. Content type: Methodology article

    Equine rhinitis viruses A and B (ERAV and ERBV) are common equine respiratory viruses belonging to the family Picornaviridae. Sero-surveillance studies have shown that these two viral infections are prevalent in ...

    Authors: Zhengchun Lu, Peter J Timoney, Jena White and Udeni BR Balasuriya

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:120

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  47. Content type: Research article

    The Orf virus (ORFV), a zoonotic Parapoxvirus, causes pustular skin lesions in small ruminants (goat and sheep). Intriguingly, ORFV can repeatedly infect its host, despite the induction of a specific immunity....

    Authors: Jörg Rohde, Frederic Emschermann, Michael R Knittler and Hanns-Joachim Rziha

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:114

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Since 2008, a progressive pneumonia has become prevalent in broilers and laying hens. This disease occurrs the first day after hatching and lasts more than 30 days, resulting in approximately 70% morbidity and...

    Authors: Qing Pan, Aijing Liu, Faming Zhang, Yong Ling, Changbo Ou, Na Hou and Cheng He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:104

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