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Virology

Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson and Tillie Cryer

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most expensive diseases of modern swine production & results in annual economic losses and cost the industry over 600 million USD in U.S. alon...

    Authors: Seetha Jaganathan King, Peck Toung Ooi, Lai Yee Phang, Zeenathul Nazariah Binti Allaudin, Wei Hoong Loh, Chiou Yan Tee, Shiao Pau How, Lai Siong Yip, Pow Yoon Choo and Ban Keong Lim

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:3

    Content type: Research article

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  2. As a typical retrovirus, the evolution of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in different infectious ecosystems is not characterized, what we know is there are a cloud of diverse variants, namely quasispe...

    Authors: Fanfeng Meng, Xuan Dong, Tao Hu, Shuang Chang, Jianhua Fan, Peng Zhao and Zhizhong Cui

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:287

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Since the end of 2011 an outbreak of pseudorabies affected Chinese pig herds that had been vaccinated with the commercial vaccine made of Bartha K61 strain. It is now clear that the outbreak was caused by an e...

    Authors: Jichun Wang, Rongli Guo, Yongfeng Qiao, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Yamei Liu, Yiqi Gu, Chang Liu and Jibo Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:277

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the highest risk factors that affects the animal industry of the country. The virus causes production loss and high ratio mortality in young cloven-hoofed animals ...

    Authors: Van Phan Le, Thi Thu Hang Vu, Hong-Quan Duong, Van Thai Than and Daesub Song

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:269

    Content type: Research article

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  5. From December 2014 through June 2015, the US experienced the most costly highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to date. Most cases in commercial poultry were caused by an H5N2 strain which was a re...

    Authors: Erica Spackman, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Darrell R. Kapczynski, David E. Swayne and David L. Suarez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:260

    Content type: Research article

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  6. In this study, six enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), intended for routine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) herd monitoring, are tested for their ability to detect PRRSV spe...

    Authors: Tatjana Sattler, Jutta Pikalo, Eveline Wodak and Friedrich Schmoll

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:259

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most economically significant pathogens in the Vietnamese swine industry. ORF5, which participates in many functional processes, includi...

    Authors: Hai Quynh Do, Dinh Thau Trinh, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi Thu Hang Vu, Duc Duong Than, Thi Van Lo, Minjoo Yeom, Daesub Song, SeEun Choe, Dong-Jun An and Van Phan Le

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:256

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tracts of egg-laying hens and leads to egg production and quality reduction. However, the mechanism of severe pathological damage in t...

    Authors: Ruiqiao Li, Kangkang Guo, Caihong Liu, Jing Wang, Dan Tan, Xueying Han, Chao Tang, Yanming Zhang and Jingyu Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:255

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Borna disease virus is a neurotropic pathogen and infects the central nervous system. This virus infected a variety of animal species including cows. The most of cows infected with Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-...

    Authors: Tadashi Takino, Taku Okamura, Tatsuya Ando and Katsuro Hagiwara

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:253

    Content type: Research article

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  10. During the last decade, the spread of many flaviviruses (Genus Flavivirus) has been reported, representing an emerging threat for both animal and human health. To further study utility of wild ruminant samples in...

    Authors: Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Jorge Paniagua, Ana V. Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Sylvie Lecollinet, Mariana Boadella, Antonio Arenas-Montes, David Cano-Terriza, Steeve Lowenski, Christian Gortázar and Ursula Höfle

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:249

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a Capripoxvirus infecting cattle and Buffalos. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) leads to significant economic losses due to hide damage, reduction of milk production, mastitis, infertil...

    Authors: Mohamed A. Shalaby, Ayman El-Deeb, Mohamed El-Tholoth, Donata Hoffmann, Claus-Peter Czerny, Frank T. Hufert, Manfred Weidmann and Ahmed Abd El Wahed

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:244

    Content type: Methodology article

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  12. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains a major threat to swine industry all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis and immune responses cau...

    Authors: Zhenguang Li, Yanliang He, Xiaoqin Xu, Xue Leng, Shufen Li, Yongjun Wen, Fengxue Wang, Mingqi Xia, Shipeng Cheng and Hua Wu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:230

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) cause acute and subclinical respiratory disease. To increase our understanding of the etiology of the subclinical form and thus help prevent the persistence of IAV-S in pig...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Takemae, Yugo Shobugawa, Phuong Thanh Nguyen, Tung Nguyen, Tien Ngoc Nguyen, Thanh Long To, Phuong Duy Thai, Tho Dang Nguyen, Duy Thanh Nguyen, Dung Kim Nguyen, Hoa Thi Do, Thi Quynh Anh Le, Phan Truong Hua, Hung Van Vo, Diep Thi Nguyen, Dang Hoang Nguyen…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:227

    Content type: Research article

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  14. African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infectious disease of domestic and wild suids of all breeds and ages, causing a wide range of hemorrhagic syndromes and frequently characterized by high mortality. The dise...

    Authors: P. Sastre, C. Gallardo, A. Monedero, T. Ruiz, M. Arias, A. Sanz and P. Rueda

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:206

    Content type: Methodology article

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  15. In order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. ...

    Authors: Michael Eschbaumer, Carolina Stenfeldt, Steven I. Rekant, Juan M. Pacheco, Ethan J. Hartwig, George R. Smoliga, Mary A. Kenney, William T. Golde, Luis L. Rodriguez and Jonathan Arzt

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:205

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera is a highly contagious swine viral disease. CSF endemic countries have to use routine vaccination with modified live virus (MLV) vaccines to prevent and control CSF. ...

    Authors: Rachel Madera, Wenjie Gong, Lihua Wang, Yulia Burakova, Karen Lleellish, Amy Galliher-Beckley, Jerome Nietfeld, Jamie Henningson, Kaimin Jia, Ping Li, Jianfa Bai, John Schlup, Scott McVey, Changchun Tu and Jishu Shi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:197

    Content type: Research article

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  17. African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a severe haemorrhagic disease of pigs, outbreaks of which can have a devastating impact upon commercial and small-holder pig production...

    Authors: Lian F. Thomas, Richard P. Bishop, Cynthia Onzere, Michael T. Mcintosh, Karissa A. Lemire, William A. de Glanville, E. Anne J. Cook and Eric M. Fèvre

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:192

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated...

    Authors: Li Mao, Wenliang Li, Leilei Yang, Jianhui Wang, Suping Cheng, Yong Wei, Qiusheng Wang, Wenwen Zhang, Fei Hao, Yonglong Ding, Yinhua Sun and Jieyuan Jiang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:181

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute haemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and clinical EEHV infections account for the majority of their fatalities. The anti-...

    Authors: Akbar Dastjerdi, Katharina Seilern-Moy, Karin Darpel, Falko Steinbach and Fieke Molenaar

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:178

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Screening Atlantic cetacean populations for Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) is essential to understand the epidemiology of the disease. In Europe, Portugal and Spain have the highest cetacean stranding rates, mo...

    Authors: Maria Carolina Rocha de Medeiros Bento, Catarina Isabel Costa Simões Eira, José Vitor Vingada, Ana Luisa Marçalo, Marisa Cláudia Teixeira Ferreira, Alfredo Lopez Fernandez, Luís Manuel Morgado Tavares and Ana Isabel Simões Pereira Duarte

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:176

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Porcine cirovirus type 1 (PCV1) and type 2 (PCV2) are circulating in Chinese pig herds and the infected pigs develop antibodies to both viruses. Current commercial available ELISA kits cannot differentiate PCV...

    Authors: Shuizhong Han, Yan Xiao, Dingding Zheng, Yanli Gu, Yajie Xuan, Yudan Jin, Wenqiang Pang, Yuxin Huang, Xiangdong Li, Junhua Deng and Kegong Tian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:175

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In 2008, an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in monkeys was reported in China. We isolated CDV strain (subsequently named Monkey-BJ01-DV) from lung tissue obtained from a rhesus monkey that d...

    Authors: Na Feng, Yuxiu Liu, Jianzhong Wang, Weiwei Xu, Tiansong Li, Tiecheng Wang, Lei Wang, Yicong Yu, Hualei Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Songtao Yang, Yuwei Gao, Guixue Hu and Xianzhu Xia

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:160

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Rift Valley fever is an emerging zoonotic viral disease, enzootic and endemic in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, which poses a significant threat to both human and animal health. The disease is most severe i...

    Authors: S. Daouam, F. Ghzal, Y. Naouli, K. O. Tadlaoui, M. M. Ennaji, C. Oura and M. EL Harrak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:154

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Conventional Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination strategies in village chicken production settings is impractical due to shortage of cold-chain, unsuitability of vaccine administration routes and demanding trai...

    Authors: Reta D. Abdi, Kasahun Amsalu, Olana Merera, Yilkal Asfaw, Eseyas Gelaye, Marta Yami and Teshale Sori

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:150

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:279

  25. Papillomaviruses can cause proliferative skin lesions ranging from benign hyperplasia to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, asymptomatic infection is also possible. Several groups have detected Felis domesti...

    Authors: Marco Geisseler, Christian E. Lange, Claude Favrot, Nina Fischer, Mathias Ackermann and Kurt Tobler

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:147

    Content type: Research article

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  26. There is no information concerning the genotype of Canine parvovirus (CPV) currently circulating in Henan province, China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology ...

    Authors: Zhanqin Zhao, Huisheng Liu, Ke Ding, Chunping Peng, Qiao Xue, Zuhua Yu and Yun Xue

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:138

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Aujeszky’s disease is a viral disease of suids caused by Suid Herpesvirus 1. The disease has worldwide distribution with significant economic impact. In Serbia, there is neither an Aujeszky’s disease eradication ...

    Authors: V. Milicevic, S. Radojicic, M. Valcic, V. Ivovic and V. Radosavljevic

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:134

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Sheeppox (SPP) is one of the priorities, high-impact animal diseases in many developing countries, where live attenuated vaccines are routinely used against sheeppox virus (SPPV). In an event of an SPP outbrea...

    Authors: Zineb Boumart, Samira Daouam, Imane Belkourati, Lamya Rafi, Eeva Tuppurainen, Khalid Omari Tadlaoui and Mehdi El Harrak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:133

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Interest in porcine epidemic diarrhea has grown since the 2013 outbreak in the United States caused major losses, with mortality rates up to 100 % in suckling piglets. In Mexico, an outbreak of porcine epidemi...

    Authors: María Elena Trujillo-Ortega, Rolando Beltrán-Figueroa, Montserrat Elemi García-Hernández, Mireya Juárez-Ramírez, Alicia Sotomayor-González, Erika N. Hernández-Villegas, José F. Becerra-Hernández and Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:132

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In Japan, epizootic arboviral infections have severely impacted the livestock industry for a long period. Akabane, Aino, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Ibaraki viruses have repeatedly caused epizootic abno...

    Authors: Tomoko Kato, Tohru Yanase, Moemi Suzuki, Yoshito Katagiri, Kazufumi Ikemiyagi, Katsunori Takayoshi, Hiroaki Shirafuji, Seiichi Ohashi, Kazuo Yoshida, Makoto Yamakawa and Tomoyuki Tsuda

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:125

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) produces disorders on the immune system in naturally infected animals, which may counteract the development of immunity after vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate w...

    Authors: Rodrigo Puentes, Laureana De Brun, Agustina Algorta, Valeria Da Silva, Florencia Mansilla, Gustavo Sacco, Silvia Llambí and Alejandra V. Capozzo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:119

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as ...

    Authors: Han-Siang Hsu, Ting-Han Lin, Hung-Yi Wu, Lee-Shuan Lin, Cheng-Shu Chung, Ming-Tang Chiou and Chao-Nan Lin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:116

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most contagious and devastating diseases to poultry in the world. The causative agents are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which belong to the genus Avul...

    Authors: Jie Zhu, Shunlin Hu, Haixu Xu, Jingjing Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Xiaoquan Wang and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:113

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Longitudinal samples from two production sites were used to (1) describe the pattern of PEDV shedding (rRT-PCR) in individual rectal swabs, pen fecal samples, and pen oral fluids (OF); (2) describe the kinetic...

    Authors: Jordan Bjustrom-Kraft, Katie Woodard, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Marisa Rotolo, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun, Peter Lasley, Jianqiang Zhang, David Baum, Phillip Gauger, Rodger Main and Jeffrey Zimmerman

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:99

    Content type: Research article

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  35. As we reported previously, Getah virus infection occurred in horses at the Miho training center of the Japan Racing Association in 2014. This was the first outbreak after a 31-year absence in Japan. Here, we r...

    Authors: Hiroshi Bannai, Akihiro Ochi, Manabu Nemoto, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Yamanaka and Takashi Kondo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:98

    Content type: Research article

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  36. A novel porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), also known as porcine coronavirus HKU15, was reported in China in 2012 and identified in the U.S. in early 2014. Since then, PDCoV has been identified in a number of U...

    Authors: Faten Okda, Steven Lawson, Xiaodong Liu, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Kyle Hain, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings and Eric A. Nelson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:95

    Content type: Methodology article

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  37. Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry, affecting chickens of all ages and causing major economic losses in poultry flocks. Mass vaccination is conducted in Mor...

    Authors: Khadija Khataby, Faouzi Kichou, Chafiqa Loutfi and My Mustapha Ennaji

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:94

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induces one of most important devastating disease of swine worldwide, and the current methods poorly control it. Previous studies have indicated that...

    Authors: Xibao Shi, Xiaozhuan Zhang, Yongzhe Chang, Bo Jiang, Ruiguang Deng, Aiping Wang and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:90

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the etiological agent of one of the most infectious diseases of domestic dogs, also known as a highly prevalent viral infectious disease of carnivores and posing a conservation ...

    Authors: Marlen Martinez-Gutierrez and Julian Ruiz-Saenz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:78

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The main goal of oral vaccination of foxes is eradication of rabies in the red fox population as rabies reservoirs. To evaluate the success of vaccination a serological testing is conducted as a part of monito...

    Authors: Tomislav Bedeković, Ivana Šimić, Nina Krešić, Ivana Lojkić, Željko Mihaljević, Ivica Sučec, Ivana Lohman Janković and Peter Hostnik

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:76

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Lymphocystis disease (LCD) is the main viral infection reported to affect cultured gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in Europe. The existence of subclinical Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection in this fis...

    Authors: Estefania J. Valverde, Irene Cano, Alejandro Labella, Juan J. Borrego and Dolores Castro

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:71

    Content type: Methodology article

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  42. At least two genetically different porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains have been identified in the United States (U.S. PEDV prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains). The current serological assays off...

    Authors: Qi Chen, Joseph T. Thomas, Luis G. Giménez-Lirola, John M. Hardham, Qinshan Gao, Priscilla F. Gerber, Tanja Opriessnig, Ying Zheng, Ganwu Li, Phillip C. Gauger, Darin M. Madson, Drew R. Magstadt and Jianqiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:70

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) possess a positive sense, single stranded RNA genome. Internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) element exists within its 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the viral RNA. Transla...

    Authors: Takehiro Kanda, Makoto Ozawa and Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:66

    Content type: Research article

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  44. This study describes a model developed to evaluate the transboundary risk of PEDV-contaminated swine feed ingredients and the effect of two mitigation strategies during a simulated transport event from China t...

    Authors: Scott Dee, Casey Neill, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Roger Cochrane, Cassandra Jones, Gilbert Patterson, Gordon Spronk, Jane Christopher-Hennings and Eric Nelson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:51

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Newcastle disease (ND), which is caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important avian diseases in poultry. Since its discovery in 1926, ND has caused great economic losses to the wor...

    Authors: Xiaolong Gao, Xiangyun Hu, Lina Tong, Dandan Liu, Xudong Chang, Haixin Wang, Ruyi Dang, Xinglong Wang, Sa Xiao, Enqi Du and Zengqi Yang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:39

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Perinatal infections with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) have long been known to be associated with cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens due to productive infection of dividing neuroblasts. FPV, like other parvo...

    Authors: Mutien Garigliany, Gautier Gilliaux, Sandra Jolly, Tomas Casanova, Calixte Bayrou, Kris Gommeren, Thomas Fett, Axel Mauroy, Etienne Lévy, Dominique Cassart, Dominique Peeters, Luc Poncelet and Daniel Desmecht

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:28

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Despite the crucial role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for zoonosis and some of the most threatening diseases for wild carnivores such as distemper and parvovirosis, little is known about the epidemiological ...

    Authors: Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi, Rodrigo Lima Massara, Ana Maria de Oliveira Paschoal, Amanda Soriano-Araújo, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato, Guilherme Ramos Demétrio, Adriano Garcia Chiarello and Marcelo Passamani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:21

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is a newly discovered virus. To date, there has been no specific serological assay for use in the diagnosis of P1 infection.

    Authors: Li-bin Wen, Shi-fu Wen and Kong-wang He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:12

    Content type: Methodology article

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  49. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects cattle production worldwide and that can infect other ungulates such as cervids and even wild boar (Sus scrofa). It is believed that domestic livest...

    Authors: Víctor Rodríguez-Prieto, Deborah Kukielka, Belén Rivera-Arroyo, Beatriz Martínez-López, Ana Isabel de las Heras, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno and Joaquín Vicente

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:11

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda in spite of the control measures used. Various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of FMD viruses (FMDV) in Uganda are not well understood; these includ...

    Authors: Moses Tefula Dhikusooka, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe, Alice Namatovu, Graham J. Belsham, Hans Redlef Siegismund, Sabenzia Nabalayo Wekesa, Sheila Nina Balinda, Vincent B. Muwanika and Kirsten Tjørnehøj

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:5

    Content type: Research article

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