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Virology

The virology section publishes research finding which focus on clinical, macro pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of animal viruses. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equines, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging infections are also accepted.

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  1. Content type: Case report

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a loss of approximately US$ 70 million every year to the South Korean pork industry. There are two distinct genotypes: European (type 1) and N...

    Authors: Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Minjoo Yeom, Jong-Young Choi, Jong-Hwan Park, Sun-Woo Yoon and Daesub Song

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:272

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are active against many Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. Beyond their antibacterial activity, they are reported to have various immunomodulatory pro...

    Authors: Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Karol Wierzchosławski and Zygmunt Pejsak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:268

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by CSF virus (CSFV) is highly contagious andcauses significant economic losses in the pig industry throughout the world. Previously we demonstrated that porcine Mx1 (poMx1), ...

    Authors: Xiaomin Zhang, Jiao Jing, Wenliang Li, Ke Liu, Baojun Shi, Qianqian Xu, Zhiyong Ma, Bin Zhou and Puyan Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:264

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Infectious Bronchitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease which causes tracheal lesions and also affects the reproductive tract and is responsible for large economic losses to the poultry industry every...

    Authors: Jacqueline Smith, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, David Cavanagh, Pete Kaiser and David W. Burt

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:256

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) causes severe systemic disease in farmed soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinensis). More efficient methods of controlling and detecting STIV infections are urgently needed. 

    Authors: Pengfei Li, Lingli Zhou, Yepin Yu, Min Yang, Songwei Ni, Shina Wei and Qiwei Qin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:245

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  6. Content type: Methodology article

    The porcine circovirus-like agent P1 is a newly discovered DNA virus with a single-stranded circular genome that is highly homologous to that of porcine circovirus type 2. P1 infection can cause symptoms resem...

    Authors: Kong-wang He, Li-bin Wen, Yong-shan Wang and Cheng-ping Lu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:240

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Newcastle disease virus remains a constant threat in commercial poultry farms despite intensive vaccination programs. Outbreaks attributed to ND can escalate and spread across farms and states contributing to ...

    Authors: Seetha Jaganathan, Peck Toung Ooi, Lai Yee Phang, Zeenathul Nazariah Binti Allaudin, Lai Siong Yip, Pow Yoon Choo, Ban Keong Lim, Stephane Lemiere and Jean-Christophe Audonnet

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:219

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Simbu sero-group occur worldwide, including the newly recognized Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe. These viruses cause congenital malformations and reproductive losses in ...

    Authors: Coletha Mathew, S. Klevar, A. R. W. Elbers, W. H. M. van der Poel, P. D. Kirkland, J. Godfroid, R. H. Mdegela, G. Mwamengele and M. Stokstad

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:208

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  9. Content type: Methodology article

    Elephants are classified as critically endangered animals by the International Union for Conservation of Species (IUCN). Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) poses a large threat to breeding programs o...

    Authors: Petra B. van den Doel, Víctor Rodríguez Prieto, Sarah E. van Rossum-Fikkert, Willem Schaftenaar, Erin Latimer, Lauren Howard, Sarah Chapman, Nic Masters, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Paul D. Ling, Akbar Dastjerdi and Byron Martina

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:203

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Public Health 2015 15:851

  10. Content type: Research article

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) together with bovine torovirus (BToV), both members of the Coronaviridae family, order Nidovirales are the most common viral enteric pathogens. Although studied separately, their joint o...

    Authors: Ivana Lojkić, Nina Krešić, Ivana Šimić and Tomislav Bedeković

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:202

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is an economically important disease in swine-producing areas. The objective of...

    Authors: Longlong Zheng, Xiang Li, Lingyun Zhu, Wengui Li, Junlong Bi, Guishu Yang, Gefen Yin and Jianping Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:199

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  12. Content type: Methodology article

    Recent, severe outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Asia and North America highlight the need for well-validated diagnostic tests for the identification of PEDV infected animals and evaluatio...

    Authors: Faten Okda, Xiaodong Liu, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric A. Nelson and Steven Lawson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:180

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  13. Content type: Case report

    Herpesvirus and poxvirus can infect a wide range of species: herpesvirus genetic material has been detected and amplified in five species of the superfamily Pinnipedia; poxvirus genetic material, in eight species...

    Authors: Mar Melero, Daniel García-Párraga, Juan Manuel Corpa, Joaquín Ortega, Consuelo Rubio-Guerri, José Luis Crespo, Belén Rivera-Arroyo and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:968

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In view of recurrent Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infections all over Europe between 2011 and 2013, a lively scientific debate over the importance of the sylvatic transmission cycle of the virus has emerged. The ...

    Authors: Magdalena Larska, Michał K Krzysiak, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska and Jerzy Rola

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:967

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NA-1 (genotype VII) was isolated from an epizootic involving a flock of geese in Jilin Province, Northeast China, in 1999. Compared with the classical NDV stra...

    Authors: Jiaxu Liu, Yanlong Cong, Renfu Yin, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu, Xiufan Liu, Chunfeng Wang and Zhuang Ding

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:964

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  16. Content type: Research article

    In recent years, several new ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against the porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV) in pig serum have been developed. To interpret the results, specificit...

    Authors: Tatjana Sattler, Eveline Wodak, Sandra Revilla-Fernández and Friedrich Schmoll

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:300

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Control of classical swine fever (CSF) by vaccination ideally requires that field strain infection can be detected irrespective of the vaccination status of the herd. To inform on the usefulness of molecular t...

    Authors: Helen E Everett, Bentley S Crudgington, Olubukola Sosan-Soulé and Helen R Crooke

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:281

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus 2 is the primary agent responsible for inducing a group of associated diseases known as Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD), which can have detrimental effects on production effic...

    Authors: Taylor B Engle, Erin E Jobman, Timothy W Moural, Autumn M McKnite, Justin W Bundy, Sarah Y Barnes, Emily H Davis, Judith A Galeota, Thomas E Burkey, Graham S Plastow, Stephen D Kachman and Daniel C Ciobanu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:286

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Recently identified porcine circovirus-like virus P1 has the smallest DNA viral genome. In this study, we identified the viral genes and their corresponding mRNA transcripts.

    Authors: Li-bin Wen, Feng-zhi Wang, Kong-wang He, Bin Li, Xiao-min Wang, Rong-li Guo and Jian-ping Xie

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:287

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection causes significant losses of pigs, which is characterized by hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation and leucopenia. The swine vascular endothelial cell ...

    Authors: Lei He, Yanming Zhang, Yanqin Fang, Wulong Liang, Jihui Lin and Min Cheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:279

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), also known as Goat Plague, occurs in goats, sheep and related species. It is caused by a morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. In Bangladesh PPR is endemic and it causes s...

    Authors: Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan, Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman, Mohammad Sahinur Alam Siddique and Mohammad Rafiqul Islam

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:263

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Active surveillance of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) should ease prevention and control of this disease widely present across Africa, Middle East, central and southern Asia. PPR is now present in Turkey at ...

    Authors: Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Olivier Kwiatek, Rokshana Parvin, Mushfiqur M Rahman, Mohammad R Islam, Emmanuel Albina and Geneviève Libeau

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:247

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an etiological agent of porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs). Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) as the most important PCVD is considered a multifactorial dis...

    Authors: Michaela Vlasakova, Valeria Leskova, Ivan Sliz, Anna Jackova and Stefan Vilcek

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:221

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) still causes great economic loss to the livestock industry and trade because there aren’t any available drugs that proved to be fully effective against it. In this study, the...

    Authors: Ramzi Boubaker–Elandalousi, Marwa Mekni–Toujani, Belhassen Kaabi, Imen Larbi, Mohamed-Fethi Diouani, Mohamed Gharbi, Hafidh Akkari, Fatma B’chir and Abdeljelil Ghram

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:231

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Since its initial detection in May 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has spread rapidly throughout the US swine industry. Recently, contaminated feed was confirmed as a vehicle for PEDV infection of...

    Authors: Scott Dee, Casey Neill, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings and Eric Nelson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:220

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is an acute disease of young ducklings with few convenient and effective veterinary drugs to treat. In pathology, present study mainly focused on the immune mechanism, but very few s...

    Authors: Wen Xiong, Yun Chen, Yu Wang and Jiaguo Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:226

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  27. Content type: Methodology article

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has been associated with outbreaks of canine infectious respiratory disease in shelters and boarding kennel environments. POCKITTM Nucleic Acid Analyzer is a field-deployable device c...

    Authors: Rebecca P Wilkes, Yun-Long Tsai, Pei-Yu Lee, Fu-Chun Lee, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang and Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:213

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Our understanding of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has changed enormously over the past 30 years, from a waterborne infection causing outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries to an infection of global di...

    Authors: Quan Shen, Yingyan Pu, Xingli Fu, Ying Xie, Xiaobo Bian, Shixing Yang, Yan Yang, Li Cui, Xiaochun Wang, Hua Wang and Wen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:188

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoVs are divided into two serotypes with markedly different infection rates among cat populations around the world. ...

    Authors: Ying-Ting Wang, Ling-Ling Chueh and Cho-Hua Wan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:186

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  30. Content type: Research article

    After the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Korea, a vaccination policy has been applied to control the disease. In addition, several non-specific immune stimulators have been used without any...

    Authors: Myunghwan Jung, Min-Kyoung Shin, Seung-Bin Cha, Seung Won Shin, Anna Yoo, Won-Jung Lee, Hong-Tae Park, Jong-Hyeon Park, Byounghan Kim, Yeon-Kwon Jung and Han Sang Yoo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:179

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Since its initial detection in May 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has spread rapidly throughout the US swine industry. Initially, contaminated feed was proposed as a risk factor for PEDV; however...

    Authors: Scott Dee, Travis Clement, Adam Schelkopf, Joel Nerem, David Knudsen, Jane Christopher-Hennings and Eric Nelson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:176

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural rese...

    Authors: Yabin Dai, Xu Cheng, Mei Liu, Xinyue Shen, Jianmei Li, Shengqing Yu, Jianmin Zou and Chan Ding

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:164

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  33. Content type: Methodology article

    The White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Penaeus stylirostris penstyldensovirus 1 (previously named Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus-IHHNV) are two of the most important viral pathogens of p...

    Authors: Carlos A G Leal, Alex F Carvalho, Rômulo C Leite and Henrique C P Figueiredo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:150

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Oral fluid collected by means of ropes has the potential to replace serum for monitoring and surveillance of important swine pathogens. Until now, the most commonly used method to collect oral fluid is by hang...

    Authors: Inge Decorte, Wander Van Breedam, Yves Van der Stede, Hans J Nauwynck, Nick De Regge and Ann Brigitte Cay

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:134

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in both humans and animals, particularly pigs, worldwide. Several evidences, including human infection following consumption of raw contaminated meat, suggest a zo...

    Authors: Eleonora Ponterio, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Ginevra Orrù, Manuel Liciardi, Fabio Ostanello and Franco Maria Ruggeri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:133

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  36. Content type: Research article

    The European (EU) genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (Genotype-I PRRSV) has recently emerged in China. The coexistence of Genotype-I and -II PRRSV strains could cause seriously aff...

    Authors: Jing-Qiang Ren, Wen-Chao Sun, Hui-Jun Lu, Shu-Bo Wen, Jie Jing, Fu-Long Yan, Hao Liu, Cun-Xia Liu, Peng-Peng Xiao, Xing Chen, Shou-Wen Du, Rui Du and Ning-Yi Jin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:128

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Maternal antibodies can interfere with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. In this study we determined whether intratypic heterologous vaccination could help to improve herd immunity.

    Authors: Aldo Dekker, Phaedra Eblé, Norbert Stockhofe and Gilles Chénard

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:127

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The course of swine influenza in pigs is reported to be similar to human influenza. Occasionally abortions and other reproduction disorders have been associated with influenza A virus (IAV) infection in pigs. ...

    Authors: Krzysztof Kwit, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól and Iwona Markowska-Daniel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:123

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  39. Content type: Methodology article

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is considered to be a viral agent central to the development of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). The Cap protein, a structural protein encoded by the cap (or C1) gene of PiCV, has be...

    Authors: Guan-Hua Lai, Yen-Chang Lin, Yi-Lun Tsai, Yi-Yang Lien, Ming-Kuem Lin, Hsi-Jien Chen, Wen-Te Chang, Jason T C Tzen and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:115

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has swept through the major part of Europe in the period 2011–2013. A vaccine against SBV has been developed and may be a possible preventive instrument against infection. Presently, ...

    Authors: Armin RW Elbers, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden and Wim HM van der Poel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:103

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available conc...

    Authors: Pedro Castanheira, Ana Duarte, Solange Gil, Clara Cartaxeiro, Manuel Malta, Sara Vieira and Luis Tavares

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:91

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Argentina. As prevention of the spread from infected animals is of primary importance in breaking the cycle of BLV transmission, it is...

    Authors: Gerónimo Gutiérrez, Irene Alvarez, Ramiro Merlini, Flavia Rondelli and Karina Trono

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:82

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  43. Content type: Research article

    By using animal sera as sentinels, natural TBEV foci could be identified and further analyses including investigations of ticks could be initiated. However, antibody response against TBEV-related flaviviruses ...

    Authors: Christine Klaus, Ute Ziegler, Donata Kalthoff, Bernd Hoffmann and Martin Beer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:78

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Zinc (Zn) supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence of diarrhea and to protect animals from intestinal diseases, but the mechanisms of this protective effect against virus infection in vivo have not ...

    Authors: Weidong Chai, Silke S Zakrzewski, Dorothee Günzel, Robert Pieper, Zhenya Wang, Sven Twardziok, Pawel Janczyk, Nikolaus Osterrieder and Michael Burwinkel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:75

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  45. Content type: Case report

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. JEV can cause febrile illness and encephalitis mainly in humans and horses, and occasionally in cattle.

    Authors: Naomi Kako, Seiji Suzuki, Norie Sugie, Tomoko Kato, Tohru Yanase, Makoto Yamakawa and Hiroaki Shirafuji

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:63

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The inability of current vaccines to provide effective protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is not fully understood. One of the reasons might be the presence...

    Authors: Ying Yu, Xuehui Cai, Gang Wang, Ning Kong, Yonggang Liu, Yihong Xiao, Chong Zhang, Yang Mu, Shuqi Xiao, Qin Zhao, Chengbao Wang, Gaiping Zhang, Julian A Hiscox and En-Min Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:39

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic chicken coronavirus. Currently, vaccination against IBV is only partially protective; therefore, better preventions and treatments are needed. Plants produce a...

    Authors: Christie Chen, David M Zuckerman, Susanna Brantley, Michka Sharpe, Kevin Childress, Egbert Hoiczyk and Amanda R Pendleton

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:24

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goats. The disease is characterized by severe pyrexia, oculo-nasal discharge, pneumonia, necrosis and ulc...

    Authors: Tsegalem Abera, Ardhanary Thangavelu, Navamani Daniel Joy Chandran and Angamuthu Raja

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:22

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in e...

    Authors: Thea B Klem, Espen Rimstad and Maria Stokstad

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:15

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  50. Content type: Research article

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections; causing a high economic loss in all continents. Use of marker vaccines in IBR eradication programs is wide...

    Authors: Sonia Alejandra Romera, Mariana Puntel, Valeria Quattrocchi, Paula Del Médico Zajac, Patricia Zamorano, Javier Blanco Viera, Consuelo Carrillo, Shafiqul Chowdhury, Manuel V Borca and Ana M Sadir

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:8

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