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Virology

Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, Lagovirus europeus GI.1) induces a contagious and highly lethal hemorrhagic disease in rabbits. In 2010 a new genotype of lagovirus (GI.2), emerged in Europe, infecting ...

    Authors: Melanie Buehler, Sonja T. Jesse, Heike Kueck, Bastian Lange, Patricia Koenig, Wendy K. Jo, Albert Osterhaus and Andreas Beineke

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:166

    Content type: Case Report

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  2. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are common and economically important viral disease causative agents detected in pig or...

    Authors: Jan Plut, Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki and Marina Stukelj

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:164

    Content type: Research article

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  3. At present, pig industry in China is faced with the complex situation of mixed infection caused by multiple pathogens. It is urgent to develop some new high-throughput molecular diagnosis assays to simultaneou...

    Authors: Yue Wu, Xudan Wu, Jing Chen, Jingfei Hu, Xiaobo Huang and Bin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:162

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Bavaria, a large federal state in Germany, has been declared free from infections with Bovine Alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in 2011. To maintain this status the cattle population is monitored for antibodies agai...

    Authors: Stefanie Singer, Bernd Hoffmann, Angela Hafner-Marx, Jürgen Christian, Friederike Forster, Katharina Schneider, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer and Antonie Neubauer-Juric

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:149

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerging Coronavirus that was first identified in 2012 in Hong Kong, China. Since then, PDCoV has subsequently been reported worldwide, causing a high number of neonata...

    Authors: Xiang Gao, Xinsheng Liu, Yongguang Zhang, Yanming Wei and Yonglu Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:130

    Content type: Research article

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  6. with the advantage of sequencing technology, many novel porcine parvoviruses (PPV) rather than PPV1 has been reported. This study ultilized specific PCR- based method and gene- based analysis to study the pres...

    Authors: Hee-Chun Chung, Van-Giap Nguyen, Thi-My-Le Huynh, Yong-Ho Park, Kun-Taek Park and Bong-Kyun Park

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:113

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Bovine alphaherpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2) belongs to family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesviridae and can cause two distinct, well-defined conditions: a generalized benign skin infection that somewhat mimics ...

    Authors: Gianvito Lanave, Vittorio Larocca, Michele Losurdo, Cristiana Catella, Paolo Capozza, Maria Tempesta, Vito Martella, Canio Buonavoglia and Michele Camero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:103

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) results in economic losses in the swine industry globally. Several studies have investigated the use of plant extracts in the p...

    Authors: Chaiwat Arjin, Kidsadagon Pringproa, Surat Hongsibsong, Warintorn Ruksiriwanich, Mintra Seel-audom, Supamit Mekchay and Korawan Sringarm

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:102

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Wild boar-derived hepatitis E (HEV) genotype 3 virus has been successfully isolated in cell lines of human origin only. Considering the zoonotic potential and possible extrahepatic localisation of genotype 3 s...

    Authors: Juozas Grigas, Evelina Simkute, Martynas Simanavicius, Arnoldas Pautienius, Zaneta Streimikyte-Mockeliune, Dainius Razukevicius and Arunas Stankevicius

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:95

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Duck circovirus (DuCV) is a potential immunosuppressive virus that causes feather disorders in young ducks. In this study, DuCV obtained from various species of ducks was investigated by polymerase chain react...

    Authors: Hao Liu, Li Xia Li, Wen Chao Sun, Ning Shi, Xiu Tao Sun, Ning Yi Jin and Xing Kui Si

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:80

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Although astroviruses (AstV) have been detected in a variety of host species, there are only limited records of their occurrence in deer. One of the most important game species in Europe, due to its meat and a...

    Authors: Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Vita Civnik, Andrej Kirbis and Urska Kuhar

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:68

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious viral disease of cattle caused by a Capripoxvirus. LSD has substantial economic implications, with infection resulting in permanent damage to the skin of affected animals...

    Authors: Sylvester Ochwo, Kimberly VanderWaal, Christian Ndekezi, Joseph Nkamwesiga, Anna Munsey, Sarah Gift Witto, Noelina Nantima, Franklin Mayanja, Anna Rose Ademun Okurut, David Kalenzi Atuhaire and Frank Norbert Mwiine

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:66

    Content type: Research article

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  13. PPV is one of the most important pathogens causing porcine reproductive disorder. It has been shown in clinical cases to be a commonly mixed infection with other important swine diseases which can aggravate th...

    Authors: Yue Wu, Xudan Wu, Jinxiu Hou, Xiongnan Chen, Xiaobo Huang and Bin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:57

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Porcilis® Ery+Parvo+Lepto is an octavalent inactivated ready-to-use vaccine that contains Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (Ery), porcine parvovirus (PPV), and six serogroups of Leptospira (Lepto). The efficacy of Po...

    Authors: Erwin van den Born, Paul P. M. van den Elzen, Emma van Kilsdonk, Mathieu J. H. Hoeijmakers and Ruud P. A. M. Segers

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:55

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Porcine teschovirus (PTV) circulates among wild and domesticated pig populations without causing clinical disease, however neuroinvasive strains have caused high morbidity and mortality in the past. In recent ...

    Authors: Sandra Vreman, Nermin Caliskan, Frank Harders, Jan Boonstra, Klaas Peperkamp, Cynthia K. Y. Ho, Wikke Kuller and Jeroen Kortekaas

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:51

    Content type: Case Report

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  16. Marek’s disease (MD) is caused by the oncogenic Marek’s disease virus (MDV), and is a highly contagious avian infection with a complex underlying pathology that involves lymphoproliferative neoplasm formation....

    Authors: Ke Ding, Zu-Hua Yu, Chuan Yu, Yan-Yan Jia, Lei He, Cheng-Shui Liao, Jing Li, Chun-Jie Zhang, Yin-Ju Li, Ting-Cai Wu, Xiang-Chao Cheng, Zi-Yu Zhou and Zu-Ling Yu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:23

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Virus neutralization test (VNT) is widely used for serological survey of classical swine fever (CSF) and efficacy evaluation of CSF vaccines. However, VNT is a time consuming procedure that requires cell cultu...

    Authors: Lihua Wang, Shijiang Mi, Rachel Madera, Llilianne Ganges, Manuel V. Borca, Jingqiang Ren, Chase Cunningham, Ada G. Cino-Ozuna, Hongwei Li, Changchun Tu, Wenjie Gong and Jishu Shi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:14

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The introduction of rotavirus A vaccination across the developing world has not proved to be as efficacious as first hoped. One cause of vaccine failure may be infection by zoonotic rotaviruses that are very v...

    Authors: Samuel C. B. Stubbs, Osbourne Quaye, Maame Ekua Acquah, Samuel Mawuli Adadey, Iain R. L. Kean, Srishti Gupta and Barbara A. Blacklaws

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:11

    Content type: Research article

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  19. pUL21 is a conserved protein of Alphaherpesvirinae that performs multiple important functions. The C-terminus of pUL21 in other members of this subfamily has RNA-binding ability; this domain contributes to pseudo...

    Authors: Linjiang Yang, Mingshu Wang, Chunhui Zeng, Yong Shi, Anchun Cheng, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Xinxin Zhao, Juan Huang, Yunya Liu, Xumin Ou…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:8

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the pathogen of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) and one of the main pathogens in the global pig industry, which has brought huge economic losses to the pig in...

    Authors: Guanmin Zheng, Qingxia Lu, Fangyu Wang, Guangxu Xing, Hua Feng, Qianyue Jin, Zhenhua Guo, Man Teng, Huifang Hao, Dongliang Li, Xin Wei, Yuhang Zhang, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In the last few decades, Romania has been considered one of the European countries most affected by animal rabies, but a combination of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns in foxes alongside mandatory vacc...

    Authors: Mihaela Anca Dascalu, Marine Wasniewski, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Alexandre Servat, Florentina Daraban Bocaneti, Oana Irina Tanase, Elena Velescu and Florence Cliquet

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:466

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The threat of poultry-origin H6 avian influenza viruses to human health emphasizes the importance of monitoring their evolution. South Africa’s H6N2 epidemic in chickens began in 2001 and two co-circulating an...

    Authors: Celia Abolnik, Christine Strydom, Dionne Linda Rauff, Daniel Barend Rudolph Wandrag and Deryn Petty

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:455

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) are important contagious suppressive factors of chicken immunity and growth performance, resulted in enormous economic loss. Although virus eradication programs are applied in bre...

    Authors: Yukun Zeng, Zuxin Gong, Binbin Wu, Wenchao Guan, Shenyi Yu, Yajuan An, Rongbin Lu, Jinrong Zhao, Yijian Wu, Yifan Huang and Xiaoping Wu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:447

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Diarrhoea is a major cause of death in neonate pigs and most of the viruses that cause it are RNA viruses. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) deeply characterize the genetic diversity among rapidly mutating viru...

    Authors: Martí Cortey, Ivan Díaz, Anna Vidal, Gerard Martín-Valls, Giovanni Franzo, Pedro José Gómez de Nova, Laila Darwich, Héctor Puente, Ana Carvajal, Marga Martín and Enric Mateu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:441

    Content type: Research article

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  25. African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe arthropod-borne viral disease of equids, with a mortality rate of up to 95% in susceptible naïve horses. Due to safety concerns with the current live, attenuated AHS va...

    Authors: Daria A. Rutkowska, Nobalanda B. Mokoena, Tsepo L. Tsekoa, Vusi S. Dibakwane and Martha M. O’Kennedy

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:432

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The present study aimed to determine the expression of cytokines, which is associated with the immunological response of dairy goats against small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV). The study was conducted on 26 dair...

    Authors: Justyna Jarczak, Danuta Słoniewska, Jarosław Kaba and Emilia Bagnicka

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:424

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) belongs to the Caliciviridae family, is a highly lethal pathogen to rabbits. Increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated the existence of antigenic variation in RHDV, l...

    Authors: Ruibin Qi, Jie Zhu, Qiuhong Miao, Aoxing Tang, Dandan Dong, Xiaoxue Wang and Guangqing Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:423

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Since 2010, outbreaks of genotype 2 (G2) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have caused high mortality in neonatal piglets and have had devastating impacts on the swine industry in many countries. A reliab...

    Authors: Chia-Yu Chang, Ju-Yi Peng, Yun-Han Cheng, Yen-Chen Chang, Yen-Tse Wu, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Hue-Ying Chiou, Chian-Ren Jeng and Hui-Wen Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:421

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection is a highly contagious infectious disease causing watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and high mortality rate in newborn piglets. PEDV infection can cause hi...

    Authors: Ohnmar Myint, Ayako Yoshida, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Nguyen Van Diep, Naoyuki Fuke, Uda Zahli Izzati, Takuya Hirai and Ryoji Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:409

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Akabane disease (AD), a barrier to international trade for endemic areas with far economic impact on the countries, is caused by Akabane virus (AKAV). Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a ...

    Authors: Xiaolin Li, Hongli Jing, Xiaofei Liu, Qin Wang, Songyin Qiu, Dandan Liu, Shaoqiang Wu and Xiangmei Lin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:408

    Content type: Methodology article

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  31. Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). More than 60% of BLV-infected cattle remain subclinical and are thus referred to as aleukemic (AL) cattle. Approxima...

    Authors: Misako Konishi, Sota Kobayashi, Taeko Tokunaga, Yuzumi Chiba, Toshiyuki Tsutsui, Shozo Arai, Ken-ichiro Kameyama and Takehisa Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:406

    Content type: Research article

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  32. TBE is an important tick-borne viral zoonosis in Europe and some parts of Asia. Humans can become infected by tick bite and in some cases also by consumption of nonpasteurized raw milk and raw milk products fr...

    Authors: Christine Klaus, Ute Ziegler, Donata Hoffmann, Franziska Press, Christine Fast and Martin Beer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:399

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids. It is a rapidly evolving virus; after its emergence in the 1970s, new antigenic variants (called CPV-2a, 2b and 2c) emerge...

    Authors: Mara Battilani, Francesco Modugno, Francesco Mira, Giuseppa Purpari, Santina Di Bella, Annalisa Guercio and Andrea Balboni

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:393

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Classic goose parvovirus (cGPV) causes high mortality and morbidity in goslings and Muscovy ducklings. Novel GPV (N-GPV) causes short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) in Cherry Valley ducks, Pekin ducks and M...

    Authors: Chunhe Wan, Cuiteng Chen, Longfei Cheng, Rongchang Liu, Shaohua Shi, Guanghua Fu, Hongmei Chen, Qiuling Fu and Yu Huang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:389

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Haemorrhagic enteritis (HE) of turkeys was first described in 1937 in the USA, while in Poland it was first diagnosed in 1987. Polish haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) isolates are usually low pathogenic and ...

    Authors: Bartłomiej Tykałowski, Marcin Śmiałek, Andrzej Koncicki, Katarzyna Ognik, Zenon Zduńczyk and Jan Jankowski

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:387

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Avian leukosis (AL), which is caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV), has led to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. The kit used to detect all ALV-positive chickens in breeder flocks is very im...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Zhou, Lin Wang, Anning Shen, Xi Shen, Moru Xu, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair, Jianqiang Ye and Aijian Qin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:383

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Fowl adenovirus outbreaks have occurred in China since June 2015. This virus is an emerging infectious disease that causes hydropericardium syndrome and inclusion body hepatitis (HPS-IBH), resulting in signifi...

    Authors: Kai Wang, Haiwei Sun, Yunzhang Li, Zhiwei Yang, Jianqiang Ye and Hongjun Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:373

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Tembusu virus (TMUV) usually affects adult ducks, causing a severe drop of egg production. It has also been shown to be pathogenic in commercial Pekin ducklings below 7 weeks of age. Here, we report a TMUV-cau...

    Authors: Te Liang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Shenghua Qu, Junfeng Lv, Lixin Yang and Dabing Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:362

    Content type: Research article

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  39. There is growing evidence that equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) infection is causally associated with the development of equine genital squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Early stages of disease present clin...

    Authors: Anna Sophie Ramsauer, Garrett Louis Wachoski-Dark, Cornel Fraefel, Kurt Tobler, Sabine Brandt, Cameron Greig Knight, Claude Favrot and Paula Grest

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:356

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Viral diseases are a matter of great concern for poultry farmers in Pakistan. Multiple common viral respiratory diseases (CVRDs) cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry. The prevalence of CVRDs in m...

    Authors: Sajid Umar, Angélique Teillaud, Hassan Bin Aslam, Jean-Luc Guerin and Mariette F. Ducatez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:351

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging circovirus that might be associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, and cardiac and multisystemic inflammation. To a...

    Authors: Jun Ji, Xin Xu, Xueyu Wang, Kejing Zuo, Zhili Li, Chaoliang Leng, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao and Yingzuo Bi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:322

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Getah virus (GETV) is a neglected mosquito-borne Alphavirus that causes pyrexia, body rash, and leg oedema in horses and foetal death and reproductive disorders in pigs. Infected animals may play a critical role ...

    Authors: Hao Liu, Xu Zhang, Li-Xia Li, Ning Shi, Xiu-tao Sun, Quan Liu, Ning-Yi Jin and Xing-kui Si

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:320

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family, is a globally distributed bovine pathogen. BVDV infection in cattle, despite having a wid...

    Authors: Joanna Małaczewska, Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska, Roman Wójcik and Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:318

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Newcastle disease (ND), which is caused by infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Avian orthoavulavirus-1, also known as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), and formerly known as Newcastle disease ...

    Authors: Salman L. Butt, Veridiana Maria Brianezi Dignani Moura, Leonardo Susta, Patti J. Miller, Jessica M. Hutcheson, Stivalis Cardenas-Garcia, Corrie C. Brown, Franklin D. West, Claudio L. Afonso and James B. Stanton

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:317

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Canine distemper (CD) is an acute infectious disease with high morbidity rates caused by a highly contagious pathogen (Canine Morbillivirus, also known as canine distemper virus, CDV). CDV can infect a broad r...

    Authors: Xianghong Xue, Yelei Zhu, Lina Yan, Gary Wong, Peilu Sun, Xuexing Zheng and Xianzhu Xia

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:316

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) causes fever and muscle stiffness in cattle, resulting in negative economic impact for cattle and dairy farms. During the manufacturing process of inactivated vaccine for vi...

    Authors: Li-Ting Cheng, Yu-Jing Zeng, Chun-Yen Chu and Hsian-Yu Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:313

    Content type: Methodology article

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  47. Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is an emerging circovirus species, that has been reported in major pig-raising countries including the United States, China, South Korea, Brazil, Spain, and Poland.

    Authors: Huanan Wang, Xiangnan Liu, Fanwen Zeng, Tongyuan Zhang, Yuexiao Lian, Miaoli Wu, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yu Zhang, Meili Chen, Ren Huang, Manlin Luo, Feng Cong and Pengju Guo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:305

    Content type: Methodology article

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