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Virology

Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson and Tillie Cryer

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) was discovered in 1974 as a contaminant of a porcine kidney (PK-15) cell line and was generally accepted to be nonpathogenic. But recently it was shown to cause lesions in expe...

    Authors: Liang Cao, Wenchao Sun, Huijun Lu, Mingyao Tian, Changzhan Xie, Guanyu Zhao, Jicheng Han, Wei Wang, Min Zheng, Rui Du, Ningyi Jin and Aidong Qian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:43

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Cats are susceptible to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants 2a, 2b and 2c. Detection of FPV and CPV variants in apparently healthy cats and their persistence in white blood ce...

    Authors: Andrea Balboni, Francesca Bassi, Stefano De Arcangeli, Rosanna Zobba, Carla Dedola, Alberto Alberti and Mara Battilani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:41

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) infection usually induces chronic malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in sika deer (Cervus nippon), with the primary signs of weight loss, dermatitis and alopecia.

    Authors: Hongwei Zhu, Qingrong Huang, Xiaoliang Hu, Wenhui Chu, Jianlong Zhang, Linlin Jiang, Xin Yu, Xingxiao Zhang and Shipeng Cheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:38

    Content type: Case Report

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  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is the viral agent causing the most important economic losses in livestock throughout the world. Infection of fetuses before their immunological maturity causes the birth of ...

    Authors: Rodrigo Salgado, Ezequiel Hidalgo-Hermoso and José Pizarro-Lucero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:37

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Mink circovirus (MiCV) is a newly discovered pathogen associated with mink diarrhea. The prevalence and economic importance of this virus remain poorly understood, and no specific serological assay has been de...

    Authors: Junwei Ge, Xingyang Cui, Yunjia Shi, Lili Zhao, Chengwei Wei, Shanshan Wen, Shuang Xia and Hongyan Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:29

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:128

  6. In order to prevent spread of the endemic pathogens bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) between herds, knowledge of indirect transmission by personnel and fomites is fundame...

    Authors: Veslemøy Sunniva Oma, Thea Klem, Madeleine Tråvén, Stefan Alenius, Britt Gjerset, Mette Myrmel and Maria Stokstad

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:22

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is one of the most common ocular diseases in ruminants worldwide. In addition to keratitis and conjunctivitis, animals with IKC can develop uveitis, corneal ulcer, and in ...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Romano, Torill Mørk, Sauli Laaksonen, Erik Ågren, Ingebjørg H. Nymo, Marianne Sunde and Morten Tryland

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:15

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Orf virus, the prototype of parapoxvirus, is the main causative agent of contagious ecthyma. Little is known about the status of the disease in Ethiopia and this study was aimed at determining its status using...

    Authors: Mebrahtu Tedla, Nega Berhan, Wassie Molla, Wudu Temesgen and Sefinew Alemu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:13

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) glycoprotein neutralization site 1 (also referred as G1 protein), is a critical protein responsible for virus infectivity and eliciting immune-protection, however, binding ...

    Authors: Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Chengqiang He, Hongmei Wang and Hongbin He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:3

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Bat-borne virus surveillance is necessary for determining inter-species transmission risks and is important due to the wide-range of bat species which may harbour potential pathogens. This study aimed to monit...

    Authors: Francesca Rizzo, Kathryn M. Edenborough, Roberto Toffoli, Paola Culasso, Simona Zoppi, Alessandro Dondo, Serena Robetto, Sergio Rosati, Angelika Lander, Andreas Kurth, Riccardo Orusa, Luigi Bertolotti and Maria Lucia Mandola

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:396

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus speci...

    Authors: Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Alexandre Servat, Marine Wasniewski, Matthieu Gaillard, Christophe Borel and Florence Cliquet

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:387

    Content type: Case Report

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  12. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) is a major pathogen in cattle and has led to significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide, and therefore a more optimal method for the rapid diagno...

    Authors: Peili Hou, Hongmei Wang, Guimin Zhao, Chengqiang He and Hongbin He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:386

    Content type: Methodology article

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  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 are members of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. This genus also includes the HoBi-like virus, tentatively classified as BVDV type 3. BVDV-1 is wide...

    Authors: Chiara Nogarol, Nicola Decaro, Luigi Bertolotti, Barbara Colitti, Bryan Iotti, Stefano Petrini, Maria Stella Lucente, Gabriella Elia, Giovanni Perona, Margherita Profiti, Canio Buonavoglia and Sergio Rosati

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:377

    Content type: Methodology article

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  14. Since its emergence in 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spread rapidly throughout the country due, in part, to contaminated livestock trailers. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy ...

    Authors: Kimberlee L. Baker, Paul R. Thomas, Locke A. Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Jianqiang Zhang, Chong Wang and Derald J. Holtkamp

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:372

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that infects the intestinal tract and causes diarrhea and vomiting in older pigs or extreme dehydration and death that could reach 100% mortality in neon...

    Authors: Yunjeong Kim, Changin Oh, Vinay Shivanna, Richard A. Hesse and Kyeong-Ok Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:356

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are associated with acute gastroenteritis in children and in young domestic and wild animals. A RVA strain was detected from a roe deer for the first time during a survey of game anim...

    Authors: Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska Kuhar, Andrej Steyer and Andrej Kirbis

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:353

    Content type: Research article

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  17. In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those...

    Authors: F.A. Abade dos Santos, C. Carvalho, Oliveira Nuno, J. J. Correia, M. Henriques, M. C. Peleteiro, M. Fevereiro and M. D. Duarte

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:336

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are important etiological agents for Muscovy duck parvoviral disease and Derzsy’s disease, respectively; both of which can cause substantial economic l...

    Authors: Jianye Wang, Jueyi Ling, Zhixian Wang, Yu Huang, Jianzhong Zhu and Guoqiang Zhu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:327

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is responsible for infections in equids. It can spread easily within the horse population and has a major impact on the horse breeding industry. No EAV outbreak has ever been repor...

    Authors: Sava Lazić, Diana Lupulović, Delphine Gaudaire, Tamas Petrovic, Gospava Lazić and Aymeric Hans

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:316

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) is associated with a viral aetiology. Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea and s...

    Authors: N. B. Goecke, C. K. Hjulsager, H. Kongsted, M. Boye, S. Rasmussen, F. Granberg, T. K. Fischer, S. E. Midgley, L. D. Rasmussen, Ø. Angen, J. P. Nielsen, S. E. Jorsal and L. E. Larsen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:315

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Canine parvovirus 2, a linear single-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Parvovirus within the family Parvoviridae, is a highly contagious pathogen of domestic dogs and several wild canidae species. Early d...

    Authors: Yunyun Geng, Jianchang Wang, Libing Liu, Yan Lu, Ke Tan and Yan-Zhong Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:311

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common virus, found worldwide, mainly responsible for chronic ulceroproliferative faucitis and periodontitis. This virus has a high mutation rate, leading to the presence of numer...

    Authors: T. Almeras, P. Schreiber, S. Fournel, V. Martin, C. S. Nicolas, C. Fontaine, C. Lesbros and S. Gueguen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:300

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve a...

    Authors: Taofeng Du, Yunpeng Shi, Shuqi Xiao, Na Li, Qin Zhao, Angke Zhang, Yuchen Nan, Yang Mu, Yani Sun, Chunyan Wu, Hongtao Zhang and En-Min Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:298

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The remarkable diversity and mobility of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) includes virulent viruses of genotype VI. These viruses are often referred to as pigeon paramyxoviruses 1 because they are normally isol...

    Authors: Mahmoud Sabra, Kiril M. Dimitrov, Iryna V. Goraichuk, Abdul Wajid, Poonam Sharma, Dawn Williams-Coplin, Asma Basharat, Shafqat F. Rehmani, Denys V. Muzyka, Patti J. Miller and Claudio L. Afonso

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:291

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute liver diseases in humans worldwide. In developing countries, HEV is commonly associated with waterborne outbreaks. Conversely, in ind...

    Authors: Montserrat Elemi García-Hernández, Mayra Cruz-Rivera, José Iván Sánchez-Betancourt, Oscar Rico-Chávez, Arely Vergara-Castañeda, María E. Trujillo and Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:289

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is common in chicken flocks in China, as currently no measures exist to prevent the spread of the disease. In this study, we analyzed the effect of caged versus cage-fre...

    Authors: Baoyuan Liu, Yani Sun, Yiyang Chen, Taofeng Du, Yuchen Nan, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Baicheng Huang, Gaiping Zhang, En-Min Zhou and Qin Zhao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:282

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Clinically, sheeppox and goatpox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. A cheaper and easy method for differential diagnosis is important in control of this disease in endemic region.

    Authors: Zhixun Zhao, Guohua Wu, Xinmin Yan, Xueliang Zhu, Jian Li, Haixia Zhu, Zhidong Zhang and Qiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:278

    Content type: Methodology article

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  28. The Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of orf, a globally-occurring, acute, pustular, contagious disease affecting sheep, goats and humans with a worldwide distribution. Currently, the genomic analysis of...

    Authors: Huiqin Chen, Wei Li, Zhenzhan Kuang, Daxiang Chen, Xiaoqing Liao, Ming Li, Shuhong Luo and Wenbo Hao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:260

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Canine distemper, caused by Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), as an is...

    Authors: Jianchang Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Ruiwen Li, Libing Liu and Wanzhe Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:241

    Content type: Methodology article

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  30. Feline coronavirus (FCoV) exists as two pathotypes, and FCoV spike gene mutations are considered responsible for the pathotypic switch in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) pathogenesis. The aim of this study...

    Authors: Sandra Felten, Christian M. Leutenegger, Hans-Joerg Balzer, Nikola Pantchev, Kaspar Matiasek, Gerhard Wess, Herman Egberink and Katrin Hartmann

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:228

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Recently moderate-virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains have been proven capable of generating postnatal persistent infection (PI), defined by the maintenance of viremia and the inability to gen...

    Authors: Oscar Cabezón, Sara Muñoz-González, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Marta Pérez-Simó, Rosa Rosell, Santiago Lavín, Ignasi Marco, Lorenzo Fraile, Paloma Martínez de la Riva, Fernando Rodríguez, Javier Domínguez and Llilianne Ganges

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:227

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In Europe, bat rabies is primarily attributed to European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) which are both strongly host-specific. Approximately thirty cases of infection ...

    Authors: Torfinn Moldal, Turid Vikøren, Florence Cliquet, Denise A. Marston, Jeroen van der Kooij, Knut Madslien and Irene Ørpetveit

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:216

    Content type: Case Report

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  33. The influenza A virus is highly variable, which, to some degree, is caused by the reassortment of viral genetic material. This process plays a major role in the generation of novel influenza virus strains that...

    Authors: Kinga Urbaniak, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Krzysztof Kwit, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Barbara Frącek and Zygmunt Pejsak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:215

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosi...

    Authors: Yang Li, Shuai Cui, Weihua Li, Yixin Wang, Zhizhong Cui, Peng Zhao and Shuang Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:204

    Content type: Research article

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  35. We studied a recent epizootic of Getah virus infection among pigs in the southern part of Ibaraki Prefecture and the northern part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, focusing on its possible association with outbreak...

    Authors: Hiroshi Bannai, Manabu Nemoto, Hidekazu Niwa, Satoshi Murakami, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Yamanaka and Takashi Kondo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:187

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Wild waterfowl are considered as the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Bangladesh has been experiencing highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks since 2007, mostly in chickens and o...

    Authors: Rahul Deb Sarker, Mohammad Giasuddin, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury and Mohammad Rafiqul Islam

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:180

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Enteric diseases are an important health problem for the intensive poultry industry, resulting in considerable economic losses. Apart from such microbiological agents associated with enteritis as bacteria and ...

    Authors: K. Domańska-Blicharz, Ł. Bocian, A. Lisowska, A. Jacukowicz, A. Pikuła and Z. Minta

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:108

    Content type: Research article

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  38. ELISAs are known to have a higher diagnostic sensitivity than the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) when employed for serological diagnosis of equine infectious anaemia (EIA). For this purpose, an “in-house” and...

    Authors: Roberto Nardini, Gian Luca Autorino, Charles J. Issel, R. Frank Cook, Ida Ricci, Raffaele Frontoso, Francesca Rosone and Maria Teresa Scicluna

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:105

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The recommended screening of rabies in ‘suspect’ animal cases involves testing fresh brain tissue. The preservation of fresh tissue however can be difficult under field conditions and formalin fixation provide...

    Authors: S. Beck, P. Gunawardena, D. L. Horton, D. J. Hicks, D. A. Marston, A. Ortiz-Pelaez, A. R. Fooks and A. Núñez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:99

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In the present study, we describe the first paramyxovirus infection in a snake collection in Croatia caused by an introduction of new snakes that were not previously tested and didn’t show any signs of disease.

    Authors: Jelena Prpic, Tomislav Keros, Maja Lang Balija, Dubravko Forcic and Lorena Jemersic

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:95

    Content type: Case Report

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  41. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) are major pathogens that cause significant health problems in swine worldwide. Maternal derived immunity (MDI) ha...

    Authors: Panagiotis D. Tassis, Ioannis Tsakmakidis, Vassileios G. Papatsiros, Dimitrios Koulialis, Tom Nell, Georgia Brellou and Eleni D. Tzika

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:91

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) caused several outbreaks throughout the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula posing significant threat to human and animal health. In Egypt the first and most important Ri...

    Authors: Claudia Mroz, Mayada Gwida, Maged El-Ashker, Mohamed El-Diasty, Mohamed El-Beskawy, Ute Ziegler, Martin Eiden and Martin H. Groschup

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:87

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule with biological functions, has antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogens including viruses. To our knowledge, little information is available abou...

    Authors: Chuanmin Liu, Libin Wen, Qi Xiao and Kongwang He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:59

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Senecavirus A (SVA), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded RNA virus closely related to members of the Cardiovirus genus. S...

    Authors: Cheryl M. T. Dvorak, Zeynep Akkutay-Yoldar, Suzanne R. Stone, Steven J.P. Tousignant, Fabio A. Vannucci and Michael P. Murtaugh

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:50

    Content type: Methodology article

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  45. Mokola virus (MOKV) is a rabies-related lyssavirus and appears to be exclusive to the African continent. Only 24 cases of MOKV, which includes two human cases, have been reported since its identification in 19...

    Authors: Jessica Coertse, Wanda Markotter, Kevin le Roux, Daniel Stewart, Claude T. Sabeta and Louis H. Nel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:37

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The devastating viral disease of small ruminants namely Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) declared as target for “Global Eradication” in 2015 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Organiz...

    Authors: Waqas Ashraf, Hermann Unger, Sunaina Haris, Ameena Mobeen, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Asif and Qaiser Mahmood Khan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:34

    Content type: Methodology article

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  47. In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the abse...

    Authors: V. Kaiser, L. Nebel, G. Schüpbach-Regula, R. G. Zanoni and M. Schweizer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:21

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The only natural hosts of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) are members of the family Suidae (Sus scrofa scrofa). In species other than suids infection is normally fatal. In these mammals, including carnivores, PRV typica...

    Authors: A. Javier Masot, María Gil, David Risco, Olga M. Jiménez, José I. Núñez and Eloy Redondo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:6

    Content type: Case Report

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