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Section edited by Dr. Hayley Henderson and Tillie Cryer

The virology section considers research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. 

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging circovirus that might be associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, and cardiac and multisystemic inflammation. To a...

    Authors: Jun Ji, Xin Xu, Xueyu Wang, Kejing Zuo, Zhili Li, Chaoliang Leng, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao and Yingzuo Bi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:322

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Getah virus (GETV) is a neglected mosquito-borne Alphavirus that causes pyrexia, body rash, and leg oedema in horses and foetal death and reproductive disorders in pigs. Infected animals may play a critical role ...

    Authors: Hao Liu, Xu Zhang, Li-Xia Li, Ning Shi, Xiu-tao Sun, Quan Liu, Ning-Yi Jin and Xing-kui Si

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:320

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family, is a globally distributed bovine pathogen. BVDV infection in cattle, despite having a wid...

    Authors: Joanna Małaczewska, Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska, Roman Wójcik and Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:318

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Newcastle disease (ND), which is caused by infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Avian orthoavulavirus-1, also known as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), and formerly known as Newcastle disease ...

    Authors: Salman L. Butt, Veridiana Maria Brianezi Dignani Moura, Leonardo Susta, Patti J. Miller, Jessica M. Hutcheson, Stivalis Cardenas-Garcia, Corrie C. Brown, Franklin D. West, Claudio L. Afonso and James B. Stanton

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:317

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Canine distemper (CD) is an acute infectious disease with high morbidity rates caused by a highly contagious pathogen (Canine Morbillivirus, also known as canine distemper virus, CDV). CDV can infect a broad r...

    Authors: Xianghong Xue, Yelei Zhu, Lina Yan, Gary Wong, Peilu Sun, Xuexing Zheng and Xianzhu Xia

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:316

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  6. Content type: Methodology article

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) causes fever and muscle stiffness in cattle, resulting in negative economic impact for cattle and dairy farms. During the manufacturing process of inactivated vaccine for vi...

    Authors: Li-Ting Cheng, Yu-Jing Zeng, Chun-Yen Chu and Hsian-Yu Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:313

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  7. Content type: Methodology article

    Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is an emerging circovirus species, that has been reported in major pig-raising countries including the United States, China, South Korea, Brazil, Spain, and Poland.

    Authors: Huanan Wang, Xiangnan Liu, Fanwen Zeng, Tongyuan Zhang, Yuexiao Lian, Miaoli Wu, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yu Zhang, Meili Chen, Ren Huang, Manlin Luo, Feng Cong and Pengju Guo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:305

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Canine pneumovirus (CPV) is a pathogen that causes respiratory disease in dogs, and recent outbreaks in shelters in America and Europe have been reported. However, based on published data and documents, the id...

    Authors: Chutchai Piewbang and Somporn Techangamsuwan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:300

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  9. Content type: Research article

    In China, although the ALV eradication program and the MD vaccination strategy greatly reduce the disease burdens caused by the infection of ALV and MDV, the frequent emergence of novel ALV-K or vvMDV in the v...

    Authors: Tuofan Li, Jing Xie, Guangcheng Liang, Dan Ren, Shu Sun, Lu Lv, Quan Xie, Hongxia Shao, Wei Gao, Aijian Qin and Jianqiang Ye

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:288

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Although several studies have revealed that the sensitivity of ducklings to duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) was related to age, however, DTMUV was originally isolated from egg-laying ducks, and the ovary was the ta...

    Authors: Chuanwei Lv, Rong Li, Xingpo Liu, Ning Li and Sidang Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:282

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Ferlaviruses are important pathogens in snakes often associated with respiratory and neurological disease. The detection of ferlaviral RNA by PCR is considered to be the most reliable method for the diagnosis ...

    Authors: Ekaterina Kolesnik, Timothy H. Hyndman, Elisabeth Müller, Michael Pees and Rachel E. Marschang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:281

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection is a major cause of pyrexias in winter among Japanese racehorses. In 2014–2015, the Japan Racing Association (JRA) changed the EHV-1 vaccine from an inactivated vacc...

    Authors: Hiroshi Bannai, Koji Tsujimura, Manabu Nemoto, Minoru Ohta, Takashi Yamanaka, Hiroshi Kokado and Tomio Matsumura

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:280

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  13. Content type: Methodology article

    In Poland, the leader in goose production in Europe, goose parovirus infection, or Derzsy’s disease (DD), must be reported to the veterinary administration due to the serious economic and epizootic threat to w...

    Authors: Karolina Tarasiuk, Lucyna Holec-Gąsior, Bartłomiej Ferra and Andrzej Rapak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:274

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  14. Content type: Methodology article

    Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) is an infectious agent that can cause jaundice, severe anaemia, dyspnoea and reproductive disorders in fowls. Since 2015, FAdV disease has been rapidly spreading among broiler chickens i...

    Authors: Xiao-Yuan Yuan, You-Ling Wang, Kai Meng, Yu-Xia Zhang, Huai-Ying Xu and Wu Ai

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:256

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Canine Kobuvirus (CaKoV) has been detected both in healthy and diarrheic dogs and in asymptomatic wild carnivores. In this study, we conducted a survey of CaKoV at small animal hospitals in Bangkok and vicinit...

    Authors: Kamonpan Charoenkul, Taveesak Janetanakit, Supassama Chaiyawong, Napawan Bunpapong, Supanat Boonyapisitsopa, Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat and Alongkorn Amonsin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:254

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  16. Content type: Methodology article

    Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are important avian pathogens that can cause enormous economic loss on the poultry industry. Different respirat...

    Authors: Qian Xiao, Liping Yan, Lu Yao, Jing Lei, Zhenwei Bi, Jianhua Hu, Yuqing Chen, An Fang, Hui Li, Yuan Li, Yan Yan and Jiyong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:253

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Orf virus causes a scabby skin lesions which decreases productivity in small ruminants. The unknown status of this disease in the eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia warrants a study to determine sero-preval...

    Authors: Jamilu Abubakar Bala, Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Ashwaq Ahmed Abdullah, Lawan Adamu, Muhammad Syaafii bin Noorzahari, Lau Kah May, Hassana Kyari Mangga, Mohd Termizi Ghazali, Ramlan Bin Mohamed, Abd Wahid Haron, Mustapha Mohamed Noordin and Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:250

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) is an emergent/re-emergent viral pig disease (caused by the virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family, in specific the Alphacoronavirus genus) of global importance. Clinical pre...

    Authors: Dragan Brnić, Ivana Šimić, Ivana Lojkić, Nina Krešić, Andreja Jungić, Davor Balić, Marica Lolić, Dražen Knežević and Brigita Hengl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:249

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVADs). The infection of PCV2 is widespread and has serious consequence, thereby causing significant economic loss...

    Authors: Yi Hu, Xiong Cai, Yang Zhan, Xiaomin Yuan, Tanbin Liu, Lei Tan, Yalan Li, Lijie Zhang, Lingchen Yang, Wei Liu, Zhibang Deng, Naidong Wang, Yi Yang, Shiyin Guo and Aibing Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:248

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies have hypothesized that circulation of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) variants when the immunity induced by the vaccine is not sterilizing might favour viral persistence. Likewise, in additio...

    Authors: Liani Coronado, Jose Alejandro Bohórquez, Sara Muñoz-González, Lester Josue Perez, Rosa Rosell, Osvaldo Fonseca, Laiyen Delgado, Carmen Laura Perera, Maria Teresa Frías and Llilianne Ganges

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:247

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a transboundary cattle disease caused by a Capripoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. In Uganda, documented information on the epidemiology of the disease is rare and there is no nationwi...

    Authors: Sylvester Ochwo, Kimberly VanderWaal, Anna Munsey, Joseph Nkamwesiga, Christian Ndekezi, Elda Auma and Frank N. Mwiine

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:236

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals. Immunomodulation is among the most concerning of toxic effects linked with PFAS exposure in mammalian m...

    Authors: Jose M. Castaño-Ortiz, Veerle L. B. Jaspers and Courtney A. Waugh

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:214

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects various ungulates and causes reproductive failure in infected goats. BVDV has been detected among goats in the Republic of Korea, but the route of transmission remain...

    Authors: Jae-Ku Oem, Du-Gyeong Han and Kyoung-Seong Choi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:202

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a disease that can result in huge economic losses in the poultry industry. The high level of mutations of the IB virus (IBV) leads to the emergence of new serotypes and geno...

    Authors: Raimundas Lelešius, Agneta Karpovaitė, Rūta Mickienė, Tomas Drevinskas, Nicola Tiso, Ona Ragažinskienė, Loreta Kubilienė, Audrius Maruška and Algirdas Šalomskas

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:178

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a severe infectious disease in both domestic and wild small ruminants. Due to its heavy economic burden and hence social and health impacts on human populations, Food and Ag...

    Authors: Reza Shahriari, Azizollah Khodakaram-Tafti and Ali Mohammadi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:177

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Avian reovirus (ARV) is an important pathogen that can cause serious disease in poultry. Though several in vitro studies revealed some molecular mechanisms that are responsible for ARV-induced autophagy, it is...

    Authors: Xiaosai Niu, Chengcheng Zhang, Yuyang Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Baoyang Ruan, Xuefeng Wang, Tianqi Wu, Xiaorong Zhang and Yantao Wu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:173

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) has emerged in multiple countries in recent years. SVV infection can cause vesicular lesions clinically indistinguishable from those caused by other vesicular disease viruses, such as...

    Authors: Jianqiang Zhang, Charles Nfon, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Chien-Hsien Lee, Lindsay Fredericks, Qi Chen, Avanti Sinha, Sarah Bade, Karen Harmon, Pablo Piñeyro, Phillip Gauger, Yun-Long Tsai, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang and Pei-Yu Alison Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:168

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is considered highly fatal in its naturally occurring form, although up to 36% of cats resist disease after experimental infection, suggesting that cats in nature may also r...

    Authors: Farina Mustaffa-Kamal, Hongwei Liu, Niels C. Pedersen and Ellen E. Sparger

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:165

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is associated with respiratory infections in cattle of all ages; however, a temporal study to evaluate the effect of BCV immunity on virus shedding and bovine respiratory disease (BRD)...

    Authors: Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. McDaneld, Michael L. Clawson and John Dustin Loy

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:161

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an important respiratory pathogen worldwide, detrimentally affecting the economy and animal welfare. To prevent and control BRSV infection, further knowledge on vir...

    Authors: Thea Blystad Klem, Siri Kulberg Sjurseth, Ståle Sviland, Britt Gjerset, Mette Myrmel and Maria Stokstad

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:156

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting ducks. It can be caused by five agents, including duck hepatitis A virus genotypes 1 (DHAV-1), 2 (DHAV-2), and 3 (DHAV-3), as well as d...

    Authors: Minghang Wang, Ziheng Li, Huicong Liu, Xiaoyan Wang and Dabing Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:153

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) is major pathogen of goat herds causing serious respiratory tract disease and economic losses to the goat industry in China. We analyzed the differential proteomics o...

    Authors: Chunyan Zhong, Jizong Li, Li Mao, Maojun Liu, Xing Zhu, Wenliang Li, Min Sun, Xinqin Ji, Fang Xiao, Leilei Yang, Wenwen Zhang and Zheng Liao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:151

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  33. Content type: Case Report

    The absence of virus expression during the chronic stage of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection and its reactivation upon ex vivo culture has become a long-lived Dogma. During the chronic stage of BLV infect...

    Authors: Juan Pablo Jaworski, Marcos Iván Petersen, Hugo Adrián Carignano and Karina Gabriela Trono

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:150

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Novel Muscovy duck reovirus (N-MDRV), emerged in southeast China in 2002, which can infect a wide range of waterfowl and induces clinical signs and cytopathic effects that are distinct from those of classical ...

    Authors: Xue-Lian Zhang, Jian-Wei Shao, Xiao-Wen Li, Min-Min Mei, Jin-Yue Guo, Wen-Feng Li, Wen-Jing Huang, Shi-Hong Chi, Sheng Yuan, Zhi-Li Li and Shu-Jian Huang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:143

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  35. Content type: Research article

    There is paucity of data on the virulence of highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) H7 in ducks compared to HPAIV H5. Here, the virulence of HPAIV H7N1 (designated H7N1-FPV34 and H7N1-It99) and H...

    Authors: David Scheibner, Claudia Blaurock, Thomas C. Mettenleiter and Elsayed M. Abdelwhab

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:142

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline parvovirus (FPV) are causative agents of diarrhea in dogs and cats, which manifests as depression, vomiting, fever, loss of appetite, leucopenia, and diarrhea in young animal...

    Authors: Yaru Sun, Yuening Cheng, Peng Lin, Hewei Zhang, Li Yi, Mingwei Tong, Zhigang Cao, Shuang Li, Shipeng Cheng and Jianke Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:141

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of most important zoonotic viruses, and it can infect a wide range of host species. Avian HEV has been identified as the aetiological agent of big liver and spleen disease or hep...

    Authors: Xue-Lian Zhang, Wen-Feng Li, Sheng Yuan, Jin-Yue Guo, Zhi-Li Li, Shi-Hong Chi, Wen-Jing Huang, Xiao-Wen Li, Shu-Jian Huang and Jian-Wei Shao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:131

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that can cause diarrhea in nursing piglets. This study was aimed to investigate the roles of host differentially expressed genes on metabolic pathways in PD...

    Authors: Jiao L. Wu, Kai J. Mai, Di Li, Rui T. Wu, Zi X. Wu, Xiao Y. Tang, Qian N. Li, Yuan Sun, Tian Lan, Xiang B. Zhang and Jing Y. Ma

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:117

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a major etiological agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea around the world. Point-of-care testing in the field is lacking owing to the requirement for a simple, robust fi...

    Authors: Xueyu Wang, Xin Xu, Wen Hu, Kejing Zuo, Zhili Li, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Jun Ji and Yingzuo Bi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:116

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  40. Content type: Case report

    In May 2017, 17 dogs in a German Shepherd breeding kennel in northern China developed respiratory clinical signs. The owner treated the dogs with an intravenous injection of Shuang-Huang-lian, a traditional Ch...

    Authors: Liwei Zhou, Haoran Sun, Shikai Song, Jinhua Liu, Zhaofei Xia, Yipeng Sun and Yanli Lyu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:113

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a novel member of Flavivirus. The isolated and purified DTMUV strain XZ-2012 was used as a strain model, to intramuscularly inject the six-month egg-laying shelducks with the infecti...

    Authors: Xuejing Sun, Enxue Liu, Adeela Iqbal, Taozhi Wang, Xindong Wang, Abdul Haseeb, Nisar Ahmed, Ping Yang and Qiusheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:112

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  42. Content type: Research article

    PDCoV (Porcine Deltacoronavirus) is a novel porcine coronavirus that causes intestinal necrosis of piglets, thinning of the intestinal wall and severe villus atrophy in the small intestine. PDCoV is a highly c...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Tang, Tian Lan, Ruiting Wu, Zhihai Zhou, Yuqi Chen, Yuan Sun, Yaoyao Zheng and Jingyun Ma

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:111

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Major viruses, including duck-origin avian influenza virus, duck-origin Newcastle disease virus, novel duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis A virus, duck Tembusu virus, fowl adenovirus, and duck enteritis virus, po...

    Authors: Ming Yao, Xiyu Zhang, Yunfei Gao, Suquan Song, Danning Xu and Liping Yan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:103

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Since early 2015, mule duck and Cherry Valley duck flocks have been suffering from short beak and dwarfism syndrome. This widely spreading infectious disease is characterized by growth retardation, smaller bea...

    Authors: Guozhi Bian, Haibin Ma, Mengping Luo, Fengping Gong, Bo Li, Guiping Wang, Mudassar Mohiuddin, Ming Liao and Jianfeng Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:88

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is prevalent in pigs and may serve as a reservoir for human infection. However, data on HEV infections in pigs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, are limited. Here, we clarified the process ...

    Authors: Takumi Motoya, Masahiro Umezawa, Keiko Goto, Ikuko Doi, Noriko Nagata, Yoshiaki Ikeda, Atsushi Sakuta, Nobuya Sasaki and Koji Ishii

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:87

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The Shimen strain of classical swine fever (CSF) virus (CSFV) causes CSF, which is mainly characterised by disseminated intravascular haemorrhage. Macrophages are an essential component of innate immunity agai...

    Authors: Xiaocheng Gong, Aoxue Hu, Xuepeng Li, Jun He, Zhongxing Wu, Xi Zuo and Pengbo Ning

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:82

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  47. Content type: Methodology article

    Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), recently widely isolated from pigs with various clinical conditions, is likely globally epidemic. However, development of serological diagnosis for PCV3 in pigs is ongoing. Ou...

    Authors: Sujiao Zhang, Dongliang Wang, Yifan Jiang, Zhoumian Li, Yawen Zou, Meng Li, Haoyang Yu, Kun Huang, Yi Yang and Naidong Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:79

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Honey bee population decline threatens the beekeeping sector, agriculture and global biodiversity. Early detection of colony mortality may facilitate rapid interventions to contain and prevent mortality spread...

    Authors: Sandra Barroso-Arévalo, Marina Vicente-Rubiano, Francisco Puerta, Fernando Molero and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:72

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