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Virology

Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) can cause neurologic disease in young pigs, respiratory disease in older pigs and abortion or birth of mummified fetuses or stillborn neonates. The re-emergence of Aujeszky’s dis...

    Authors: Cun Liu, Yanhan Liu, Ye Tian, Xuehua Wei, Yue Zhang and Fulin Tian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:218

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating and highly contagious viral diseases in the world. Since late 2014, outbreaks of a new sub-genotype 2.1d CSF virus (CSFV) had caused substantial econo...

    Authors: Hongliang Zhang, Chaoliang Leng, Zhijun Tian, Chunxiao Liu, Jiazeng Chen, Yun Bai, Zhen Li, Lirun Xiang, Hongyue Zhai, Qian Wang, Jinmei Peng, Tongqing An, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Xufu Yang, Xuehui Cai…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:204

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus. Outbreak of this virus infection in duck flocks was first observed in China in April 2010, causing severe egg drop and neurological signs in laying ducks....

    Authors: Lijiao Zhang, Zhanhong Li, Huan Jin, Xueying Hu and Jingliang Su

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:201

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Inactivated and subunit bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccines have shown limited protective efficacy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a vaccine containing both inactivated BVDV (iBVDV) ...

    Authors: Yao-Chi Chung, Li-Ting Cheng, Jia-Yu Zhang, Yue-Jyun Wu, Shyh-Shyan Liu and Chun-Yen Chu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:194

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Rabies is a severe epidemic in Guangxi province, China, with hundreds of deaths occurring each year. In the past six decades, rabies has emerged three times in Guangxi, and the province has reported the larges...

    Authors: Xian-Kai Wei, Xiao-Xia He, Yan Pan, Cheng Liu, Hai-Bo Tang, Yi-Zhi Zhong, Xiao-Ning Li, Jing-Jing Liang and Ting Rong Luo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:188

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating transboundary viral disease of cattle which causes significant loss in production. Although this disease has been reported in Uganda and throughout East Africa, there ...

    Authors: Sylvester Ochwo, Kimberly VanderWaal, Anna Munsey, Christian Ndekezi, Robert Mwebe, Anna Rose Ademun Okurut, Noelina Nantima and Frank Norbert Mwiine

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:174

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) was detected in swine serum without showing any relationship with disease. The emergence of the virus seemed to be a unique event until other genetically highly similar parvoviruses...

    Authors: Dinko Novosel, Daniel Cadar, Tamás Tuboly, Andreja Jungic, Tomasz Stadejek, Tahar Ait-Ali and Attila Cságola

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:163

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes devastating disease characterized by reproductive failure and respiratory problems in the swine industry. To understand the recent prevalence ...

    Authors: Hyeonjeong Kang, Ji Eun Yu, Ji-Eun Shin, Areum Kang, Won-Il Kim, Changhee Lee, Jienny Lee, In-Soo Cho, Se-Eun Choe and Sang-Ho Cha

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:160

    Content type: Research article

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  9. This study examined various health variables in cows after artificial insemination with Border disease virus (BDV)-infected semen and the occurrence of persistent infection in ensuing fetuses. Five cows were i...

    Authors: Ueli Braun, Fredi Janett, Sarah Züblin, Michèle von Büren, Monika Hilbe, Reto Zanoni and Matthias Schweizer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:159

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:182

  10. Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is commonly found in poultry. VP1 is the sole structural protein of CAV, which is the major component responsible for capsid assembly. The CAV virion consists of the VP1 protein and...

    Authors: Guan-Hua Lai, Ming-Kuem Lin, Yi-Yang Lien, Jai-Hong Cheng, Fang-Chun Sun, Meng-Shiunn Lee, Hsi-Jien Chen and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:155

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae and is an important epornitic agent that causes economic losses in the waterfowl industry. The Chinese virulent (CHv) and attenuate vaccines (VAC) ar...

    Authors: Xianglong Wu, Renyong Jia, Jiakun Zhou, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Zhongqiong Yin, Xiaoyue Chen, Jue Wang and Anchun Cheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:144

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Low concentrations of nonionic surfactants can change the physical properties of cell membranes, and thus and in turn increase drug permeability. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is an extremely slow-growing virus,...

    Authors: Tao Hua, Xuehua Zhang, Bo Tang, Chen Chang, Guoyang Liu, Lei Feng, Yang Yu, Daohua Zhang and Jibo Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:138

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Vaccination is considered as an effective and economical way to against PCV2 infection. However, some of commercial available vaccines are based on inactivated viruses, while the others are based on purified p...

    Authors: Xiaohui Liu, Ting Ouyang, Teng Ma, Hongsheng Ouyang, Daxin Pang and Linzhu Ren

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:137

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Effective vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), especially against highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV are still missing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protec...

    Authors: Tatjana Sattler, Jutta Pikalo, Eveline Wodak, Sandra Revilla-Fernández, Adi Steinrigl, Zoltán Bagó, Ferdinand Entenfellner, Jean-Baptiste Claude, Floriane Pez, Maela Francillette and Friedrich Schmoll

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:133

    Content type: Research article

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  15. This study sought to evaluate the effect of sow vaccination against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) on reproductive parameters during two consecutive reproductive cycles. The study was performed in a PCV2 subclinical...

    Authors: Salvador Oliver-Ferrando, Joaquim Segalés, Sergio López-Soria, Antonio Callén, Olivier Merdy, François Joisel and Marina Sibila

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:130

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Domestic rabbits especially New Zealand white rabbits play an important role in biological research. The disease surveillance and quality control are essential to guarantee the results of animal experiments pe...

    Authors: Miaoli Wu, Yujun Zhu, Feng Cong, Dan Rao, Wen Yuan, Jing Wang, Bihong Huang, Yuexiao Lian, Yu Zhang, Ren Huang and Pengju Guo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:127

    Content type: Methodology article

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  17. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) resides in the genus Mardivirus in the family Herpesviridae. MDV is a highly contagious virus that can cause neurological lesions, lymphocytic proliferation, immune suppression, and de...

    Authors: Xue Lian, Xin Ming, Jiarong Xu, Wangkun Cheng, Xunhai Zhang, Hongjun Chen, Chan Ding, Yong-Sam Jung and Yingjuan Qian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:122

    Content type: Case Report

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  18. Experimental infection of pigs via direct intranasal or intratracheal inoculation has been mainly used to study the infectious process of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S). Nebulization is known to be an a...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Yuko Uchida, Toshihiro Ito and Takehiko Saito

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:115

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Ethiopian livestock production and productivity is still very low due to widespread of diseases. Among the diseases, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious and acute viral disease that causes ...

    Authors: Mishamo Sulayeman, Fufa Dawo, Bedaso Mammo, Daniel Gizaw and Dereje Shegu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:110

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is currently insufficiently controlled. From a previous small-scale screen we iden...

    Authors: Lingyun Zhu, Junlong Bi, Longlong Zheng, Qian Zhao, Xianghua Shu, Gang Guo, Jia Liu, Guishu Yang, Jianping Liu and Gefen Yin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:109

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Since late 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has reemerged in Japan and caused severe economic losses to the swine industry. Although PEDV vaccines have been used widely, the disease has swept rapid...

    Authors: Nguyen Van Diep, Masuo Sueyoshi, Junzo Norimine, Takuya Hirai, Ohnmar Myint, Angeline Ping Ping Teh, Uda Zahli Izzati, Naoyuki Fuke and Ryoji Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:96

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. Dur...

    Authors: Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang and Xuehui Cai

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:92

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Oral vaccination of the small Indian mongoose against rabies has been suggested as a potential tool to eliminate mongoose-mediated rabies on several Caribbean islands. A recently developed oral rabies virus va...

    Authors: Steffen Ortmann, Ad Vos, Antje Kretzschmar, Nomusa Walther, Christiane Kaiser, Conrad Freuling, Ivana Lojkic and Thomas Müller

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:90

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Vaccines constitute a unique selective pressure, different from natural selection, drives the evolution of influenza virus. In this study, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (H9N2) was continually passaged in specific ...

    Authors: Haiyun Jin, Wan Wang, Xueqin Yang, Hailong Su, Jiawen Fan, Rui Zhu, Shifeng Wang, Huoying Shi and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:71

    Content type: Research article

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  25. From 2006 to 2010, France experienced two bluetongue epidemics caused by serotype 1 (BTV-1) and 8 (BTV-8) which were controlled by mass vaccination campaigns. After five years without any detected cases, a sic...

    Authors: L. Bournez, L. Cavalerie, C. Sailleau, E. Bréard, G. Zanella, R. Servan de Almeida, A. Pedarrieu, E. Garin, I. Tourette, F. Dion, P. Hendrikx and D. Calavas

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:65

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Mortality episodes have affected young-of-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in several river systems in Pennsylvania since 2005. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to determine the potent...

    Authors: Traimat Boonthai, Thomas P. Loch, Coja J. Yamashita, Geoffrey D. Smith, Andrew D. Winters, Matti Kiupel, Travis O. Brenden and Mohamed Faisal

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:62

    Content type: Research article

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  27. It has been shown that wildlife can serve as natural reservoirs of hepatitis E virus (HEV). The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is probably the main natural reservoir of HEV and could therefore represent an important rout...

    Authors: Antonio Rivero-Juarez, María A. Risalde, Mario Frias, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Pedro Lopez-Lopez, David Cano-Terriza, Angela Camacho, Saul Jimenez-Ruiz, Jose C. Gomez-Villamandos and Antonio Rivero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:54

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Egg drop syndrome (EDS), caused by the adenovirus “egg drop syndrome virus” (EDSV) causes severe economic losses through reduced egg production in breeder and layer flocks. The diagnosis of EDSV has been done ...

    Authors: Makay Zheney, Zhambul Kaziyev, Gulmira Kassenova, Lingna Zhao, Wei Liu, Lin Liang and Gang Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:49

    Content type: Methodology article

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  29. Lipid rafts are major structural components in plasma membranes that play critical roles in many biological processes including virus infection. However, few reports have described the relationship between lip...

    Authors: Xiujing Dou, Yang Li, Junlan Han, Dante S. Zarlenga, Weijuan Zhu, Xiaofeng Ren, Na Dong, Xunliang Li and Guangxing Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:45

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) was discovered in 1974 as a contaminant of a porcine kidney (PK-15) cell line and was generally accepted to be nonpathogenic. But recently it was shown to cause lesions in expe...

    Authors: Liang Cao, Wenchao Sun, Huijun Lu, Mingyao Tian, Changzhan Xie, Guanyu Zhao, Jicheng Han, Wei Wang, Min Zheng, Rui Du, Ningyi Jin and Aidong Qian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:43

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Cats are susceptible to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants 2a, 2b and 2c. Detection of FPV and CPV variants in apparently healthy cats and their persistence in white blood ce...

    Authors: Andrea Balboni, Francesca Bassi, Stefano De Arcangeli, Rosanna Zobba, Carla Dedola, Alberto Alberti and Mara Battilani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:41

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) infection usually induces chronic malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in sika deer (Cervus nippon), with the primary signs of weight loss, dermatitis and alopecia.

    Authors: Hongwei Zhu, Qingrong Huang, Xiaoliang Hu, Wenhui Chu, Jianlong Zhang, Linlin Jiang, Xin Yu, Xingxiao Zhang and Shipeng Cheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:38

    Content type: Case Report

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  33. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is the viral agent causing the most important economic losses in livestock throughout the world. Infection of fetuses before their immunological maturity causes the birth of ...

    Authors: Rodrigo Salgado, Ezequiel Hidalgo-Hermoso and José Pizarro-Lucero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:37

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Mink circovirus (MiCV) is a newly discovered pathogen associated with mink diarrhea. The prevalence and economic importance of this virus remain poorly understood, and no specific serological assay has been de...

    Authors: Junwei Ge, Xingyang Cui, Yunjia Shi, Lili Zhao, Chengwei Wei, Shanshan Wen, Shuang Xia and Hongyan Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:29

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:128

  35. In order to prevent spread of the endemic pathogens bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) between herds, knowledge of indirect transmission by personnel and fomites is fundame...

    Authors: Veslemøy Sunniva Oma, Thea Klem, Madeleine Tråvén, Stefan Alenius, Britt Gjerset, Mette Myrmel and Maria Stokstad

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:22

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is one of the most common ocular diseases in ruminants worldwide. In addition to keratitis and conjunctivitis, animals with IKC can develop uveitis, corneal ulcer, and in ...

    Authors: Javier Sánchez Romano, Torill Mørk, Sauli Laaksonen, Erik Ågren, Ingebjørg H. Nymo, Marianne Sunde and Morten Tryland

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:15

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Orf virus, the prototype of parapoxvirus, is the main causative agent of contagious ecthyma. Little is known about the status of the disease in Ethiopia and this study was aimed at determining its status using...

    Authors: Mebrahtu Tedla, Nega Berhan, Wassie Molla, Wudu Temesgen and Sefinew Alemu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:13

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) glycoprotein neutralization site 1 (also referred as G1 protein), is a critical protein responsible for virus infectivity and eliciting immune-protection, however, binding ...

    Authors: Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Chengqiang He, Hongmei Wang and Hongbin He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:3

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Bat-borne virus surveillance is necessary for determining inter-species transmission risks and is important due to the wide-range of bat species which may harbour potential pathogens. This study aimed to monit...

    Authors: Francesca Rizzo, Kathryn M. Edenborough, Roberto Toffoli, Paola Culasso, Simona Zoppi, Alessandro Dondo, Serena Robetto, Sergio Rosati, Angelika Lander, Andreas Kurth, Riccardo Orusa, Luigi Bertolotti and Maria Lucia Mandola

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:396

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus speci...

    Authors: Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Alexandre Servat, Marine Wasniewski, Matthieu Gaillard, Christophe Borel and Florence Cliquet

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:387

    Content type: Case Report

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  41. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) is a major pathogen in cattle and has led to significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide, and therefore a more optimal method for the rapid diagno...

    Authors: Peili Hou, Hongmei Wang, Guimin Zhao, Chengqiang He and Hongbin He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:386

    Content type: Methodology article

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  42. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 are members of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. This genus also includes the HoBi-like virus, tentatively classified as BVDV type 3. BVDV-1 is wide...

    Authors: Chiara Nogarol, Nicola Decaro, Luigi Bertolotti, Barbara Colitti, Bryan Iotti, Stefano Petrini, Maria Stella Lucente, Gabriella Elia, Giovanni Perona, Margherita Profiti, Canio Buonavoglia and Sergio Rosati

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:377

    Content type: Methodology article

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  43. Since its emergence in 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spread rapidly throughout the country due, in part, to contaminated livestock trailers. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy ...

    Authors: Kimberlee L. Baker, Paul R. Thomas, Locke A. Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Jianqiang Zhang, Chong Wang and Derald J. Holtkamp

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:372

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that infects the intestinal tract and causes diarrhea and vomiting in older pigs or extreme dehydration and death that could reach 100% mortality in neon...

    Authors: Yunjeong Kim, Changin Oh, Vinay Shivanna, Richard A. Hesse and Kyeong-Ok Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:356

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are associated with acute gastroenteritis in children and in young domestic and wild animals. A RVA strain was detected from a roe deer for the first time during a survey of game anim...

    Authors: Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska Kuhar, Andrej Steyer and Andrej Kirbis

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:353

    Content type: Research article

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  46. In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those...

    Authors: F.A. Abade dos Santos, C. Carvalho, Oliveira Nuno, J. J. Correia, M. Henriques, M. C. Peleteiro, M. Fevereiro and M. D. Duarte

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:336

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are important etiological agents for Muscovy duck parvoviral disease and Derzsy’s disease, respectively; both of which can cause substantial economic l...

    Authors: Jianye Wang, Jueyi Ling, Zhixian Wang, Yu Huang, Jianzhong Zhu and Guoqiang Zhu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:327

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is responsible for infections in equids. It can spread easily within the horse population and has a major impact on the horse breeding industry. No EAV outbreak has ever been repor...

    Authors: Sava Lazić, Diana Lupulović, Delphine Gaudaire, Tamas Petrovic, Gospava Lazić and Aymeric Hans

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:316

    Content type: Research article

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