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Virology

Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Herpesvirus infections in cetaceans have always been attributed to the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. To date, gammaherpesviruses have not been reported in the central nervous system of od...

    Authors: Ignacio Vargas-Castro, José Luis Crespo-Picazo, Belén Rivera-Arroyo, Rocío Sánchez, Vicente Marco-Cabedo, María Ángeles Jiménez-Martínez, Manena Fayos, Ángel Serdio, Daniel García-Párraga and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:288

    Content type: Case Report

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  2. Porcine circovirus type 3 is the most recently discovered porcine circovirus, and an emerging pathogen. In this study the status of its presence on some Slovenian farms is reported. The effectiveness of the va...

    Authors: Jan Plut, Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Irena Golinar-Oven, Tanja Knific and Marina Stukelj

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:281

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) can spread across continents via migratory birds. Hence, we investigated the frequency of NDV in both non-migratory and birds migrating on the Black Sea-Mediterranean flyway, i...

    Authors: Nuri Turan, Cemal Ozsemir, Aysun Yilmaz, Utku Y. Cizmecigil, Ozge Aydin, Ozge Erdogan Bamac, Aydin Gurel, Ahmet Kutukcu, Kubra Ozsemir, H. Emre Tali, Besim H. Tali, Semaha G. Yilmaz, Mehmetcan Yaramanoglu, B. Kaan Tekelioğlu, Serhat Ozsoy, Juergen A. Richt…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:277

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Coronaviruses are notorious pathogens that cause diarrheic and respiratory diseases in humans and animals. Although the epidemiology and pathogenicity of coronaviruses have gained substantial attention, little...

    Authors: Zhihai Shi, Wenjia Wang, Chaoxi Chen, Xiaozhan Zhang, Jing Wang, Zhaoxue Xu and Yali Lan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:272

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Dysfunction of endothelial cells and vascular system is one of the most important pathological changes of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD) caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). PCV2-infected endothelial...

    Authors: Fengyang Shi, Qiuming Li, Shiyu Liu, Fengying Liu, Jianfang Wang, Defeng Cui, Xiaolin Hou, Shuanghai Zhou, Yonghong Zhang and Huanrong Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:265

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Neonatal diarrhea remains one of the main causes of morbi-mortality in dairy calves under artificial rearing. It is often caused by infectious agents of viral, bacterial, or parasitic origin. Cows vaccination ...

    Authors: Celina Guadalupe Vega, Marina Bok, Maren Ebinger, Lucía Alejandra Rocha, Alejandra Antonella Rivolta, Valeria González Thomas, Pilar Muntadas, Ricardo D’Aloia, Verónica Pinto, Viviana Parreño and Andrés Wigdorovitz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:264

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Newcastle disease (ND) causes severe economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. Egyptian poultry industry suffered from severe economic losses since the isolation of Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV...

    Authors: Hatem S. Abd El-Hamid, Manal E. Shafi, Najah M. Albaqami, Hany F. Ellakany, Naglaa M. Abdelaziz, Mohamed N. Abdelaziz, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Ayman E. Taha, Khalid M. Alanazi and Ahmed R. Elbestawy

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:253

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) has been an emerging porcine virus spread around the world. The conserved DNA sequence of PCV3 enabled good performance in molecular biological assays.

    Authors: Lin Yuan, Yingyi Liu, Yana Chen, Xiaoxue Gu, Hao Dong, Shuo Zhang, Tao Han, Zhi Zhou, Xiaohui Song and Chuanbin Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:249

    Content type: Methodology article

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  9. The present report describes a case of pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) infection in a seven-year-old female bison euthanized due to a history of declining condition and sores on the vulva and udder.

    Authors: Vinay Shivanna, A. Giselle Cino-Ozuna, Cody Heskett, Douglas G. Marthaler and Charan Ganta

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:241

    Content type: Case Report

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  10. Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) has been discovered in domestic cats associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis, but FeMV is also detected in healthy cats. This research aimed to identify and characterize the Fe...

    Authors: Surangkanang Chaiyasak, Chutchai Piewbang, Anudep Rungsipipat and Somporn Techangamsuwan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:240

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Studies have shown that some viral infections cause structural changes in the intestinal microflora, but little is known about the effects of tumorigenic viral infection on the intestinal microflora of chickens.

    Authors: Xianhua Wan, Laipeng Xu, Xiangli Sun, Hui Li, Fengbin Yan, Ruili Han, Hong Li, Zhuanjian Li, Yadong Tian, Xiaojun Liu, Xiangtao Kang, Zhenya Wang and Yanbin Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:218

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an intestinal coronavirus that causes acute diarrhea and high mortality in suckling piglets, can result in high economic losses in the swine industry. In recent years, d...

    Authors: Zhilin Wang, Xuerui Li, Youjun Shang, Jinyan Wu, Zhen Dong, Xiaoan Cao, Yongsheng Liu and Xi Lan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:208

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Pathogens including duck-origin avian influenza virus (AIV), duck-origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) posed great harm to ducks and caused great economic losses to the duck indu...

    Authors: Xiyu Zhang, Ming Yao, Zhihui Tang, Daning Xu, Yan Luo, Yunfei Gao and Liping Yan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:203

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Eight different PCV2 genotypes with varying prevalence and clinical impact have been described so far. PCV2 infection is still widespread among the vaccinated population and several experimental studies have c...

    Authors: Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Tamara Kristen, Verena Mendel, René Brunthaler, Lukas Schwarz and Herbert Weissenböck

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:198

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) is widespread in commercial pig farms worldwide and has a significant impact to the swine industry. Long-lasting immunity achieved by means of vaccination is the main tool to preven...

    Authors: Beatriz Garcia-Morante, Marta Noguera, Sonja Klocke, Kathrin Sommer and Philip Bridger

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:184

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, Lagovirus europeus GI.1) induces a contagious and highly lethal hemorrhagic disease in rabbits. In 2010 a new genotype of lagovirus (GI.2), emerged in Europe, infecting ...

    Authors: Melanie Buehler, Sonja T. Jesse, Heike Kueck, Bastian Lange, Patricia Koenig, Wendy K. Jo, Albert Osterhaus and Andreas Beineke

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:166

    Content type: Case Report

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  17. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are common and economically important viral disease causative agents detected in pig or...

    Authors: Jan Plut, Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki and Marina Stukelj

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:164

    Content type: Research article

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  18. At present, pig industry in China is faced with the complex situation of mixed infection caused by multiple pathogens. It is urgent to develop some new high-throughput molecular diagnosis assays to simultaneou...

    Authors: Yue Wu, Xudan Wu, Jing Chen, Jingfei Hu, Xiaobo Huang and Bin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:162

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Bavaria, a large federal state in Germany, has been declared free from infections with Bovine Alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in 2011. To maintain this status the cattle population is monitored for antibodies agai...

    Authors: Stefanie Singer, Bernd Hoffmann, Angela Hafner-Marx, Jürgen Christian, Friederike Forster, Katharina Schneider, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer and Antonie Neubauer-Juric

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:149

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerging Coronavirus that was first identified in 2012 in Hong Kong, China. Since then, PDCoV has subsequently been reported worldwide, causing a high number of neonata...

    Authors: Xiang Gao, Xinsheng Liu, Yongguang Zhang, Yanming Wei and Yonglu Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:130

    Content type: Research article

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  21. with the advantage of sequencing technology, many novel porcine parvoviruses (PPV) rather than PPV1 has been reported. This study ultilized specific PCR- based method and gene- based analysis to study the pres...

    Authors: Hee-Chun Chung, Van-Giap Nguyen, Thi-My-Le Huynh, Yong-Ho Park, Kun-Taek Park and Bong-Kyun Park

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:113

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Bovine alphaherpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2) belongs to family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesviridae and can cause two distinct, well-defined conditions: a generalized benign skin infection that somewhat mimics ...

    Authors: Gianvito Lanave, Vittorio Larocca, Michele Losurdo, Cristiana Catella, Paolo Capozza, Maria Tempesta, Vito Martella, Canio Buonavoglia and Michele Camero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:103

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) results in economic losses in the swine industry globally. Several studies have investigated the use of plant extracts in the p...

    Authors: Chaiwat Arjin, Kidsadagon Pringproa, Surat Hongsibsong, Warintorn Ruksiriwanich, Mintra Seel-audom, Supamit Mekchay and Korawan Sringarm

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:102

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Wild boar-derived hepatitis E (HEV) genotype 3 virus has been successfully isolated in cell lines of human origin only. Considering the zoonotic potential and possible extrahepatic localisation of genotype 3 s...

    Authors: Juozas Grigas, Evelina Simkute, Martynas Simanavicius, Arnoldas Pautienius, Zaneta Streimikyte-Mockeliune, Dainius Razukevicius and Arunas Stankevicius

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:95

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Duck circovirus (DuCV) is a potential immunosuppressive virus that causes feather disorders in young ducks. In this study, DuCV obtained from various species of ducks was investigated by polymerase chain react...

    Authors: Hao Liu, Li Xia Li, Wen Chao Sun, Ning Shi, Xiu Tao Sun, Ning Yi Jin and Xing Kui Si

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:80

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Although astroviruses (AstV) have been detected in a variety of host species, there are only limited records of their occurrence in deer. One of the most important game species in Europe, due to its meat and a...

    Authors: Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Vita Civnik, Andrej Kirbis and Urska Kuhar

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:68

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious viral disease of cattle caused by a Capripoxvirus. LSD has substantial economic implications, with infection resulting in permanent damage to the skin of affected animals...

    Authors: Sylvester Ochwo, Kimberly VanderWaal, Christian Ndekezi, Joseph Nkamwesiga, Anna Munsey, Sarah Gift Witto, Noelina Nantima, Franklin Mayanja, Anna Rose Ademun Okurut, David Kalenzi Atuhaire and Frank Norbert Mwiine

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:66

    Content type: Research article

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  28. PPV is one of the most important pathogens causing porcine reproductive disorder. It has been shown in clinical cases to be a commonly mixed infection with other important swine diseases which can aggravate th...

    Authors: Yue Wu, Xudan Wu, Jinxiu Hou, Xiongnan Chen, Xiaobo Huang and Bin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:57

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Porcilis® Ery+Parvo+Lepto is an octavalent inactivated ready-to-use vaccine that contains Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (Ery), porcine parvovirus (PPV), and six serogroups of Leptospira (Lepto). The efficacy of Po...

    Authors: Erwin van den Born, Paul P. M. van den Elzen, Emma van Kilsdonk, Mathieu J. H. Hoeijmakers and Ruud P. A. M. Segers

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:55

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Porcine teschovirus (PTV) circulates among wild and domesticated pig populations without causing clinical disease, however neuroinvasive strains have caused high morbidity and mortality in the past. In recent ...

    Authors: Sandra Vreman, Nermin Caliskan, Frank Harders, Jan Boonstra, Klaas Peperkamp, Cynthia K. Y. Ho, Wikke Kuller and Jeroen Kortekaas

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:51

    Content type: Case Report

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  31. Marek’s disease (MD) is caused by the oncogenic Marek’s disease virus (MDV), and is a highly contagious avian infection with a complex underlying pathology that involves lymphoproliferative neoplasm formation....

    Authors: Ke Ding, Zu-Hua Yu, Chuan Yu, Yan-Yan Jia, Lei He, Cheng-Shui Liao, Jing Li, Chun-Jie Zhang, Yin-Ju Li, Ting-Cai Wu, Xiang-Chao Cheng, Zi-Yu Zhou and Zu-Ling Yu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:23

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Virus neutralization test (VNT) is widely used for serological survey of classical swine fever (CSF) and efficacy evaluation of CSF vaccines. However, VNT is a time consuming procedure that requires cell cultu...

    Authors: Lihua Wang, Shijiang Mi, Rachel Madera, Llilianne Ganges, Manuel V. Borca, Jingqiang Ren, Chase Cunningham, Ada G. Cino-Ozuna, Hongwei Li, Changchun Tu, Wenjie Gong and Jishu Shi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:14

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The introduction of rotavirus A vaccination across the developing world has not proved to be as efficacious as first hoped. One cause of vaccine failure may be infection by zoonotic rotaviruses that are very v...

    Authors: Samuel C. B. Stubbs, Osbourne Quaye, Maame Ekua Acquah, Samuel Mawuli Adadey, Iain R. L. Kean, Srishti Gupta and Barbara A. Blacklaws

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:11

    Content type: Research article

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  34. pUL21 is a conserved protein of Alphaherpesvirinae that performs multiple important functions. The C-terminus of pUL21 in other members of this subfamily has RNA-binding ability; this domain contributes to pseudo...

    Authors: Linjiang Yang, Mingshu Wang, Chunhui Zeng, Yong Shi, Anchun Cheng, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Xinxin Zhao, Juan Huang, Yunya Liu, Xumin Ou…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:8

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the pathogen of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) and one of the main pathogens in the global pig industry, which has brought huge economic losses to the pig in...

    Authors: Guanmin Zheng, Qingxia Lu, Fangyu Wang, Guangxu Xing, Hua Feng, Qianyue Jin, Zhenhua Guo, Man Teng, Huifang Hao, Dongliang Li, Xin Wei, Yuhang Zhang, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  36. In the last few decades, Romania has been considered one of the European countries most affected by animal rabies, but a combination of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns in foxes alongside mandatory vacc...

    Authors: Mihaela Anca Dascalu, Marine Wasniewski, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Alexandre Servat, Florentina Daraban Bocaneti, Oana Irina Tanase, Elena Velescu and Florence Cliquet

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:466

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The threat of poultry-origin H6 avian influenza viruses to human health emphasizes the importance of monitoring their evolution. South Africa’s H6N2 epidemic in chickens began in 2001 and two co-circulating an...

    Authors: Celia Abolnik, Christine Strydom, Dionne Linda Rauff, Daniel Barend Rudolph Wandrag and Deryn Petty

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:455

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) are important contagious suppressive factors of chicken immunity and growth performance, resulted in enormous economic loss. Although virus eradication programs are applied in bre...

    Authors: Yukun Zeng, Zuxin Gong, Binbin Wu, Wenchao Guan, Shenyi Yu, Yajuan An, Rongbin Lu, Jinrong Zhao, Yijian Wu, Yifan Huang and Xiaoping Wu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:447

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Diarrhoea is a major cause of death in neonate pigs and most of the viruses that cause it are RNA viruses. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) deeply characterize the genetic diversity among rapidly mutating viru...

    Authors: Martí Cortey, Ivan Díaz, Anna Vidal, Gerard Martín-Valls, Giovanni Franzo, Pedro José Gómez de Nova, Laila Darwich, Héctor Puente, Ana Carvajal, Marga Martín and Enric Mateu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:441

    Content type: Research article

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  40. African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe arthropod-borne viral disease of equids, with a mortality rate of up to 95% in susceptible naïve horses. Due to safety concerns with the current live, attenuated AHS va...

    Authors: Daria A. Rutkowska, Nobalanda B. Mokoena, Tsepo L. Tsekoa, Vusi S. Dibakwane and Martha M. O’Kennedy

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:432

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The present study aimed to determine the expression of cytokines, which is associated with the immunological response of dairy goats against small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV). The study was conducted on 26 dair...

    Authors: Justyna Jarczak, Danuta Słoniewska, Jarosław Kaba and Emilia Bagnicka

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:424

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) belongs to the Caliciviridae family, is a highly lethal pathogen to rabbits. Increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated the existence of antigenic variation in RHDV, l...

    Authors: Ruibin Qi, Jie Zhu, Qiuhong Miao, Aoxing Tang, Dandan Dong, Xiaoxue Wang and Guangqing Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:423

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Since 2010, outbreaks of genotype 2 (G2) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have caused high mortality in neonatal piglets and have had devastating impacts on the swine industry in many countries. A reliab...

    Authors: Chia-Yu Chang, Ju-Yi Peng, Yun-Han Cheng, Yen-Chen Chang, Yen-Tse Wu, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Hue-Ying Chiou, Chian-Ren Jeng and Hui-Wen Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:421

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection is a highly contagious infectious disease causing watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and high mortality rate in newborn piglets. PEDV infection can cause hi...

    Authors: Ohnmar Myint, Ayako Yoshida, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Nguyen Van Diep, Naoyuki Fuke, Uda Zahli Izzati, Takuya Hirai and Ryoji Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:409

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Akabane disease (AD), a barrier to international trade for endemic areas with far economic impact on the countries, is caused by Akabane virus (AKAV). Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a ...

    Authors: Xiaolin Li, Hongli Jing, Xiaofei Liu, Qin Wang, Songyin Qiu, Dandan Liu, Shaoqiang Wu and Xiangmei Lin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:408

    Content type: Methodology article

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  46. Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). More than 60% of BLV-infected cattle remain subclinical and are thus referred to as aleukemic (AL) cattle. Approxima...

    Authors: Misako Konishi, Sota Kobayashi, Taeko Tokunaga, Yuzumi Chiba, Toshiyuki Tsutsui, Shozo Arai, Ken-ichiro Kameyama and Takehisa Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:406

    Content type: Research article

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  47. TBE is an important tick-borne viral zoonosis in Europe and some parts of Asia. Humans can become infected by tick bite and in some cases also by consumption of nonpasteurized raw milk and raw milk products fr...

    Authors: Christine Klaus, Ute Ziegler, Donata Hoffmann, Franziska Press, Christine Fast and Martin Beer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:399

    Content type: Research article

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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