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Virology

Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson and Tillie Cryer

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. First identified in the United States in 2016, porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging porcine circovirus exhibiting a wide range of clinical syndromes, which may be associated with the pathogenic...

    Authors: Zhuo Ha, Chang-zhan Xie, Jin-feng Li, Shu-bo Wen, Ke-long Zhang, Fu-long Nan, He Zhang, Ying-cheng Guo, Wei Wang, Hui-jun Lu and Ning-yi Jin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:321

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus causes significant economic losses in cattle. BVDV has high genomic diversity, with two species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, and at least twenty-one subgenotypes for BVDV-1 and four subgenotype...

    Authors: Astrid Donoso, Felipe Inostroza, María Celedón and José Pizarro-Lucero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:314

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Surveillance and characterization of pig enteric viruses such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), rotavirus, astrovirus (PAstV), sapovirus (PSaV), kobuvirus a...

    Authors: Slavomira Salamunova, Anna Jackova, Rene Mandelik, Jaroslav Novotny, Michaela Vlasakova and Stefan Vilcek

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:313

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The gp85 is the main envelope protein of avian leukosis subgroup J (ALV-J) involved in virus neutralization. Here, we mapped the epitope in ALV-J gp85 by ELISA using synthetic peptides and developed epitope ba...

    Authors: Kun Qian, Xue Tian, Hongxia Shao, Jianqiang Ye, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair and Aijian Qin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:295

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD), caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), threaten the pig industry worldwide. Five genotypes of PCV2 were recently identified: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, PCV2d and ...

    Authors: Seung-Chai Kim, Salik Nazki, Sam Kwon, Jhung-Hyun Juhng, Kyeong-Hwan Mun, Do-Young Jeon, Chang-Gi Jeong, Amina Khatun, Seog-Jin Kang and Won-Il Kim

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:294

    Content type: Research article

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  6. In 2014, a notification of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was made by the National Services of Animal Health of Argentina (SENASA) to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE). The noti...

    Authors: Pablo Enrique Piñeyro, Maria Inez Lozada, Laura Valeria Alarcón, Ramon Sanguinetti, Javier Alejandro Cappuccio, Estefanía Marisol Pérez, Fabio Vannucci, Alberto Armocida, Darin Michael Madson, Carlos Juan Perfumo and Maria Alejandra Quiroga

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:292

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Since the outbreak of a new emerging virulent pseudorabies virus mutant in Chinese pig herds, intensive research has been focused on the construction of novel gene deletion vaccine based on the variant virulen...

    Authors: Jichun Wang, Zengcai Song, Aimin Ge, Rongli Guo, Yongfeng Qiao, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Yamei Liu, Yating Zheng, Hongjie Fan and Jibo Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:287

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Simbu serogroup viruses of the Orthobunyavirus genus (Family Peribunyaviridae) include teratogenic pathogens that cause severe economic losses, abortions, stillbirths and congenital abnormalities in ruminants wor...

    Authors: Daniel Oluwayelu, Kerstin Wernike, Adebowale Adebiyi, Simeon Cadmus and Martin Beer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:277

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Rabies is the only known zoonotic disease of bat origin in Europe. The disease is caused by species belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. Five Lyssavirus species, i.e., European bat lyssavirus (EBLV)-1, EBLV-2, Boke...

    Authors: Ivana Šimić, Ivana Lojkić, Nina Krešić, Florence Cliquet, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Marine Wasniewski, Anđela Ćukušić, Vida Zrnčić and Tomislav Bedeković

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:274

    Content type: Research article

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  10. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of African swine fever (ASF), a re-expanding devastating and highly lethal hemorrhagic viral disease. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small non-c...

    Authors: Fernando Núñez-Hernández, Gonzalo Vera, Armand Sánchez, Fernando Rodríguez and José I. Núñez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:268

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) causes high mortality and morbidity in Muscovy ducks, with the pathogenesis of the virus still unknown in many respects. Specific MDPV detection is often rife with false positive...

    Authors: Chunhe Wan, Cuiteng Chen, Longfei Cheng, Hongmei Chen, Qiuling Fu, Shaohua Shi, Guanghua Fu, Rongchang Liu and Yu Huang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:267

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Recently, mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) were detected for the first time in European bats, and the closely related strain SI-MRV01 was isolated from a child with severe diarrhoea in Slovenia. Genetically si...

    Authors: Tina Naglič, Danijela Rihtarič, Peter Hostnik, Nataša Toplak, Simon Koren, Urška Kuhar, Urška Jamnikar-Ciglenečki, Denis Kutnjak and Andrej Steyer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:264

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious tansboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals and causes devastating economic damages. Accurate, rap...

    Authors: Libing Liu, Jinfeng Wang, Ruoxi Zhang, Mi Lin, Ruihan Shi, Qingan Han, Jianchang Wang and Wanzhe Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:263

    Content type: Methodology article

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  14. Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV), belonging to the α-herpesvirus subfamily, is a linear double-stranded DNA virus. Glycoprotein H and L (gH and gL), encoded by UL22 and UL1, are conserved in the family of herpesviru...

    Authors: Daishen Feng, Min Cui, Renyong Jia, Siyang Liu, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Yin Wu, Qiao Yang, Zhongqiong Yin and Anchun Cheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:255

    Content type: Research article

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  15. A direct contact transmission challenge model was used to simulate natural foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spread from FMDV A24/Cruzeiro/BRA/55 infected ‘seeder’ steers to naïve or vaccinated steers previo...

    Authors: John G. Neilan, Christopher Schutta, José Barrera, Melia Pisano, Laszlo Zsak, Ethan Hartwig, Max V. Rasmussen, Barbara J. Kamicker, Damodar Ettyreddy, Douglas E. Brough, Bryan T. Butman and David A. Brake

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:254

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induces respiratory infection, abortion, and neurologic disease with significant impact. Virulence factors contributing to infection and immune evasion are of particular inter...

    Authors: Christiane L. Schnabel, Christine L. Wimer, Gillian Perkins, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Christina Watts, Alicia Rollins, Nikolaus Osterrieder and Bettina Wagner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:245

    Content type: Research article

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  17. As the major causative agent of swine viral diarrhea, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused massive losses to the economies of swine raising countries. Accordingly, the serological detection of cor...

    Authors: Huixing Lin, Hong Zhou, Lu Gao, Bin Li, Kongwang He and Hongjie Fan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:243

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a severe disease, causing great economic losses to the pig industry. The causative agent, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is ...

    Authors: Weijie Bai, Zhijia Wang, Pu Sun, Jing Zhang, Huifang Bao, Yimei Cao, Yanyan Chang, Zaixin Liu, Dong Li and Zengjun Lu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:240

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Peyer’s patches (PPs) can be considered as the immune site of the intestine. Within PPs, Dendritic cells (DCs) can uptake antigens from the gut lumen by extending dendrites into epithelium, and process it and ...

    Authors: Chen Yuan, En Zhang, Lulu Huang, Jialu Wang and Qian Yang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:239

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:303

  20. Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) can cause neurologic disease in young pigs, respiratory disease in older pigs and abortion or birth of mummified fetuses or stillborn neonates. The re-emergence of Aujeszky’s dis...

    Authors: Cun Liu, Yanhan Liu, Ye Tian, Xuehua Wei, Yue Zhang and Fulin Tian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:218

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating and highly contagious viral diseases in the world. Since late 2014, outbreaks of a new sub-genotype 2.1d CSF virus (CSFV) had caused substantial econo...

    Authors: Hongliang Zhang, Chaoliang Leng, Zhijun Tian, Chunxiao Liu, Jiazeng Chen, Yun Bai, Zhen Li, Lirun Xiang, Hongyue Zhai, Qian Wang, Jinmei Peng, Tongqing An, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Xufu Yang, Xuehui Cai…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:204

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus. Outbreak of this virus infection in duck flocks was first observed in China in April 2010, causing severe egg drop and neurological signs in laying ducks....

    Authors: Lijiao Zhang, Zhanhong Li, Huan Jin, Xueying Hu and Jingliang Su

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:201

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Inactivated and subunit bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccines have shown limited protective efficacy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a vaccine containing both inactivated BVDV (iBVDV) ...

    Authors: Yao-Chi Chung, Li-Ting Cheng, Jia-Yu Zhang, Yue-Jyun Wu, Shyh-Shyan Liu and Chun-Yen Chu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:194

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Rabies is a severe epidemic in Guangxi province, China, with hundreds of deaths occurring each year. In the past six decades, rabies has emerged three times in Guangxi, and the province has reported the larges...

    Authors: Xian-Kai Wei, Xiao-Xia He, Yan Pan, Cheng Liu, Hai-Bo Tang, Yi-Zhi Zhong, Xiao-Ning Li, Jing-Jing Liang and Ting Rong Luo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:188

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating transboundary viral disease of cattle which causes significant loss in production. Although this disease has been reported in Uganda and throughout East Africa, there ...

    Authors: Sylvester Ochwo, Kimberly VanderWaal, Anna Munsey, Christian Ndekezi, Robert Mwebe, Anna Rose Ademun Okurut, Noelina Nantima and Frank Norbert Mwiine

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:174

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) was detected in swine serum without showing any relationship with disease. The emergence of the virus seemed to be a unique event until other genetically highly similar parvoviruses...

    Authors: Dinko Novosel, Daniel Cadar, Tamás Tuboly, Andreja Jungic, Tomasz Stadejek, Tahar Ait-Ali and Attila Cságola

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:163

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes devastating disease characterized by reproductive failure and respiratory problems in the swine industry. To understand the recent prevalence ...

    Authors: Hyeonjeong Kang, Ji Eun Yu, Ji-Eun Shin, Areum Kang, Won-Il Kim, Changhee Lee, Jienny Lee, In-Soo Cho, Se-Eun Choe and Sang-Ho Cha

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:160

    Content type: Research article

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  28. This study examined various health variables in cows after artificial insemination with Border disease virus (BDV)-infected semen and the occurrence of persistent infection in ensuing fetuses. Five cows were i...

    Authors: Ueli Braun, Fredi Janett, Sarah Züblin, Michèle von Büren, Monika Hilbe, Reto Zanoni and Matthias Schweizer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:159

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:182

  29. Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is commonly found in poultry. VP1 is the sole structural protein of CAV, which is the major component responsible for capsid assembly. The CAV virion consists of the VP1 protein and...

    Authors: Guan-Hua Lai, Ming-Kuem Lin, Yi-Yang Lien, Jai-Hong Cheng, Fang-Chun Sun, Meng-Shiunn Lee, Hsi-Jien Chen and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:155

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae and is an important epornitic agent that causes economic losses in the waterfowl industry. The Chinese virulent (CHv) and attenuate vaccines (VAC) ar...

    Authors: Xianglong Wu, Renyong Jia, Jiakun Zhou, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Zhongqiong Yin, Xiaoyue Chen, Jue Wang and Anchun Cheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:144

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Low concentrations of nonionic surfactants can change the physical properties of cell membranes, and thus and in turn increase drug permeability. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is an extremely slow-growing virus,...

    Authors: Tao Hua, Xuehua Zhang, Bo Tang, Chen Chang, Guoyang Liu, Lei Feng, Yang Yu, Daohua Zhang and Jibo Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:138

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Vaccination is considered as an effective and economical way to against PCV2 infection. However, some of commercial available vaccines are based on inactivated viruses, while the others are based on purified p...

    Authors: Xiaohui Liu, Ting Ouyang, Teng Ma, Hongsheng Ouyang, Daxin Pang and Linzhu Ren

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:137

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Effective vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), especially against highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV are still missing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protec...

    Authors: Tatjana Sattler, Jutta Pikalo, Eveline Wodak, Sandra Revilla-Fernández, Adi Steinrigl, Zoltán Bagó, Ferdinand Entenfellner, Jean-Baptiste Claude, Floriane Pez, Maela Francillette and Friedrich Schmoll

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:133

    Content type: Research article

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  34. This study sought to evaluate the effect of sow vaccination against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) on reproductive parameters during two consecutive reproductive cycles. The study was performed in a PCV2 subclinical...

    Authors: Salvador Oliver-Ferrando, Joaquim Segalés, Sergio López-Soria, Antonio Callén, Olivier Merdy, François Joisel and Marina Sibila

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:130

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Domestic rabbits especially New Zealand white rabbits play an important role in biological research. The disease surveillance and quality control are essential to guarantee the results of animal experiments pe...

    Authors: Miaoli Wu, Yujun Zhu, Feng Cong, Dan Rao, Wen Yuan, Jing Wang, Bihong Huang, Yuexiao Lian, Yu Zhang, Ren Huang and Pengju Guo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:127

    Content type: Methodology article

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  36. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) resides in the genus Mardivirus in the family Herpesviridae. MDV is a highly contagious virus that can cause neurological lesions, lymphocytic proliferation, immune suppression, and de...

    Authors: Xue Lian, Xin Ming, Jiarong Xu, Wangkun Cheng, Xunhai Zhang, Hongjun Chen, Chan Ding, Yong-Sam Jung and Yingjuan Qian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:122

    Content type: Case Report

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  37. Experimental infection of pigs via direct intranasal or intratracheal inoculation has been mainly used to study the infectious process of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S). Nebulization is known to be an a...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Yuko Uchida, Toshihiro Ito and Takehiko Saito

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:115

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Ethiopian livestock production and productivity is still very low due to widespread of diseases. Among the diseases, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious and acute viral disease that causes ...

    Authors: Mishamo Sulayeman, Fufa Dawo, Bedaso Mammo, Daniel Gizaw and Dereje Shegu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:110

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is currently insufficiently controlled. From a previous small-scale screen we iden...

    Authors: Lingyun Zhu, Junlong Bi, Longlong Zheng, Qian Zhao, Xianghua Shu, Gang Guo, Jia Liu, Guishu Yang, Jianping Liu and Gefen Yin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:109

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Since late 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has reemerged in Japan and caused severe economic losses to the swine industry. Although PEDV vaccines have been used widely, the disease has swept rapid...

    Authors: Nguyen Van Diep, Masuo Sueyoshi, Junzo Norimine, Takuya Hirai, Ohnmar Myint, Angeline Ping Ping Teh, Uda Zahli Izzati, Naoyuki Fuke and Ryoji Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:96

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. Dur...

    Authors: Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang and Xuehui Cai

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:92

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Oral vaccination of the small Indian mongoose against rabies has been suggested as a potential tool to eliminate mongoose-mediated rabies on several Caribbean islands. A recently developed oral rabies virus va...

    Authors: Steffen Ortmann, Ad Vos, Antje Kretzschmar, Nomusa Walther, Christiane Kaiser, Conrad Freuling, Ivana Lojkic and Thomas Müller

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:90

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Vaccines constitute a unique selective pressure, different from natural selection, drives the evolution of influenza virus. In this study, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (H9N2) was continually passaged in specific ...

    Authors: Haiyun Jin, Wan Wang, Xueqin Yang, Hailong Su, Jiawen Fan, Rui Zhu, Shifeng Wang, Huoying Shi and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:71

    Content type: Research article

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  44. From 2006 to 2010, France experienced two bluetongue epidemics caused by serotype 1 (BTV-1) and 8 (BTV-8) which were controlled by mass vaccination campaigns. After five years without any detected cases, a sic...

    Authors: L. Bournez, L. Cavalerie, C. Sailleau, E. Bréard, G. Zanella, R. Servan de Almeida, A. Pedarrieu, E. Garin, I. Tourette, F. Dion, P. Hendrikx and D. Calavas

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:65

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Mortality episodes have affected young-of-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in several river systems in Pennsylvania since 2005. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to determine the potent...

    Authors: Traimat Boonthai, Thomas P. Loch, Coja J. Yamashita, Geoffrey D. Smith, Andrew D. Winters, Matti Kiupel, Travis O. Brenden and Mohamed Faisal

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:62

    Content type: Research article

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  46. It has been shown that wildlife can serve as natural reservoirs of hepatitis E virus (HEV). The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is probably the main natural reservoir of HEV and could therefore represent an important rout...

    Authors: Antonio Rivero-Juarez, María A. Risalde, Mario Frias, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Pedro Lopez-Lopez, David Cano-Terriza, Angela Camacho, Saul Jimenez-Ruiz, Jose C. Gomez-Villamandos and Antonio Rivero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:54

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Egg drop syndrome (EDS), caused by the adenovirus “egg drop syndrome virus” (EDSV) causes severe economic losses through reduced egg production in breeder and layer flocks. The diagnosis of EDSV has been done ...

    Authors: Makay Zheney, Zhambul Kaziyev, Gulmira Kassenova, Lingna Zhao, Wei Liu, Lin Liang and Gang Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:49

    Content type: Methodology article

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  48. Lipid rafts are major structural components in plasma membranes that play critical roles in many biological processes including virus infection. However, few reports have described the relationship between lip...

    Authors: Xiujing Dou, Yang Li, Junlan Han, Dante S. Zarlenga, Weijuan Zhu, Xiaofeng Ren, Na Dong, Xunliang Li and Guangxing Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:45

    Content type: Research article

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