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Virology

Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson and Tillie Cryer

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting ducks. It can be caused by five agents, including duck hepatitis A virus genotypes 1 (DHAV-1), 2 (DHAV-2), and 3 (DHAV-3), as well as d...

    Authors: Minghang Wang, Ziheng Li, Huicong Liu, Xiaoyan Wang and Dabing Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:153

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The absence of virus expression during the chronic stage of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection and its reactivation upon ex vivo culture has become a long-lived Dogma. During the chronic stage of BLV infect...

    Authors: Juan Pablo Jaworski, Marcos Iván Petersen, Hugo Adrián Carignano and Karina Gabriela Trono

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:150

    Content type: Case Report

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  3. Novel Muscovy duck reovirus (N-MDRV), emerged in southeast China in 2002, which can infect a wide range of waterfowl and induces clinical signs and cytopathic effects that are distinct from those of classical ...

    Authors: Xue-Lian Zhang, Jian-Wei Shao, Xiao-Wen Li, Min-Min Mei, Jin-Yue Guo, Wen-Feng Li, Wen-Jing Huang, Shi-Hong Chi, Sheng Yuan, Zhi-Li Li and Shu-Jian Huang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:143

    Content type: Research article

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  4. There is paucity of data on the virulence of highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) H7 in ducks compared to HPAIV H5. Here, the virulence of HPAIV H7N1 (designated H7N1-FPV34 and H7N1-It99) and H...

    Authors: David Scheibner, Claudia Blaurock, Thomas C. Mettenleiter and Elsayed M. Abdelwhab

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:142

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline parvovirus (FPV) are causative agents of diarrhea in dogs and cats, which manifests as depression, vomiting, fever, loss of appetite, leucopenia, and diarrhea in young animal...

    Authors: Yaru Sun, Yuening Cheng, Peng Lin, Hewei Zhang, Li Yi, Mingwei Tong, Zhigang Cao, Shuang Li, Shipeng Cheng and Jianke Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:141

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of most important zoonotic viruses, and it can infect a wide range of host species. Avian HEV has been identified as the aetiological agent of big liver and spleen disease or hep...

    Authors: Xue-Lian Zhang, Wen-Feng Li, Sheng Yuan, Jin-Yue Guo, Zhi-Li Li, Shi-Hong Chi, Wen-Jing Huang, Xiao-Wen Li, Shu-Jian Huang and Jian-Wei Shao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:131

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that can cause diarrhea in nursing piglets. This study was aimed to investigate the roles of host differentially expressed genes on metabolic pathways in PD...

    Authors: Jiao L. Wu, Kai J. Mai, Di Li, Rui T. Wu, Zi X. Wu, Xiao Y. Tang, Qian N. Li, Yuan Sun, Tian Lan, Xiang B. Zhang and Jing Y. Ma

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:117

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a major etiological agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea around the world. Point-of-care testing in the field is lacking owing to the requirement for a simple, robust fi...

    Authors: Xueyu Wang, Xin Xu, Wen Hu, Kejing Zuo, Zhili Li, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Jun Ji and Yingzuo Bi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:116

    Content type: Research article

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  9. In May 2017, 17 dogs in a German Shepherd breeding kennel in northern China developed respiratory clinical signs. The owner treated the dogs with an intravenous injection of Shuang-Huang-lian, a traditional Ch...

    Authors: Liwei Zhou, Haoran Sun, Shikai Song, Jinhua Liu, Zhaofei Xia, Yipeng Sun and Yanli Lyu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:113

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a novel member of Flavivirus. The isolated and purified DTMUV strain XZ-2012 was used as a strain model, to intramuscularly inject the six-month egg-laying shelducks with the infecti...

    Authors: Xuejing Sun, Enxue Liu, Adeela Iqbal, Taozhi Wang, Xindong Wang, Abdul Haseeb, Nisar Ahmed, Ping Yang and Qiusheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:112

    Content type: Research article

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  11. PDCoV (Porcine Deltacoronavirus) is a novel porcine coronavirus that causes intestinal necrosis of piglets, thinning of the intestinal wall and severe villus atrophy in the small intestine. PDCoV is a highly c...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Tang, Tian Lan, Ruiting Wu, Zhihai Zhou, Yuqi Chen, Yuan Sun, Yaoyao Zheng and Jingyun Ma

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:111

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Major viruses, including duck-origin avian influenza virus, duck-origin Newcastle disease virus, novel duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis A virus, duck Tembusu virus, fowl adenovirus, and duck enteritis virus, po...

    Authors: Ming Yao, Xiyu Zhang, Yunfei Gao, Suquan Song, Danning Xu and Liping Yan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:103

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Since early 2015, mule duck and Cherry Valley duck flocks have been suffering from short beak and dwarfism syndrome. This widely spreading infectious disease is characterized by growth retardation, smaller bea...

    Authors: Guozhi Bian, Haibin Ma, Mengping Luo, Fengping Gong, Bo Li, Guiping Wang, Mudassar Mohiuddin, Ming Liao and Jianfeng Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:88

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is prevalent in pigs and may serve as a reservoir for human infection. However, data on HEV infections in pigs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, are limited. Here, we clarified the process ...

    Authors: Takumi Motoya, Masahiro Umezawa, Keiko Goto, Ikuko Doi, Noriko Nagata, Yoshiaki Ikeda, Atsushi Sakuta, Nobuya Sasaki and Koji Ishii

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:87

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The Shimen strain of classical swine fever (CSF) virus (CSFV) causes CSF, which is mainly characterised by disseminated intravascular haemorrhage. Macrophages are an essential component of innate immunity agai...

    Authors: Xiaocheng Gong, Aoxue Hu, Xuepeng Li, Jun He, Zhongxing Wu, Xi Zuo and Pengbo Ning

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:82

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), recently widely isolated from pigs with various clinical conditions, is likely globally epidemic. However, development of serological diagnosis for PCV3 in pigs is ongoing. Ou...

    Authors: Sujiao Zhang, Dongliang Wang, Yifan Jiang, Zhoumian Li, Yawen Zou, Meng Li, Haoyang Yu, Kun Huang, Yi Yang and Naidong Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:79

    Content type: Methodology article

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  17. Honey bee population decline threatens the beekeeping sector, agriculture and global biodiversity. Early detection of colony mortality may facilitate rapid interventions to contain and prevent mortality spread...

    Authors: Sandra Barroso-Arévalo, Marina Vicente-Rubiano, Francisco Puerta, Fernando Molero and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:72

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Wildebeest associated malignant catarrhal fever (WA-MCF) is a fatal disease of cattle. Outbreaks are seasonal and associated with close interaction between cattle and calving wildebeest. In Kenya, WA-MCF has a...

    Authors: Sheillah Ayiela Orono, George Chege Gitao, Jean Pierre Mpatswenumugabo, Maurine Chepkwony, Christine Mutisya, Edward Okoth, Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort, George Cameron Russell, Vishvanath Nene and Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:69

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) was caused by novel goose parvovirus (NGPV)--a variant of goose parvovirus (GPV). Ducks infected with NGPV shows clinical signs including growth retardation and protrusi...

    Authors: Jinyue Zhang, Peng Liu, Yuanyuan Wu, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xinxin Zhao, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanling Yu, Yu You, Shun Chen…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:63

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a single-stranded, closed circular DNA virus, which causes porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), multisystemic inflammation, and reproductive failure. The pres...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Wenchao Sun, Liang Cao, Min Zheng, Yilong Zhu, Wenjie Li, Cunxia Liu, Xinyu Zhuang, Jialiang Xing, Huijun Lu, Tingrong Luo and Ningyi Jin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:60

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting members of the Cervidae family. PrPC primary structures play a key role in CWD susceptibility resulting in extended incubation periods and regulating the...

    Authors: Alicia Otero, Camilo Duque Velásquez, Chad Johnson, Allen Herbst, Rosa Bolea, Juan José Badiola, Judd Aiken and Debbie McKenzie

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:50

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Tembusu virus (TMUV), classified in the genus Flavivirus, causes reduced egg production and neurological problems in poultry. Flavivirus replication depends on the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induces ER s...

    Authors: Dongmin Zhao, Jing Yang, Kaikai Han, Qingtao Liu, Huili Wang, Yuzhuo Liu, Xinmei Huang, Lijiao Zhang and Yin Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:34

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly effective pathogen that can cause death of new-born piglet, resulting in big economical loss in pig farming industry. For rapid detection of PEDV, a new immun...

    Authors: Hongfen Bian, Fei Xu, Yumin Jia, Lei Wang, Shengchao Deng, Aiqing Jia and Yong Tang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:32

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is one of the most common etiological agents that cause severe gastroenteritis in puppies. Early accurate diagnosis is important for infected dogs. In recent years, magnetic separat...

    Authors: Linlin Zhuang, Yongxin Ji, Peilong Tian, Kaixuan Wang, Chengkun Kou, Ning Gu and Yu Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:30

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea in all ages of pigs with 50–100% mortality rates in neonatal piglets. In the United States, inactivated and subunit PEDV vaccines for pregnant sows are av...

    Authors: Chun-Ming Lin, Shristi Ghimire, Yixuan Hou, Patricia Boley, Stephanie N. Langel, Anastasia N. Vlasova, Linda J. Saif and Qiuhong Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:26

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is associated with gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive diseases of livestock across the world that causes continuous economic losses in the cattle industry. This v...

    Authors: Juan Quintero Barbosa, Adriana P. Corredor Figueroa, Sandra S. Salas, Hugo Camargo, Alfredo Sanchéz, Julio Tobón, Diego Ortiz, Eric Schachtebeck and Maria Fernanda Gutierrez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:23

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Contagious ecthyma (CE) appears in the countries and regions containing goat and sheep farms, and it is considered a global epidemic. CE not only severely endangers the healthy development of the sheep and goa...

    Authors: Guangxiang Wang, Yanhua Wang, Jiaqi Kong, Yanmin Li, Jinyan Wu, Yan Chen, Xiangtao Liu, Youjun Shang and Zhidong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:13

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Since 2011, pseudorabies caused by a variant PRV has re-emerged in many Chinese Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig farms. An efficacious vaccine is necessary to control this disease. We described the construction of a ...

    Authors: Chuanjian Zhang, Yamei Liu, Saisai Chen, Yongfeng Qiao, Mingpeng Guo, Yating Zheng, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Jibo Hou and Jichun Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:2

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). The incidence of EBL in Japan is increasing annually; and the cases of EBL in cattle younger than 2 years old has been repo...

    Authors: Misako Konishi, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Ken-ichiro Kameyama, Kenji Murakami and Takehisa Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:419

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Vaccination is the principal strategy for prevention and control of diseases, and adjuvant use is an effective strategy to enhance vaccine efficacy. Traditional mineral oil-based adjuvants have been reported w...

    Authors: Jinqiu Zhang, Jinfeng Miao, Xiangan Han, Yu Lu, Bihua Deng, Fang Lv, Yanhong Zhao, Chan Ding and Jibo Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:415

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Canine noroviruses (CaNoVs) are classified into genogroups GIV, GVI, and GVII and have been detected in fecal samples from dogs since their first appearance in a dog with enteritis in Italy in 2007. CaNoVs may...

    Authors: Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Min-Chul Jung, Sun-Woo Yoon, Hye Kwon Kim and Dae Gwin Jeong

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:413

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Currently, the structural characteristics of the swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, also named swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) molecule need to be further clarified.

    Authors: Feng-shan Gao, Lei Feng, Ping Jiang, Zi-bin Li, Hua Gao, Xiao-xin Zhai, Zong-hui Zhang and Xiao Hu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:407

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The results of experiments involving broiler chickens and turkeys indicate that increased dietary methionine (Met) levels may improve the antioxidant protection of tissues in fast-growing birds. This is an imp...

    Authors: Jan Jankowski, Bartłomiej Tykałowski, Katarzyna Ognik, Andrzej Koncicki, Magdalena Kubińska and Zenon Zduńczyk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:404

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Since July in 2015, an emerging infectious disease, Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) species C infection with Hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome was prevalent in chicken flocks in China. In our study, one FAdV strain w...

    Authors: Limin Li, Jianchang Wang, Ping Chen, Shan Zhang, Jiguo Sun and Wanzhe Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:400

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Murine norovirus (MNV) is recognized as the most prevalent viral pathogen in captive mouse colonies. The rapid detection assay for MNV would be a useful tool for monitoring and preventing MNV infection. A reco...

    Authors: Lei Ma, Fanwen Zeng, Feng Cong, Bihong Huang, Yujun Zhu, Miaoli Wu, Fengjiao Xu, Wen Yuan, Ren Huang and Pengju Guo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:399

    Content type: Methodology article

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  36. Enteroviruses (Picornaviridae family) have been widely detected in the feces from cattle with diarrhea. However, the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenicity of enteroviruses in cattle remain unclear. Recentl...

    Authors: Bin Zhang, Xinnuo Chen, Hua Yue, Wenqiang Ruan, Sinan Qin and Cheng Tang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:395

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in chickens. There are numerous serotypes and variants, which do not confer cross protection resulting in failure of cu...

    Authors: Aruna Amarasinghe, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Shelly Popowich, Frank Marshall, Susan C. Cork, Frank van der Meer, Susantha Gomis and Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:391

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Pigs (Sus scrofa) are the natural hosts of pseudorabies virus (PRV), also known as Aujeszky’s disease. Infection in mammals, with the exception of humans, typically causes extreme itching, facial swelling, and ex...

    Authors: Kerri Pedersen, Clinton T. Turnage, Wesson D. Gaston, Paulo Arruda, Scott A. Alls and Thomas Gidlewski

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:388

    Content type: Case Report

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  39. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a new strategy for monitoring the serological response against Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1), the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheit...

    Authors: Barbara Colitti, Elvira Muratore, Maria Elena Careddu, Luigi Bertolotti, Bryan Iotti, Mario Giacobini, Margherita Profiti, Chiara Nogarol, Jens Böttcher, Andreino Ponzo, Roberto Facelli and Sergio Rosati

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:387

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one major cause of acute clinical hepatitis among humans throughout the world. In industrialized countries an increasing number of autochthonous HEV infections have been identified o...

    Authors: Lisa Dähnert, Martin Eiden, Josephine Schlosser, Christine Fast, Charlotte Schröder, Elke Lange, Albrecht Gröner, Wolfram Schäfer and Martin H. Groschup

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:381

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Currently, an in vitro immunogenicity screening system for the immunological assessment of potential porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine candidates is highly desired. Thus, in t...

    Authors: Nadeem Shabir, Amina Khatun, Salik Nazki, Suna Gu, Sang-Myoung Lee, Tai-Young Hur, Myoun-Sik Yang, Bumseok Kim and Won-Il Kim

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:380

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Recently, pseudorabies (PR) outbreaks have been reported in a large number of swine herds vaccinated with the Bartha-K61 vaccine in China, the current pseudorabies virus (PRV) belonging to Genotype II is diffe...

    Authors: Zhicheng Liu, Chunhong Zhang, Haiyan Shen, Junying Sun and Jianfeng Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:372

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In 2011, the teratogenic, insect-transmitted Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged at the German/Dutch border region and subsequently spread rapidly throughout the European continent. In cattle, one of the major t...

    Authors: Kerstin Wernike, Mark Holsteg, Kevin P. Szillat and Martin Beer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:368

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Prior to 2010, the lagoviruses that cause rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) in hares (Lepus spp.) were generally genus-specific. ...

    Authors: Aleksija S. Neimanis, Harri Ahola, Ulrika Larsson Pettersson, Ana M. Lopes, Joana Abrantes, Siamak Zohari, Pedro J. Esteves and Dolores Gavier-Widén

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:367

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most highly infectious diseases in livestock, and leads to huge economic losses. Early diagnosis and rapid differentiati...

    Authors: Hongmei Wang, Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Li Yu, Yu-wei Gao and Hongbin He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:359

    Content type: Methodology article

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  46. H9N2 avian influenza virus is endemic in Egyptian poultry flocks. The role of the live viral vaccines such as LaSota in exaggeration of the clinical picture of H9N2 infection under field conditions is signific...

    Authors: Hany F. Ellakany, Ahmed R. Gado, Ahmed R. Elbestawy, Hatem S. Abd El-Hamid, Hafez M. Hafez, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Ayman A. Swelum, Abdullah Al-Owaimer and Islam M. Saadeldin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:358

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Senecavirus A, commonly known as Seneca Valley virus (SVV), is a picornavirus that has been infrequently associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). In late 2014 there were multiple PIVD outbreak...

    Authors: Alexandra Buckley, Nestor Montiel, Baoqing Guo, Vikas Kulshreshtha, Albert van Geelen, Hai Hoang, Christopher Rademacher, Kyoung-Jin Yoon and Kelly Lager

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:352

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Chicken anemia virus (CAV), avian reovirus (ARV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) all cause immunosuppressive disease in birds through ...

    Authors: Feng Cong, Yujun Zhu, Jing Wang, Yuexiao Lian, Xiangnan Liu, Li Xiao, Ren Huang, Yu Zhang, Meili Chen and Pengju Guo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:347

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Border disease virus (BDV) is a pestivirus responsible for significant economic losses in sheep industry. The present study was conducted between 2015 and 2016 to determine the flock seroprevalence of the dise...

    Authors: Naouel Feknous, Jean-Baptiste Hanon, Marylène Tignon, Hamza Khaled, Abdallah Bouyoucef and Brigitte Cay

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:339

    Content type: Research article

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