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Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson and Tillie Cryer

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated...

    Authors: Li Mao, Wenliang Li, Leilei Yang, Jianhui Wang, Suping Cheng, Yong Wei, Qiusheng Wang, Wenwen Zhang, Fei Hao, Yonglong Ding, Yinhua Sun and Jieyuan Jiang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:181

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute haemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and clinical EEHV infections account for the majority of their fatalities. The anti-...

    Authors: Akbar Dastjerdi, Katharina Seilern-Moy, Karin Darpel, Falko Steinbach and Fieke Molenaar

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:178

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Screening Atlantic cetacean populations for Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) is essential to understand the epidemiology of the disease. In Europe, Portugal and Spain have the highest cetacean stranding rates, mo...

    Authors: Maria Carolina Rocha de Medeiros Bento, Catarina Isabel Costa Simões Eira, José Vitor Vingada, Ana Luisa Marçalo, Marisa Cláudia Teixeira Ferreira, Alfredo Lopez Fernandez, Luís Manuel Morgado Tavares and Ana Isabel Simões Pereira Duarte

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:176

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Porcine cirovirus type 1 (PCV1) and type 2 (PCV2) are circulating in Chinese pig herds and the infected pigs develop antibodies to both viruses. Current commercial available ELISA kits cannot differentiate PCV...

    Authors: Shuizhong Han, Yan Xiao, Dingding Zheng, Yanli Gu, Yajie Xuan, Yudan Jin, Wenqiang Pang, Yuxin Huang, Xiangdong Li, Junhua Deng and Kegong Tian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:175

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  5. Content type: Research article

    In 2008, an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in monkeys was reported in China. We isolated CDV strain (subsequently named Monkey-BJ01-DV) from lung tissue obtained from a rhesus monkey that d...

    Authors: Na Feng, Yuxiu Liu, Jianzhong Wang, Weiwei Xu, Tiansong Li, Tiecheng Wang, Lei Wang, Yicong Yu, Hualei Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Songtao Yang, Yuwei Gao, Guixue Hu and Xianzhu Xia

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:160

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Rift Valley fever is an emerging zoonotic viral disease, enzootic and endemic in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, which poses a significant threat to both human and animal health. The disease is most severe i...

    Authors: S. Daouam, F. Ghzal, Y. Naouli, K. O. Tadlaoui, M. M. Ennaji, C. Oura and M. EL Harrak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:154

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Conventional Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination strategies in village chicken production settings is impractical due to shortage of cold-chain, unsuitability of vaccine administration routes and demanding trai...

    Authors: Reta D. Abdi, Kasahun Amsalu, Olana Merera, Yilkal Asfaw, Eseyas Gelaye, Marta Yami and Teshale Sori

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:150

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:279

  8. Content type: Research article

    Papillomaviruses can cause proliferative skin lesions ranging from benign hyperplasia to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, asymptomatic infection is also possible. Several groups have detected Felis domesti...

    Authors: Marco Geisseler, Christian E. Lange, Claude Favrot, Nina Fischer, Mathias Ackermann and Kurt Tobler

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:147

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  9. Content type: Research article

    There is no information concerning the genotype of Canine parvovirus (CPV) currently circulating in Henan province, China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology ...

    Authors: Zhanqin Zhao, Huisheng Liu, Ke Ding, Chunping Peng, Qiao Xue, Zuhua Yu and Yun Xue

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:138

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Aujeszky’s disease is a viral disease of suids caused by Suid Herpesvirus 1. The disease has worldwide distribution with significant economic impact. In Serbia, there is neither an Aujeszky’s disease eradication ...

    Authors: V. Milicevic, S. Radojicic, M. Valcic, V. Ivovic and V. Radosavljevic

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:134

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Sheeppox (SPP) is one of the priorities, high-impact animal diseases in many developing countries, where live attenuated vaccines are routinely used against sheeppox virus (SPPV). In an event of an SPP outbrea...

    Authors: Zineb Boumart, Samira Daouam, Imane Belkourati, Lamya Rafi, Eeva Tuppurainen, Khalid Omari Tadlaoui and Mehdi El Harrak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:133

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Interest in porcine epidemic diarrhea has grown since the 2013 outbreak in the United States caused major losses, with mortality rates up to 100 % in suckling piglets. In Mexico, an outbreak of porcine epidemi...

    Authors: María Elena Trujillo-Ortega, Rolando Beltrán-Figueroa, Montserrat Elemi García-Hernández, Mireya Juárez-Ramírez, Alicia Sotomayor-González, Erika N. Hernández-Villegas, José F. Becerra-Hernández and Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:132

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  13. Content type: Research article

    In Japan, epizootic arboviral infections have severely impacted the livestock industry for a long period. Akabane, Aino, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Ibaraki viruses have repeatedly caused epizootic abno...

    Authors: Tomoko Kato, Tohru Yanase, Moemi Suzuki, Yoshito Katagiri, Kazufumi Ikemiyagi, Katsunori Takayoshi, Hiroaki Shirafuji, Seiichi Ohashi, Kazuo Yoshida, Makoto Yamakawa and Tomoyuki Tsuda

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:125

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) produces disorders on the immune system in naturally infected animals, which may counteract the development of immunity after vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate w...

    Authors: Rodrigo Puentes, Laureana De Brun, Agustina Algorta, Valeria Da Silva, Florencia Mansilla, Gustavo Sacco, Silvia Llambí and Alejandra V. Capozzo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:119

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as ...

    Authors: Han-Siang Hsu, Ting-Han Lin, Hung-Yi Wu, Lee-Shuan Lin, Cheng-Shu Chung, Ming-Tang Chiou and Chao-Nan Lin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:116

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most contagious and devastating diseases to poultry in the world. The causative agents are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which belong to the genus Avul...

    Authors: Jie Zhu, Shunlin Hu, Haixu Xu, Jingjing Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Xiaoquan Wang and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:113

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Longitudinal samples from two production sites were used to (1) describe the pattern of PEDV shedding (rRT-PCR) in individual rectal swabs, pen fecal samples, and pen oral fluids (OF); (2) describe the kinetic...

    Authors: Jordan Bjustrom-Kraft, Katie Woodard, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Marisa Rotolo, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun, Peter Lasley, Jianqiang Zhang, David Baum, Phillip Gauger, Rodger Main and Jeffrey Zimmerman

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:99

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  18. Content type: Research article

    As we reported previously, Getah virus infection occurred in horses at the Miho training center of the Japan Racing Association in 2014. This was the first outbreak after a 31-year absence in Japan. Here, we r...

    Authors: Hiroshi Bannai, Akihiro Ochi, Manabu Nemoto, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Yamanaka and Takashi Kondo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:98

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  19. Content type: Methodology article

    A novel porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), also known as porcine coronavirus HKU15, was reported in China in 2012 and identified in the U.S. in early 2014. Since then, PDCoV has been identified in a number of U...

    Authors: Faten Okda, Steven Lawson, Xiaodong Liu, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Kyle Hain, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings and Eric A. Nelson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:95

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry, affecting chickens of all ages and causing major economic losses in poultry flocks. Mass vaccination is conducted in Mor...

    Authors: Khadija Khataby, Faouzi Kichou, Chafiqa Loutfi and My Mustapha Ennaji

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:94

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induces one of most important devastating disease of swine worldwide, and the current methods poorly control it. Previous studies have indicated that...

    Authors: Xibao Shi, Xiaozhuan Zhang, Yongzhe Chang, Bo Jiang, Ruiguang Deng, Aiping Wang and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:90

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the etiological agent of one of the most infectious diseases of domestic dogs, also known as a highly prevalent viral infectious disease of carnivores and posing a conservation ...

    Authors: Marlen Martinez-Gutierrez and Julian Ruiz-Saenz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:78

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The main goal of oral vaccination of foxes is eradication of rabies in the red fox population as rabies reservoirs. To evaluate the success of vaccination a serological testing is conducted as a part of monito...

    Authors: Tomislav Bedeković, Ivana Šimić, Nina Krešić, Ivana Lojkić, Željko Mihaljević, Ivica Sučec, Ivana Lohman Janković and Peter Hostnik

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:76

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  24. Content type: Methodology article

    Lymphocystis disease (LCD) is the main viral infection reported to affect cultured gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in Europe. The existence of subclinical Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection in this fis...

    Authors: Estefania J. Valverde, Irene Cano, Alejandro Labella, Juan J. Borrego and Dolores Castro

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:71

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  25. Content type: Research article

    At least two genetically different porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains have been identified in the United States (U.S. PEDV prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains). The current serological assays off...

    Authors: Qi Chen, Joseph T. Thomas, Luis G. Giménez-Lirola, John M. Hardham, Qinshan Gao, Priscilla F. Gerber, Tanja Opriessnig, Ying Zheng, Ganwu Li, Phillip C. Gauger, Darin M. Madson, Drew R. Magstadt and Jianqiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:70

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) possess a positive sense, single stranded RNA genome. Internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) element exists within its 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the viral RNA. Transla...

    Authors: Takehiro Kanda, Makoto Ozawa and Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:66

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  27. Content type: Research article

    This study describes a model developed to evaluate the transboundary risk of PEDV-contaminated swine feed ingredients and the effect of two mitigation strategies during a simulated transport event from China t...

    Authors: Scott Dee, Casey Neill, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Roger Cochrane, Cassandra Jones, Gilbert Patterson, Gordon Spronk, Jane Christopher-Hennings and Eric Nelson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:51

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Newcastle disease (ND), which is caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important avian diseases in poultry. Since its discovery in 1926, ND has caused great economic losses to the wor...

    Authors: Xiaolong Gao, Xiangyun Hu, Lina Tong, Dandan Liu, Xudong Chang, Haixin Wang, Ruyi Dang, Xinglong Wang, Sa Xiao, Enqi Du and Zengqi Yang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:39

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Perinatal infections with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) have long been known to be associated with cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens due to productive infection of dividing neuroblasts. FPV, like other parvo...

    Authors: Mutien Garigliany, Gautier Gilliaux, Sandra Jolly, Tomas Casanova, Calixte Bayrou, Kris Gommeren, Thomas Fett, Axel Mauroy, Etienne Lévy, Dominique Cassart, Dominique Peeters, Luc Poncelet and Daniel Desmecht

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:28

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Despite the crucial role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for zoonosis and some of the most threatening diseases for wild carnivores such as distemper and parvovirosis, little is known about the epidemiological ...

    Authors: Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi, Rodrigo Lima Massara, Ana Maria de Oliveira Paschoal, Amanda Soriano-Araújo, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato, Guilherme Ramos Demétrio, Adriano Garcia Chiarello and Marcelo Passamani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:21

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  31. Content type: Methodology article

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is a newly discovered virus. To date, there has been no specific serological assay for use in the diagnosis of P1 infection.

    Authors: Li-bin Wen, Shi-fu Wen and Kong-wang He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:12

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects cattle production worldwide and that can infect other ungulates such as cervids and even wild boar (Sus scrofa). It is believed that domestic livest...

    Authors: Víctor Rodríguez-Prieto, Deborah Kukielka, Belén Rivera-Arroyo, Beatriz Martínez-López, Ana Isabel de las Heras, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno and Joaquín Vicente

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:11

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda in spite of the control measures used. Various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of FMD viruses (FMDV) in Uganda are not well understood; these includ...

    Authors: Moses Tefula Dhikusooka, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe, Alice Namatovu, Graham J. Belsham, Hans Redlef Siegismund, Sabenzia Nabalayo Wekesa, Sheila Nina Balinda, Vincent B. Muwanika and Kirsten Tjørnehøj

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:5

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  34. Content type: Case report

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a syndrome that is characterized by rapidly spreading watery diarrhea affecting pigs of all ages, but with major effects on suckling piglets. The disease, as well as the caus...

    Authors: Adolf Steinrigl, Sandra Revilla Fernández, Friedrich Stoiber, Jutta Pikalo, Tatjana Sattler and Friedrich Schmoll

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:310

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:23

  35. Content type: Methodology article

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) is a member of the viral subfamily of Alphaherpesvirinae that infects various species, including cattle, sheep, and goats. The virus causes infectious bovi...

    Authors: Luigi Bertolotti, Elvira Muratore, Chiara Nogarol, Claudio Caruso, Laura Lucchese, Margherita Profiti, Laura Anfossi, Loretta Masoero, Stefano Nardelli and Sergio Rosati

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:300

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Feline herpesvirus 1 is a highly contagious virus that affects many cats. Virus infection presents with flu-like signs and irritation of ocular and nasal regions. While cats can recover from active infections ...

    Authors: Sebastiaan Bol and Evelien M. Bunnik

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:284

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  37. Content type: Case report

    Herpesvirus can infect a wide range of animal species: mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians and bivalves. In marine mammals, several alpha- and gammaherpesvirus have been identified in some cetaceans and...

    Authors: Mar Melero, José Luis Crespo-Picazo, Consuelo Rubio-Guerri, Daniel García-Párraga and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:283

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Cats with feline calicivirus (FCV)-related symptoms are commonly presented to veterinary practitioners. Various clinical manifestations have been attributed to FCV, i.e. upper respiratory tract disease (URTD),...

    Authors: Alice Berger, Barbara Willi, Marina L. Meli, Felicitas S. Boretti, Sonja Hartnack, Anou Dreyfus, Hans Lutz and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:282

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a loss of approximately US$ 70 million every year to the South Korean pork industry. There are two distinct genotypes: European (type 1) and N...

    Authors: Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Minjoo Yeom, Jong-Young Choi, Jong-Hwan Park, Sun-Woo Yoon and Daesub Song

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:272

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), Akabane virus (AKAV) and Aino virus (AINV) are members of the Simbu serogroup within the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, which can cause reproductive disorders including abo...

    Authors: Ji-Hye Lee, Hyun-Ji Seo, Jee-Yong Park, Sung-Hee Kim, Yun Sang Cho, Yong-Joo Kim, In-Soo Cho and Hye-Young Jeoung

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:270

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are active against many Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. Beyond their antibacterial activity, they are reported to have various immunomodulatory pro...

    Authors: Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Karol Wierzchosławski and Zygmunt Pejsak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:268

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by CSF virus (CSFV) is highly contagious andcauses significant economic losses in the pig industry throughout the world. Previously we demonstrated that porcine Mx1 (poMx1), ...

    Authors: Xiaomin Zhang, Jiao Jing, Wenliang Li, Ke Liu, Baojun Shi, Qianqian Xu, Zhiyong Ma, Bin Zhou and Puyan Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:264

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Infectious Bronchitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease which causes tracheal lesions and also affects the reproductive tract and is responsible for large economic losses to the poultry industry every...

    Authors: Jacqueline Smith, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, David Cavanagh, Pete Kaiser and David W. Burt

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:256

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) causes severe systemic disease in farmed soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinensis). More efficient methods of controlling and detecting STIV infections are urgently needed. 

    Authors: Pengfei Li, Lingli Zhou, Yepin Yu, Min Yang, Songwei Ni, Shina Wei and Qiwei Qin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:245

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  45. Content type: Methodology article

    The porcine circovirus-like agent P1 is a newly discovered DNA virus with a single-stranded circular genome that is highly homologous to that of porcine circovirus type 2. P1 infection can cause symptoms resem...

    Authors: Kong-wang He, Li-bin Wen, Yong-shan Wang and Cheng-ping Lu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:240

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Newcastle disease virus remains a constant threat in commercial poultry farms despite intensive vaccination programs. Outbreaks attributed to ND can escalate and spread across farms and states contributing to ...

    Authors: Seetha Jaganathan, Peck Toung Ooi, Lai Yee Phang, Zeenathul Nazariah Binti Allaudin, Lai Siong Yip, Pow Yoon Choo, Ban Keong Lim, Stephane Lemiere and Jean-Christophe Audonnet

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:219

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Simbu sero-group occur worldwide, including the newly recognized Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe. These viruses cause congenital malformations and reproductive losses in ...

    Authors: Coletha Mathew, S. Klevar, A. R. W. Elbers, W. H. M. van der Poel, P. D. Kirkland, J. Godfroid, R. H. Mdegela, G. Mwamengele and M. Stokstad

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:208

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  48. Content type: Methodology article

    Elephants are classified as critically endangered animals by the International Union for Conservation of Species (IUCN). Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) poses a large threat to breeding programs o...

    Authors: Petra B. van den Doel, Víctor Rodríguez Prieto, Sarah E. van Rossum-Fikkert, Willem Schaftenaar, Erin Latimer, Lauren Howard, Sarah Chapman, Nic Masters, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Paul D. Ling, Akbar Dastjerdi and Byron Martina

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:203

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Public Health 2015 15:851

  49. Content type: Research article

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) together with bovine torovirus (BToV), both members of the Coronaviridae family, order Nidovirales are the most common viral enteric pathogens. Although studied separately, their joint o...

    Authors: Ivana Lojkić, Nina Krešić, Ivana Šimić and Tomislav Bedeković

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:202

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  50. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is an economically important disease in swine-producing areas. The objective of...

    Authors: Longlong Zheng, Xiang Li, Lingyun Zhu, Wengui Li, Junlong Bi, Guishu Yang, Gefen Yin and Jianping Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:199

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