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Virology

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a member of the Alphaherpesviruses, is one of the most important pathogens that harm the global pig industry. Accumulated evidence indicated that PRV could infect humans under certain ci...

    Authors: Lixia Li, Rui Wang, Huaiyue Hu, Xu Chen, Zhongqiong Yin, Xiaoxia Liang, Changliang He, Lizi Yin, Gang Ye, Yuanfeng Zou, Guizhou Yue, Huaqiao Tang, Renyong Jia and Xu Song

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:247

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) is a highly contagious infectious disease with negative economic impacts on the swine industry. PED outbreaks were reported from 2009 to 2015, but sporadic infection has been o...

    Authors: Ohnmar Myint, Nguyen Thi Hoa, Naoyuki Fuke, Apisit Pornthummawat, Nguyen Thi Lan, Takuya Hirai, Ayako Yoshida and Ryoji Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:235

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is agent causing hepatitis worldwide. Originally considered to be limited to developing countries, this virus was also detected in developed countries. In recent years an increasing num...

    Authors: Anna Jackova, Katarina Dudasova, Slavomira Salamunova, Rene Mandelik, Jaroslav Novotny and Stefan Vilcek

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:232

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Worldwide, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is among the diseases that cause the highest economic impact in modern pig production. PRRS was first detected in Costa Rica in 1996 and has sinc...

    Authors: Mónica Guzmán, Ronald Meléndez, Carlos Jiménez, Marta Piche, Emily Jiménez, Bernal León, Juan M. Cordero, Lisbeth Ramirez-Carvajal, Alberto Uribe, Arie Van Nes, Arjan Stegeman and Juan José Romero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:217

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5 subtype pose a great threat to the poultry industry and human health. In recent years, H5N6 subtype has rapidly replaced H5N1 as the most predominate HP...

    Authors: Feng Wen, Jing Yang, Jinyue Guo, Congying Wang, Qing Cheng, Zheng Tang, Kaijian Luo, Sheng Yuan, Shujian Huang and Yong Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:200

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped negative-strand RNA virus that exhibits a high mutation rate and continuously expands the range of hosts. Notably, CDV has infected giant panda with spill over from...

    Authors: Pei Huang, Yue Yu, Xianyong Meng, Tiecheng Wang, Feihu Yan, Entao Li, Zhikang Shi, Hongbin He, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia, Jianzhong Wang and Na Feng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:172

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a viral disease, caused by the Equine Infectious Anemia virus (EIAV) belonging to the Retroviridae family, genus Lentivirus. Horses (or equids) infected with EIAV are lifelong ca...

    Authors: Diana Lupulovic, Sara Savić, Delphine Gaudaire, Nicolas Berthet, Živoslav Grgić, Kazimir Matović, Alexandre Deshiere and Aymeric Hans

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:168

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Since 2011, numerous highly virulent and antigenic variant viral strains have been reported in pigs that were vaccinated against the swine pseudorabies virus. These infections have led to substantial economic ...

    Authors: Wenhui Li, Dijing Zhuang, Hong Li, Mengpo Zhao, Erpeng Zhu, Baoming Xie, Jinding Chen and Mingqiu Zhao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:164

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The type 2 highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has spread throughout countries of southeast Asia, where it has caused severe economic losses. Even countries present...

    Authors: Hiroshi Iseki, Kenji Kawashima, Tomoyuki Shibahara and Masaji Mase

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:156

    Content type: Research article

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  10. PCV3 is a member of the Circovirus family, associated with disease and mortality in pigs. It is not clear whether PCV3 putatively causes clinical symptoms and disease. In the present case, we reported a gilt i...

    Authors: Diana S. Vargas-Bermúdez, Mayra A. Vargas-Pinto, José Darío Mogollón and Jairo Jaime

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:150

    Content type: Case Report

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  11. Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to avian and mammalian species, causing epidemics and pandemics. After the circulation of H5N1 in 2006, 2015, and 2016 in Iraq, an H5N8 influenza virus emerged in dome...

    Authors: Nahla Muhammad Saeed, Peshnyar Muhammad Atta Rashid and Hiewa Othman Dyary

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:124

    Content type: Research article

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  12. At present, the process of inspection and quarantine starts with sampling at the customs port, continues with transporting the samples to the central laboratory for inspection experiments, and ends with the in...

    Authors: Yan Jiang, Shan Jiang, Yue Wu, Bin Zhou, Kaimin Wang, Luyan Jiang, Yunfeng Long, Gan Chen and Dexin Zeng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:117

    Content type: Methodology article

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  13. After a decade of silence, an outbreak of the contagious and Asian endemic disease, goat pox re-emerged in North Vietnam affecting more than 1800 heads with a mortality rate of 6.5%. The inevitable impact of g...

    Authors: Trang Hong Pham, Nor Yasmin Abdul Rahaman, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Huong Lan Thi Lai, Lan Thi Nguyen, Giap Van Nguyen, Bo Xuan Ha, Hieu Nguyen, Hanh Duc Vu and Mustapha M. Noordin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:115

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Pyroptosis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. The molecular mechanism by which pyroptosis is induced in macrophages following infection with pathogenic E. coli high pathogenic...

    Authors: Chunlan Shan, Shushu Miao, Chaoying Liu, Bo Zhang, Weiwei Zhao, Hao Wang, Wei Yang, Jinlong Cha, Ru Zhao, Peng Xiao and Hong Gao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:114

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Animal vaccination is an important way to stop the spread of diseases causing immense damage to livestock and economic losses and the potential transmission to humans. Therefore effective method for vaccine pr...

    Authors: Halima Rhazi, Najete Safini, Karima Mikou, Meryeme Alhyane, Khalid Omari Tadlaoui, Xiangliang Lin, Nandini P. Venkatesan and Mehdi Elharrak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:93

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Genotype S H9N2 viruses have become predominant in poultry in China since 2010. These viruses frequently donate their whole internal gene segments to other emerging influenza A subtypes such as the novel H7N9,...

    Authors: Xiuli Li, Min Gu, Xiaoquan Wang, Ruyi Gao, Xinxin Bu, Xiaoli Hao, Jing Ma, Jiao Hu, Shunlin Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:80

    Content type: Research article

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  17. H7 subtype avian influenza has caused great concern in the global poultry industry and public health. The conventional serological subtype-specific diagnostics is implemented by hemagglutination inhibition (HI...

    Authors: Yuan Li, Hongliu Ye, Meng Liu, Suquan Song, Jin Chen, Wangkun Cheng and Liping Yan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:64

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease, recognised to affect animals in the order Artiodactyla. The disease is rarely fatal in adult animals, however high mortality is associated wit...

    Authors: Ryan A. Waters, Jemma Wadsworth, Valerie Mioulet, Andrew E. Shaw, Nick J. Knowles, Darab Abdollahi, Reza Hassanzadeh, Keith Sumption and Donald P. King

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:63

    Content type: Case Report

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  19. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious viral disease of cattle caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). LSD has recently spread in Asia following outbreaks in the Middle East and Europe. The disease emerge...

    Authors: Shukes Chandra Badhy, Mohammad Golam Azam Chowdhury, Tirumala Bharani Kumar Settypalli, Giovanni Cattoli, Charles Euloge Lamien, Mohammad Aflak Uddin Fakir, Shamima Akter, Mozaffar Goni Osmani, Faisol Talukdar, Noorjahan Begum, Izhar Ahmed Khan, Md Bazlur Rashid and Mohammad Sadekuzzaman

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:61

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, is one of the most important poultry pathogens worldwide due to its multiple serotypes and poor cross-protection. Vaccination plays a vital role in controlling...

    Authors: Qi Wu, Zhixian Lin, Jinsen Wu, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao, Jianqiang Ye and Aijian Qin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:51

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis in humans worldwide and have high burden in the resource-limited countries. Better knowledge of the epidemiology of hepatitis in animals in Africa ca...

    Authors: Abdou Fatawou Modiyinji, Jean Joel Bigna, Sebastien Kenmoe, Fredy Brice N. Simo, Marie A. Amougou, Marie S. Ndangang, Moise Nola and Richard Njouom

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:50

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an acute, highly contagious and economically important zoonotic disease caused by the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). There is a need for effective and safe stable recombinant va...

    Authors: Xiaojuan Xue, Zhaorong Yu, Hongyan Jin, Lin Liang, Jiayang Li, Xiaolu Li, Yong Wang, Shangjin Cui and Gang Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:36

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Hemagglutinin is a major surface protein in influenza A virus (IAV), and HA2 is relative conserved among different IAVs. It will be meaningful to identify broad-spectrum epitopes based on the HA2 protein.

    Authors: Qiuxia Wang, Zhihao Sun, Jingzhi Li, Tao Qin, Hongwei Ma, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:22

    Content type: Research article

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  24. A new domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH, family Hepadnaviridae) was first reported from whole blood samples of domestic cats in Australia in 2018, and from cat serum samples in Italy in 2019. The pathogenesis of DCH...

    Authors: Khanmani Anpuanandam, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Mandy Mun Kei Choy, Shing Wei Ng, Kiven Kumar, Razana Mohd Ali, Sujey Kumar Rajendran, Kok Lian Ho and Wen Siang Tan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:9

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Swine influenza A virus (IAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are considered key viral pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex. Concerning the effect of on...

    Authors: Hanna Turlewicz-Podbielska, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:5

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Feed additives which can ease the negative effects of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) are of interest to mink farmers. The effects of kelp meal (Ascophylum nodosum) supplementation on immune r...

    Authors: A. Hossain Farid and Nancy J. Smith

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:465

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Goose parvoviruses (GPVs) spread globally and cause a huge economic loss to the poultry industry. Although the attenuated GPV vaccines play a key role in preventing the disease caused by GPV, the molecular bas...

    Authors: Hongxia Shao, Yuchen Jiang, Huisha Yuan, Lifei Ji, Wenjie Jin, Kun Qian, Jianqiang Ye and Aijian Qin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:456

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) is a highly contagious disease that imposes a huge economic burden on the global poultry industry. IBV contains numerous serotypes and variants with incomplete tenuous c...

    Authors: Tamara Al-Jallad, Morshed Kassouha, Mohamad Salhab, Anouar Alomar, Mouhamad AL-Masalma and Fahim Abdelaziz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:449

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Canine morbilivirus (canine distemper virus, CDV) is a highly contagious pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality in susceptible carnivores. Although there are CDV vaccines available, the disease pos...

    Authors: Otávio Valério de Carvalho, Marcus Rebouças Santos, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Mauro Pires Moraes, Márcia Rogéria de Almeida, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Lindomar José Pena and Abelardo Silva-Júnior

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:448

    Content type: Research article

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  30. South Korea conducts annual national surveillance programs to detect avian influenza (AI) in domestic poultry, live bird markets, and wild birds. In March 2017, an AIV was isolated from fecal samples in an out...

    Authors: Young-Jae Si, Yu-Na Lee, Sun-Ha Cheon, Yu-Ri Park, Yoon-Gi Baek, Soo-Jeong Kye, Myoung-Heon Lee and Youn-Jeong Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:432

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Individual heterogeneity in pathogen load can affect disease transmission dynamics; therefore, identifying intrinsic factors responsible for variation in pathogen load is necessary for determining which indivi...

    Authors: Amanda C. Dolinski, Mark D. Jankowski, Jeanne M. Fair and Jennifer C. Owen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:430

    Content type: Research article

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  32. African swine fever (ASF) is the most important disease to the pigs and cause serious economic losses to the countries with large-scale swine production. Vaccines are recognized as the most useful tool to prev...

    Authors: Zhenhua Guo, Kunpeng Li, Songlin Qiao, Xin-xin Chen, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:428

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a serious viral disease of swine. At present, there are vaccines for the control of PRRSV infection, but the effect is not satisfactory. The recom...

    Authors: Jun Zhao, Ling Zhu, Lei Xu, Jianbo Huang, Xiangang Sun and Zhiwen Xu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:408

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattl...

    Authors: Vitus Burimuah, Augustina Sylverken, Michael Owusu, Philip El-Duah, Richmond Yeboah, Jones Lamptey, Yaw Oppong Frimpong, Olivia Agbenyega, Raphael Folitse, Ben Emikpe, William Tasiame, Eddie-Williams Owiredu, Samuel Oppong, Christopher Antwi, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie and Christian Drosten

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:405

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Baicalin, the main metabolic component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has various pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-bactericidal and anti-viral. The pu...

    Authors: Fan Yang, Chun Feng, Yongxiu Yao, Aijian Qin, Hongxia Shao and Kun Qian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:371

    Content type: Research article

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  36. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal viral hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs that threatens livelihoods and food security. In Africa, ASF virus (ASFV) circulates in sylvatic (transmission between war...

    Authors: Clara M. Yona, Merijn Vanhee, Edgar Simulundu, Mariam Makange, Hans J. Nauwynck and Gerald Misinzo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:369

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Pseudorabies (PR) is latent and can persist in infected sows for a long time, and thus, convalescent sows can carry the virus throughout life, causing severe economic losses to farmers and posing a tremendous ...

    Authors: Lang Gong, Qiwei Deng, Runda Xu, Chihai Ji, Heng Wang and Guihong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:358

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Aquatic waterfowl, particularly those in the order Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, are the ecological reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Dabbling ducks play a recognized role in the maintenance and tr...

    Authors: Jasmina M. Luczo, Diann J. Prosser, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Alicia M. Berlin and Erica Spackman

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:351

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an immunosuppressive pathogen with high prevalence rate in pig farms. It has caused serious economic losses to the global pig industry. Due to the rapid mutation of PCV2 str...

    Authors: Yinlan Xu, Jiangang Zheng, Panpan Sun, Jianhua Guo, Xiaozhong Zheng, Yaogui Sun, Kuohai Fan, Wei Yin, Hongquan Li and Na Sun

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:345

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a small single-stranded DNA virus and a primary cause of PCV-associated diseases (PCVAD) that result insubstantial economic loss for swine farms. Between 2016 and 2018, PCV2...

    Authors: Seok-Jin Kang, Hyeonjeong Kang, Su-Hwa You, Hye Jeong Lee, Nakhyung Lee, Bang-Hun Hyun and Sang-Ho Cha

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:334

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a viral enteric disease of pigs. It affects all age classes of animals but lethality is mainly seen in suckling piglets. After its first appearance in England in 1971, Porcin...

    Authors: Claudia Karte, Nadine Platje, Johannes Bullermann, Martin Beer, Dirk Höper and Sandra Blome

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:329

    Content type: Case Report

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  42. The global prevalence of economic primary infection of poultry by H9N2 virus, including the Lineage A, panzootic group ME1, and associated with secondary infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), is alarming to...

    Authors: Taha Kumosani, Soonham Yaghmoor, Wesam H. Abdulaal and Elie Barbour

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:319

    Content type: Research article

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  43. African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious transboundary animal disease which causes high mortality, approaching 100% in domestic pigs and it is currently considered as the most serious constraint to domestic ...

    Authors: J. N. Hakizimana, G. Kamwendo, J. L. C. Chulu, O. Kamana, H. J. Nauwynck and G. Misinzo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:316

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main causative agent of porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs) which causes huge yearly economic losses in the swine industry. Capsid protein (Cap) is the major structural ...

    Authors: Chang Liu, Yunchao Liu, Hua Feng, Baolei Zhao, Yumei Chen, Huimin Huang, Pan Wang, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:313

    Content type: Research article

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  45. In China, Newly emerging duck reovirus (NDRV) variants have been causing major disease problems in cherry valley ducks. NDRV has the potential to cause high morbidity and 5–50% mortality rates. Severe hemorrha...

    Authors: Shuai Zhang, Weihua Li, Xiaodong Liu, Xudong Li, Bin Gao, Youxiang Diao and Yi Tang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:306

    Content type: Methodology article

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  46. Herpesvirus infections in cetaceans have always been attributed to the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. To date, gammaherpesviruses have not been reported in the central nervous system of od...

    Authors: Ignacio Vargas-Castro, José Luis Crespo-Picazo, Belén Rivera-Arroyo, Rocío Sánchez, Vicente Marco-Cabedo, María Ángeles Jiménez-Martínez, Manena Fayos, Ángel Serdio, Daniel García-Párraga and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:288

    Content type: Case Report

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  47. Porcine circovirus type 3 is the most recently discovered porcine circovirus, and an emerging pathogen. In this study the status of its presence on some Slovenian farms is reported. The effectiveness of the va...

    Authors: Jan Plut, Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Irena Golinar-Oven, Tanja Knific and Marina Stukelj

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:281

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) can spread across continents via migratory birds. Hence, we investigated the frequency of NDV in both non-migratory and birds migrating on the Black Sea-Mediterranean flyway, i...

    Authors: Nuri Turan, Cemal Ozsemir, Aysun Yilmaz, Utku Y. Cizmecigil, Ozge Aydin, Ozge Erdogan Bamac, Aydin Gurel, Ahmet Kutukcu, Kubra Ozsemir, H. Emre Tali, Besim H. Tali, Semaha G. Yilmaz, Mehmetcan Yaramanoglu, B. Kaan Tekelioğlu, Serhat Ozsoy, Juergen A. Richt…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:277

    Content type: Research article

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