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Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson and Tillie Cryer

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Content type: Research article

    In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those...

    Authors: F.A. Abade dos Santos, C. Carvalho, Oliveira Nuno, J. J. Correia, M. Henriques, M. C. Peleteiro, M. Fevereiro and M. D. Duarte

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:336

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are important etiological agents for Muscovy duck parvoviral disease and Derzsy’s disease, respectively; both of which can cause substantial economic l...

    Authors: Jianye Wang, Jueyi Ling, Zhixian Wang, Yu Huang, Jianzhong Zhu and Guoqiang Zhu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:327

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is responsible for infections in equids. It can spread easily within the horse population and has a major impact on the horse breeding industry. No EAV outbreak has ever been repor...

    Authors: Sava Lazić, Diana Lupulović, Delphine Gaudaire, Tamas Petrovic, Gospava Lazić and Aymeric Hans

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:316

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) is associated with a viral aetiology. Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea and s...

    Authors: N. B. Goecke, C. K. Hjulsager, H. Kongsted, M. Boye, S. Rasmussen, F. Granberg, T. K. Fischer, S. E. Midgley, L. D. Rasmussen, Ø. Angen, J. P. Nielsen, S. E. Jorsal and L. E. Larsen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:315

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Canine parvovirus 2, a linear single-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Parvovirus within the family Parvoviridae, is a highly contagious pathogen of domestic dogs and several wild canidae species. Early d...

    Authors: Yunyun Geng, Jianchang Wang, Libing Liu, Yan Lu, Ke Tan and Yan-Zhong Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:311

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common virus, found worldwide, mainly responsible for chronic ulceroproliferative faucitis and periodontitis. This virus has a high mutation rate, leading to the presence of numer...

    Authors: T. Almeras, P. Schreiber, S. Fournel, V. Martin, C. S. Nicolas, C. Fontaine, C. Lesbros and S. Gueguen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:300

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve a...

    Authors: Taofeng Du, Yunpeng Shi, Shuqi Xiao, Na Li, Qin Zhao, Angke Zhang, Yuchen Nan, Yang Mu, Yani Sun, Chunyan Wu, Hongtao Zhang and En-Min Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:298

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The remarkable diversity and mobility of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) includes virulent viruses of genotype VI. These viruses are often referred to as pigeon paramyxoviruses 1 because they are normally isol...

    Authors: Mahmoud Sabra, Kiril M. Dimitrov, Iryna V. Goraichuk, Abdul Wajid, Poonam Sharma, Dawn Williams-Coplin, Asma Basharat, Shafqat F. Rehmani, Denys V. Muzyka, Patti J. Miller and Claudio L. Afonso

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:291

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute liver diseases in humans worldwide. In developing countries, HEV is commonly associated with waterborne outbreaks. Conversely, in ind...

    Authors: Montserrat Elemi García-Hernández, Mayra Cruz-Rivera, José Iván Sánchez-Betancourt, Oscar Rico-Chávez, Arely Vergara-Castañeda, María E. Trujillo and Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:289

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is common in chicken flocks in China, as currently no measures exist to prevent the spread of the disease. In this study, we analyzed the effect of caged versus cage-fre...

    Authors: Baoyuan Liu, Yani Sun, Yiyang Chen, Taofeng Du, Yuchen Nan, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Baicheng Huang, Gaiping Zhang, En-Min Zhou and Qin Zhao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:282

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  11. Content type: Methodology article

    Clinically, sheeppox and goatpox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. A cheaper and easy method for differential diagnosis is important in control of this disease in endemic region.

    Authors: Zhixun Zhao, Guohua Wu, Xinmin Yan, Xueliang Zhu, Jian Li, Haixia Zhu, Zhidong Zhang and Qiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:278

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of orf, a globally-occurring, acute, pustular, contagious disease affecting sheep, goats and humans with a worldwide distribution. Currently, the genomic analysis of...

    Authors: Huiqin Chen, Wei Li, Zhenzhan Kuang, Daxiang Chen, Xiaoqing Liao, Ming Li, Shuhong Luo and Wenbo Hao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:260

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  13. Content type: Methodology article

    Canine distemper, caused by Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), as an is...

    Authors: Jianchang Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Ruiwen Li, Libing Liu and Wanzhe Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:241

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) exists as two pathotypes, and FCoV spike gene mutations are considered responsible for the pathotypic switch in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) pathogenesis. The aim of this study...

    Authors: Sandra Felten, Christian M. Leutenegger, Hans-Joerg Balzer, Nikola Pantchev, Kaspar Matiasek, Gerhard Wess, Herman Egberink and Katrin Hartmann

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:228

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Recently moderate-virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains have been proven capable of generating postnatal persistent infection (PI), defined by the maintenance of viremia and the inability to gen...

    Authors: Oscar Cabezón, Sara Muñoz-González, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Marta Pérez-Simó, Rosa Rosell, Santiago Lavín, Ignasi Marco, Lorenzo Fraile, Paloma Martínez de la Riva, Fernando Rodríguez, Javier Domínguez and Llilianne Ganges

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:227

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  16. Content type: Case Report

    In Europe, bat rabies is primarily attributed to European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) which are both strongly host-specific. Approximately thirty cases of infection ...

    Authors: Torfinn Moldal, Turid Vikøren, Florence Cliquet, Denise A. Marston, Jeroen van der Kooij, Knut Madslien and Irene Ørpetveit

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:216

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The influenza A virus is highly variable, which, to some degree, is caused by the reassortment of viral genetic material. This process plays a major role in the generation of novel influenza virus strains that...

    Authors: Kinga Urbaniak, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Krzysztof Kwit, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Barbara Frącek and Zygmunt Pejsak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:215

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosi...

    Authors: Yang Li, Shuai Cui, Weihua Li, Yixin Wang, Zhizhong Cui, Peng Zhao and Shuang Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:204

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  19. Content type: Research article

    We studied a recent epizootic of Getah virus infection among pigs in the southern part of Ibaraki Prefecture and the northern part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, focusing on its possible association with outbreak...

    Authors: Hiroshi Bannai, Manabu Nemoto, Hidekazu Niwa, Satoshi Murakami, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Yamanaka and Takashi Kondo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:187

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Wild waterfowl are considered as the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Bangladesh has been experiencing highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks since 2007, mostly in chickens and o...

    Authors: Rahul Deb Sarker, Mohammad Giasuddin, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury and Mohammad Rafiqul Islam

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:180

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Enteric diseases are an important health problem for the intensive poultry industry, resulting in considerable economic losses. Apart from such microbiological agents associated with enteritis as bacteria and ...

    Authors: K. Domańska-Blicharz, Ł. Bocian, A. Lisowska, A. Jacukowicz, A. Pikuła and Z. Minta

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:108

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  22. Content type: Research article

    ELISAs are known to have a higher diagnostic sensitivity than the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) when employed for serological diagnosis of equine infectious anaemia (EIA). For this purpose, an “in-house” and...

    Authors: Roberto Nardini, Gian Luca Autorino, Charles J. Issel, R. Frank Cook, Ida Ricci, Raffaele Frontoso, Francesca Rosone and Maria Teresa Scicluna

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:105

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The recommended screening of rabies in ‘suspect’ animal cases involves testing fresh brain tissue. The preservation of fresh tissue however can be difficult under field conditions and formalin fixation provide...

    Authors: S. Beck, P. Gunawardena, D. L. Horton, D. J. Hicks, D. A. Marston, A. Ortiz-Pelaez, A. R. Fooks and A. Núñez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:99

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  24. Content type: Case Report

    In the present study, we describe the first paramyxovirus infection in a snake collection in Croatia caused by an introduction of new snakes that were not previously tested and didn’t show any signs of disease.

    Authors: Jelena Prpic, Tomislav Keros, Maja Lang Balija, Dubravko Forcic and Lorena Jemersic

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:95

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) are major pathogens that cause significant health problems in swine worldwide. Maternal derived immunity (MDI) ha...

    Authors: Panagiotis D. Tassis, Ioannis Tsakmakidis, Vassileios G. Papatsiros, Dimitrios Koulialis, Tom Nell, Georgia Brellou and Eleni D. Tzika

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:91

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) caused several outbreaks throughout the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula posing significant threat to human and animal health. In Egypt the first and most important Ri...

    Authors: Claudia Mroz, Mayada Gwida, Maged El-Ashker, Mohamed El-Diasty, Mohamed El-Beskawy, Ute Ziegler, Martin Eiden and Martin H. Groschup

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:87

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule with biological functions, has antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogens including viruses. To our knowledge, little information is available abou...

    Authors: Chuanmin Liu, Libin Wen, Qi Xiao and Kongwang He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:59

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  28. Content type: Methodology article

    Senecavirus A (SVA), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded RNA virus closely related to members of the Cardiovirus genus. S...

    Authors: Cheryl M. T. Dvorak, Zeynep Akkutay-Yoldar, Suzanne R. Stone, Steven J.P. Tousignant, Fabio A. Vannucci and Michael P. Murtaugh

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:50

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Mokola virus (MOKV) is a rabies-related lyssavirus and appears to be exclusive to the African continent. Only 24 cases of MOKV, which includes two human cases, have been reported since its identification in 19...

    Authors: Jessica Coertse, Wanda Markotter, Kevin le Roux, Daniel Stewart, Claude T. Sabeta and Louis H. Nel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:37

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  30. Content type: Methodology article

    The devastating viral disease of small ruminants namely Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) declared as target for “Global Eradication” in 2015 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Organiz...

    Authors: Waqas Ashraf, Hermann Unger, Sunaina Haris, Ameena Mobeen, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Asif and Qaiser Mahmood Khan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:34

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  31. Content type: Research article

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the abse...

    Authors: V. Kaiser, L. Nebel, G. Schüpbach-Regula, R. G. Zanoni and M. Schweizer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:21

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  32. Content type: Case Report

    The only natural hosts of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) are members of the family Suidae (Sus scrofa scrofa). In species other than suids infection is normally fatal. In these mammals, including carnivores, PRV typica...

    Authors: A. Javier Masot, María Gil, David Risco, Olga M. Jiménez, José I. Núñez and Eloy Redondo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:6

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most expensive diseases of modern swine production & results in annual economic losses and cost the industry over 600 million USD in U.S. alon...

    Authors: Seetha Jaganathan King, Peck Toung Ooi, Lai Yee Phang, Zeenathul Nazariah Binti Allaudin, Wei Hoong Loh, Chiou Yan Tee, Shiao Pau How, Lai Siong Yip, Pow Yoon Choo and Ban Keong Lim

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:3

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  34. Content type: Research article

    As a typical retrovirus, the evolution of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in different infectious ecosystems is not characterized, what we know is there are a cloud of diverse variants, namely quasispe...

    Authors: Fanfeng Meng, Xuan Dong, Tao Hu, Shuang Chang, Jianhua Fan, Peng Zhao and Zhizhong Cui

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:287

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Since the end of 2011 an outbreak of pseudorabies affected Chinese pig herds that had been vaccinated with the commercial vaccine made of Bartha K61 strain. It is now clear that the outbreak was caused by an e...

    Authors: Jichun Wang, Rongli Guo, Yongfeng Qiao, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Yamei Liu, Yiqi Gu, Chang Liu and Jibo Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:277

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the highest risk factors that affects the animal industry of the country. The virus causes production loss and high ratio mortality in young cloven-hoofed animals ...

    Authors: Van Phan Le, Thi Thu Hang Vu, Hong-Quan Duong, Van Thai Than and Daesub Song

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:269

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  37. Content type: Research article

    From December 2014 through June 2015, the US experienced the most costly highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to date. Most cases in commercial poultry were caused by an H5N2 strain which was a re...

    Authors: Erica Spackman, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Darrell R. Kapczynski, David E. Swayne and David L. Suarez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:260

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  38. Content type: Research article

    In this study, six enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), intended for routine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) herd monitoring, are tested for their ability to detect PRRSV spe...

    Authors: Tatjana Sattler, Jutta Pikalo, Eveline Wodak and Friedrich Schmoll

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:259

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most economically significant pathogens in the Vietnamese swine industry. ORF5, which participates in many functional processes, includi...

    Authors: Hai Quynh Do, Dinh Thau Trinh, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi Thu Hang Vu, Duc Duong Than, Thi Van Lo, Minjoo Yeom, Daesub Song, SeEun Choe, Dong-Jun An and Van Phan Le

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:256

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tracts of egg-laying hens and leads to egg production and quality reduction. However, the mechanism of severe pathological damage in t...

    Authors: Ruiqiao Li, Kangkang Guo, Caihong Liu, Jing Wang, Dan Tan, Xueying Han, Chao Tang, Yanming Zhang and Jingyu Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:255

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Borna disease virus is a neurotropic pathogen and infects the central nervous system. This virus infected a variety of animal species including cows. The most of cows infected with Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-...

    Authors: Tadashi Takino, Taku Okamura, Tatsuya Ando and Katsuro Hagiwara

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:253

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  42. Content type: Research article

    During the last decade, the spread of many flaviviruses (Genus Flavivirus) has been reported, representing an emerging threat for both animal and human health. To further study utility of wild ruminant samples in...

    Authors: Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Jorge Paniagua, Ana V. Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Sylvie Lecollinet, Mariana Boadella, Antonio Arenas-Montes, David Cano-Terriza, Steeve Lowenski, Christian Gortázar and Ursula Höfle

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:249

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  43. Content type: Methodology article

    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a Capripoxvirus infecting cattle and Buffalos. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) leads to significant economic losses due to hide damage, reduction of milk production, mastitis, infertil...

    Authors: Mohamed A. Shalaby, Ayman El-Deeb, Mohamed El-Tholoth, Donata Hoffmann, Claus-Peter Czerny, Frank T. Hufert, Manfred Weidmann and Ahmed Abd El Wahed

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:244

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains a major threat to swine industry all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis and immune responses cau...

    Authors: Zhenguang Li, Yanliang He, Xiaoqin Xu, Xue Leng, Shufen Li, Yongjun Wen, Fengxue Wang, Mingqi Xia, Shipeng Cheng and Hua Wu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:230

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) cause acute and subclinical respiratory disease. To increase our understanding of the etiology of the subclinical form and thus help prevent the persistence of IAV-S in pig...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Takemae, Yugo Shobugawa, Phuong Thanh Nguyen, Tung Nguyen, Tien Ngoc Nguyen, Thanh Long To, Phuong Duy Thai, Tho Dang Nguyen, Duy Thanh Nguyen, Dung Kim Nguyen, Hoa Thi Do, Thi Quynh Anh Le, Phan Truong Hua, Hung Van Vo, Diep Thi Nguyen, Dang Hoang Nguyen…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:227

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  46. Content type: Methodology article

    African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infectious disease of domestic and wild suids of all breeds and ages, causing a wide range of hemorrhagic syndromes and frequently characterized by high mortality. The dise...

    Authors: P. Sastre, C. Gallardo, A. Monedero, T. Ruiz, M. Arias, A. Sanz and P. Rueda

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:206

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  47. Content type: Research article

    In order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. ...

    Authors: Michael Eschbaumer, Carolina Stenfeldt, Steven I. Rekant, Juan M. Pacheco, Ethan J. Hartwig, George R. Smoliga, Mary A. Kenney, William T. Golde, Luis L. Rodriguez and Jonathan Arzt

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:205

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera is a highly contagious swine viral disease. CSF endemic countries have to use routine vaccination with modified live virus (MLV) vaccines to prevent and control CSF. ...

    Authors: Rachel Madera, Wenjie Gong, Lihua Wang, Yulia Burakova, Karen Lleellish, Amy Galliher-Beckley, Jerome Nietfeld, Jamie Henningson, Kaimin Jia, Ping Li, Jianfa Bai, John Schlup, Scott McVey, Changchun Tu and Jishu Shi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:197

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  49. Content type: Research article

    African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a severe haemorrhagic disease of pigs, outbreaks of which can have a devastating impact upon commercial and small-holder pig production...

    Authors: Lian F. Thomas, Richard P. Bishop, Cynthia Onzere, Michael T. Mcintosh, Karissa A. Lemire, William A. de Glanville, E. Anne J. Cook and Eric M. Fèvre

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:192

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