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Virology

The virology section publishes research finding which focus on clinical, macro pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of animal viruses. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equines, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging infections are also accepted.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a single-stranded, closed circular DNA virus, which causes porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), multisystemic inflammation, and reproductive failure. The pres...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Wenchao Sun, Liang Cao, Min Zheng, Yilong Zhu, Wenjie Li, Cunxia Liu, Xinyu Zhuang, Jialiang Xing, Huijun Lu, Tingrong Luo and Ningyi Jin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:60

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting members of the Cervidae family. PrPC primary structures play a key role in CWD susceptibility resulting in extended incubation periods and regulating the...

    Authors: Alicia Otero, Camilo Duque Velásquez, Chad Johnson, Allen Herbst, Rosa Bolea, Juan José Badiola, Judd Aiken and Debbie McKenzie

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:50

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Tembusu virus (TMUV), classified in the genus Flavivirus, causes reduced egg production and neurological problems in poultry. Flavivirus replication depends on the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induces ER s...

    Authors: Dongmin Zhao, Jing Yang, Kaikai Han, Qingtao Liu, Huili Wang, Yuzhuo Liu, Xinmei Huang, Lijiao Zhang and Yin Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:34

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly effective pathogen that can cause death of new-born piglet, resulting in big economical loss in pig farming industry. For rapid detection of PEDV, a new immun...

    Authors: Hongfen Bian, Fei Xu, Yumin Jia, Lei Wang, Shengchao Deng, Aiqing Jia and Yong Tang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:32

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is one of the most common etiological agents that cause severe gastroenteritis in puppies. Early accurate diagnosis is important for infected dogs. In recent years, magnetic separat...

    Authors: Linlin Zhuang, Yongxin Ji, Peilong Tian, Kaixuan Wang, Chengkun Kou, Ning Gu and Yu Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:30

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea in all ages of pigs with 50–100% mortality rates in neonatal piglets. In the United States, inactivated and subunit PEDV vaccines for pregnant sows are av...

    Authors: Chun-Ming Lin, Shristi Ghimire, Yixuan Hou, Patricia Boley, Stephanie N. Langel, Anastasia N. Vlasova, Linda J. Saif and Qiuhong Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:26

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is associated with gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive diseases of livestock across the world that causes continuous economic losses in the cattle industry. This v...

    Authors: Juan Quintero Barbosa, Adriana P. Corredor Figueroa, Sandra S. Salas, Hugo Camargo, Alfredo Sanchéz, Julio Tobón, Diego Ortiz, Eric Schachtebeck and Maria Fernanda Gutierrez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:23

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Contagious ecthyma (CE) appears in the countries and regions containing goat and sheep farms, and it is considered a global epidemic. CE not only severely endangers the healthy development of the sheep and goa...

    Authors: Guangxiang Wang, Yanhua Wang, Jiaqi Kong, Yanmin Li, Jinyan Wu, Yan Chen, Xiangtao Liu, Youjun Shang and Zhidong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:13

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Since 2011, pseudorabies caused by a variant PRV has re-emerged in many Chinese Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig farms. An efficacious vaccine is necessary to control this disease. We described the construction of a ...

    Authors: Chuanjian Zhang, Yamei Liu, Saisai Chen, Yongfeng Qiao, Mingpeng Guo, Yating Zheng, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Jibo Hou and Jichun Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:2

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). The incidence of EBL in Japan is increasing annually; and the cases of EBL in cattle younger than 2 years old has been repo...

    Authors: Misako Konishi, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Ken-ichiro Kameyama, Kenji Murakami and Takehisa Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:419

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Vaccination is the principal strategy for prevention and control of diseases, and adjuvant use is an effective strategy to enhance vaccine efficacy. Traditional mineral oil-based adjuvants have been reported w...

    Authors: Jinqiu Zhang, Jinfeng Miao, Xiangan Han, Yu Lu, Bihua Deng, Fang Lv, Yanhong Zhao, Chan Ding and Jibo Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:415

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Canine noroviruses (CaNoVs) are classified into genogroups GIV, GVI, and GVII and have been detected in fecal samples from dogs since their first appearance in a dog with enteritis in Italy in 2007. CaNoVs may...

    Authors: Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Min-Chul Jung, Sun-Woo Yoon, Hye Kwon Kim and Dae Gwin Jeong

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:413

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Currently, the structural characteristics of the swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, also named swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) molecule need to be further clarified.

    Authors: Feng-shan Gao, Lei Feng, Ping Jiang, Zi-bin Li, Hua Gao, Xiao-xin Zhai, Zong-hui Zhang and Xiao Hu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:407

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The results of experiments involving broiler chickens and turkeys indicate that increased dietary methionine (Met) levels may improve the antioxidant protection of tissues in fast-growing birds. This is an imp...

    Authors: Jan Jankowski, Bartłomiej Tykałowski, Katarzyna Ognik, Andrzej Koncicki, Magdalena Kubińska and Zenon Zduńczyk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:404

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  15. Content type: Methodology article

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is recognized as the most prevalent viral pathogen in captive mouse colonies. The rapid detection assay for MNV would be a useful tool for monitoring and preventing MNV infection. A reco...

    Authors: Lei Ma, Fanwen Zeng, Feng Cong, Bihong Huang, Yujun Zhu, Miaoli Wu, Fengjiao Xu, Wen Yuan, Ren Huang and Pengju Guo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:399

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Since July in 2015, an emerging infectious disease, Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) species C infection with Hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome was prevalent in chicken flocks in China. In our study, one FAdV strain w...

    Authors: Limin Li, Jianchang Wang, Ping Chen, Shan Zhang, Jiguo Sun and Wanzhe Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:400

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Enteroviruses (Picornaviridae family) have been widely detected in the feces from cattle with diarrhea. However, the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenicity of enteroviruses in cattle remain unclear. Recentl...

    Authors: Bin Zhang, Xinnuo Chen, Hua Yue, Wenqiang Ruan, Sinan Qin and Cheng Tang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:395

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in chickens. There are numerous serotypes and variants, which do not confer cross protection resulting in failure of cu...

    Authors: Aruna Amarasinghe, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Shelly Popowich, Frank Marshall, Susan C. Cork, Frank van der Meer, Susantha Gomis and Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:391

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  19. Content type: Case Report

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) are the natural hosts of pseudorabies virus (PRV), also known as Aujeszky’s disease. Infection in mammals, with the exception of humans, typically causes extreme itching, facial swelling, and ex...

    Authors: Kerri Pedersen, Clinton T. Turnage, Wesson D. Gaston, Paulo Arruda, Scott A. Alls and Thomas Gidlewski

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:388

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a new strategy for monitoring the serological response against Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1), the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheit...

    Authors: Barbara Colitti, Elvira Muratore, Maria Elena Careddu, Luigi Bertolotti, Bryan Iotti, Mario Giacobini, Margherita Profiti, Chiara Nogarol, Jens Böttcher, Andreino Ponzo, Roberto Facelli and Sergio Rosati

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:387

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one major cause of acute clinical hepatitis among humans throughout the world. In industrialized countries an increasing number of autochthonous HEV infections have been identified o...

    Authors: Lisa Dähnert, Martin Eiden, Josephine Schlosser, Christine Fast, Charlotte Schröder, Elke Lange, Albrecht Gröner, Wolfram Schäfer and Martin H. Groschup

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:381

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Currently, an in vitro immunogenicity screening system for the immunological assessment of potential porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine candidates is highly desired. Thus, in t...

    Authors: Nadeem Shabir, Amina Khatun, Salik Nazki, Suna Gu, Sang-Myoung Lee, Tai-Young Hur, Myoun-Sik Yang, Bumseok Kim and Won-Il Kim

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:380

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Recently, pseudorabies (PR) outbreaks have been reported in a large number of swine herds vaccinated with the Bartha-K61 vaccine in China, the current pseudorabies virus (PRV) belonging to Genotype II is diffe...

    Authors: Zhicheng Liu, Chunhong Zhang, Haiyan Shen, Junying Sun and Jianfeng Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:372

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Prior to 2010, the lagoviruses that cause rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) in hares (Lepus spp.) were generally genus-specific. ...

    Authors: Aleksija S. Neimanis, Harri Ahola, Ulrika Larsson Pettersson, Ana M. Lopes, Joana Abrantes, Siamak Zohari, Pedro J. Esteves and Dolores Gavier-Widén

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:367

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  25. Content type: Research article

    In 2011, the teratogenic, insect-transmitted Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged at the German/Dutch border region and subsequently spread rapidly throughout the European continent. In cattle, one of the major t...

    Authors: Kerstin Wernike, Mark Holsteg, Kevin P. Szillat and Martin Beer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:368

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  26. Content type: Research article

    H9N2 avian influenza virus is endemic in Egyptian poultry flocks. The role of the live viral vaccines such as LaSota in exaggeration of the clinical picture of H9N2 infection under field conditions is signific...

    Authors: Hany F. Ellakany, Ahmed R. Gado, Ahmed R. Elbestawy, Hatem S. Abd El-Hamid, Hafez M. Hafez, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Ayman A. Swelum, Abdullah Al-Owaimer and Islam M. Saadeldin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:358

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Senecavirus A, commonly known as Seneca Valley virus (SVV), is a picornavirus that has been infrequently associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). In late 2014 there were multiple PIVD outbreak...

    Authors: Alexandra Buckley, Nestor Montiel, Baoqing Guo, Vikas Kulshreshtha, Albert van Geelen, Hai Hoang, Christopher Rademacher, Kyoung-Jin Yoon and Kelly Lager

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:352

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  28. Content type: Methodology article

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most highly infectious diseases in livestock, and leads to huge economic losses. Early diagnosis and rapid differentiati...

    Authors: Hongmei Wang, Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Li Yu, Yu-wei Gao and Hongbin He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:359

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), avian reovirus (ARV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) all cause immunosuppressive disease in birds through ...

    Authors: Feng Cong, Yujun Zhu, Jing Wang, Yuexiao Lian, Xiangnan Liu, Li Xiao, Ren Huang, Yu Zhang, Meili Chen and Pengju Guo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:347

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Border disease virus (BDV) is a pestivirus responsible for significant economic losses in sheep industry. The present study was conducted between 2015 and 2016 to determine the flock seroprevalence of the dise...

    Authors: Naouel Feknous, Jean-Baptiste Hanon, Marylène Tignon, Hamza Khaled, Abdallah Bouyoucef and Brigitte Cay

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:339

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  31. Content type: Research article

    First identified in the United States in 2016, porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging porcine circovirus exhibiting a wide range of clinical syndromes, which may be associated with the pathogenic...

    Authors: Zhuo Ha, Chang-zhan Xie, Jin-feng Li, Shu-bo Wen, Ke-long Zhang, Fu-long Nan, He Zhang, Ying-cheng Guo, Wei Wang, Hui-jun Lu and Ning-yi Jin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:321

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus causes significant economic losses in cattle. BVDV has high genomic diversity, with two species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, and at least twenty-one subgenotypes for BVDV-1 and four subgenotype...

    Authors: Astrid Donoso, Felipe Inostroza, María Celedón and José Pizarro-Lucero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:314

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Surveillance and characterization of pig enteric viruses such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), rotavirus, astrovirus (PAstV), sapovirus (PSaV), kobuvirus a...

    Authors: Slavomira Salamunova, Anna Jackova, Rene Mandelik, Jaroslav Novotny, Michaela Vlasakova and Stefan Vilcek

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:313

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The gp85 is the main envelope protein of avian leukosis subgroup J (ALV-J) involved in virus neutralization. Here, we mapped the epitope in ALV-J gp85 by ELISA using synthetic peptides and developed epitope ba...

    Authors: Kun Qian, Xue Tian, Hongxia Shao, Jianqiang Ye, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair and Aijian Qin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:295

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD), caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), threaten the pig industry worldwide. Five genotypes of PCV2 were recently identified: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, PCV2d and ...

    Authors: Seung-Chai Kim, Salik Nazki, Sam Kwon, Jhung-Hyun Juhng, Kyeong-Hwan Mun, Do-Young Jeon, Chang-Gi Jeong, Amina Khatun, Seog-Jin Kang and Won-Il Kim

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:294

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  36. Content type: Research article

    In 2014, a notification of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was made by the National Services of Animal Health of Argentina (SENASA) to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE). The noti...

    Authors: Pablo Enrique Piñeyro, Maria Inez Lozada, Laura Valeria Alarcón, Ramon Sanguinetti, Javier Alejandro Cappuccio, Estefanía Marisol Pérez, Fabio Vannucci, Alberto Armocida, Darin Michael Madson, Carlos Juan Perfumo and Maria Alejandra Quiroga

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:292

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Since the outbreak of a new emerging virulent pseudorabies virus mutant in Chinese pig herds, intensive research has been focused on the construction of novel gene deletion vaccine based on the variant virulen...

    Authors: Jichun Wang, Zengcai Song, Aimin Ge, Rongli Guo, Yongfeng Qiao, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Yamei Liu, Yating Zheng, Hongjie Fan and Jibo Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:287

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Simbu serogroup viruses of the Orthobunyavirus genus (Family Peribunyaviridae) include teratogenic pathogens that cause severe economic losses, abortions, stillbirths and congenital abnormalities in ruminants wor...

    Authors: Daniel Oluwayelu, Kerstin Wernike, Adebowale Adebiyi, Simeon Cadmus and Martin Beer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:277

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Rabies is the only known zoonotic disease of bat origin in Europe. The disease is caused by species belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. Five Lyssavirus species, i.e., European bat lyssavirus (EBLV)-1, EBLV-2, Boke...

    Authors: Ivana Šimić, Ivana Lojkić, Nina Krešić, Florence Cliquet, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Marine Wasniewski, Anđela Ćukušić, Vida Zrnčić and Tomislav Bedeković

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:274

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Recently, mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) were detected for the first time in European bats, and the closely related strain SI-MRV01 was isolated from a child with severe diarrhoea in Slovenia. Genetically si...

    Authors: Tina Naglič, Danijela Rihtarič, Peter Hostnik, Nataša Toplak, Simon Koren, Urška Kuhar, Urška Jamnikar-Ciglenečki, Denis Kutnjak and Andrej Steyer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:264

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  41. Content type: Research article

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of African swine fever (ASF), a re-expanding devastating and highly lethal hemorrhagic viral disease. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small non-c...

    Authors: Fernando Núñez-Hernández, Gonzalo Vera, Armand Sánchez, Fernando Rodríguez and José I. Núñez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:268

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) causes high mortality and morbidity in Muscovy ducks, with the pathogenesis of the virus still unknown in many respects. Specific MDPV detection is often rife with false positive...

    Authors: Chunhe Wan, Cuiteng Chen, Longfei Cheng, Hongmei Chen, Qiuling Fu, Shaohua Shi, Guanghua Fu, Rongchang Liu and Yu Huang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:267

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  43. Content type: Methodology article

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious tansboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals and causes devastating economic damages. Accurate, rap...

    Authors: Libing Liu, Jinfeng Wang, Ruoxi Zhang, Mi Lin, Ruihan Shi, Qingan Han, Jianchang Wang and Wanzhe Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:263

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  44. Content type: Research article

    A direct contact transmission challenge model was used to simulate natural foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spread from FMDV A24/Cruzeiro/BRA/55 infected ‘seeder’ steers to naïve or vaccinated steers previo...

    Authors: John G. Neilan, Christopher Schutta, José Barrera, Melia Pisano, Laszlo Zsak, Ethan Hartwig, Max V. Rasmussen, Barbara J. Kamicker, Damodar Ettyreddy, Douglas E. Brough, Bryan T. Butman and David A. Brake

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:254

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV), belonging to the α-herpesvirus subfamily, is a linear double-stranded DNA virus. Glycoprotein H and L (gH and gL), encoded by UL22 and UL1, are conserved in the family of herpesviru...

    Authors: Daishen Feng, Min Cui, Renyong Jia, Siyang Liu, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Yin Wu, Qiao Yang, Zhongqiong Yin and Anchun Cheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:255

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induces respiratory infection, abortion, and neurologic disease with significant impact. Virulence factors contributing to infection and immune evasion are of particular inter...

    Authors: Christiane L. Schnabel, Christine L. Wimer, Gillian Perkins, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Christina Watts, Alicia Rollins, Nikolaus Osterrieder and Bettina Wagner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:245

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  47. Content type: Methodology article

    As the major causative agent of swine viral diarrhea, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused massive losses to the economies of swine raising countries. Accordingly, the serological detection of cor...

    Authors: Huixing Lin, Hong Zhou, Lu Gao, Bin Li, Kongwang He and Hongjie Fan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:243

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a severe disease, causing great economic losses to the pig industry. The causative agent, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is ...

    Authors: Weijie Bai, Zhijia Wang, Pu Sun, Jing Zhang, Huifang Bao, Yimei Cao, Yanyan Chang, Zaixin Liu, Dong Li and Zengjun Lu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:240

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Peyer’s patches (PPs) can be considered as the immune site of the intestine. Within PPs, Dendritic cells (DCs) can uptake antigens from the gut lumen by extending dendrites into epithelium, and process it and ...

    Authors: Chen Yuan, En Zhang, Lulu Huang, Jialu Wang and Qian Yang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:239

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:303