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Pharmacology and toxicology

Section edited by Prof. Wolfgang Bäumer and Prof. Manfred Kietzmann

The pharmacology and toxicology section covers all aspects of research involved with basic and clinical pharmacology and toxicology, including pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomics, randomized controlled clinical trials and rational pharmacology in domestic and non-domestic species, including wild animals, zoo animals, fish, and laboratory animals.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Prednisolone was one of the first glucocorticoids to be synthesised, but it is still widely applied to cattle. Illegal uses of prednisolone include its uses for masking a number of diseases before animal sale ...

    Authors: Carlo Nebbia, Pierluigi Capra, Marta Leporati, Flavia Girolami, Gandolfo Barbarino, Stefano Gatto and Marco Vincenti

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:237

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whe...

    Authors: Ariana LC de Paiva, Talyta L Nunes, Maria GC de Oliveira, Alessandro ML de Morais, Érika AA dos Santos, Alexandre R Silva, Moacir F de Oliveira and Valéria V de Paula

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:170

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  3. Content type: Research article

    In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline or...

    Authors: Nadine Paßlack, Barbara Mainzer, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Helmut Schafft, Richard Palavinskas, Angele Breithaupt and Jürgen Zentek

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:163

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Methamphetamine abuse has undergone a dramatic worldwide increase, and represents a significant and global issue for public health. Incidents of methamphetamine intoxication and death in humans are relatively ...

    Authors: Zengyang Pei and Xu Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:139

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The influence of electromagnetic fields on the health of humans and animals is still an intensively discussed and scientifically investigated issue (Prakt Tierarzt 11:15-20, 2003; Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 1...

    Authors: Michael Hässig, Marietta Wullschleger, Hanspeter Naegeli, Jaqueline Kupper, Bernhard Spiess, Niels Kuster, Myles Capstick and Manuel Murbach

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:136

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The osteoarthritis (OA) treatment in humans and in animals is a major orthopaedic challenge because there is not an ideal drug for preserving the joint structure and function. The aim of this study was to asse...

    Authors: María Permuy, David Guede, Mónica López-Peña, Fernando Muñoz, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra and Jose-Ramón Caeiro

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:97

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously ...

    Authors: Bruno Carneiro Pinheiro, Dayanne A Silva Dantas Lima, Wagner C Lima, Ana Maria Quessada and Marcelo C Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:66

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Propofol is a widely used injectable anesthetic agent for induction and short-term maintenance in dogs. A multi-dose formulation of propofol (MDP) has been developed which includes 2% benzyl alcohol as a prese...

    Authors: Khursheed R Mama, James S Gaynor, Ralph C Harvey, Sheilah A Robertson, Robbin L Koenig and Elizabeth M Cozzi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:261

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) is the primary transporter for the excretion of bile acids from hepatocytes into bile. In human, inhibition of BSEP by drugs has been related to drug-induced cholestasis...

    Authors: Cyrina D van Beusekom, Jeroen JMW van den Heuvel, Jan B Koenderink, Johannes A Schrickx and Frans GM Russel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:259

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  10. Content type: Methodology article

    Anesthetic agents alter microcirculation, influencing tissue oxygenation and delivery of vital substrates. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a widespread technique in the field of microvascular research that ...

    Authors: Sara Gargiulo, Matteo Gramanzini, Raffaele Liuzzi, Adelaide Greco, Arturo Brunetti and Giancarlo Vesce

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:255

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Cimicoxib is a new coxib anti-inflammatory drug for use in the dog. To determine a preclinical dosage regimen for cimicoxib in dog, a reversible model of kaolin–induced paw inflammation was used. Dosage regime...

    Authors: Elisabeth C Jeunesse, Marc Schneider, Frederique Woehrle, Mathieu Faucher, Herve P Lefebvre and Pierre-Louis Toutain

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:250

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Monoclonal antibodies are a major class of biological therapies in human medicine but have not yet been successfully applied to veterinary species. We have developed a novel approach, PETisation, to rapidly co...

    Authors: David P Gearing, Elena R Virtue, Robert P Gearing and Alexander C Drew

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:226

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Locoweeds cause significant livestock poisoning and economic loss all over the world. Animals can develop locoism, a chronic neurological disease, after grazing on locoweeds. Oxytropis kansuensis is a variety of ...

    Authors: Hao Lu, Liang Zhang, Shan-shan Wang, Wen-long Wang and Bao-yu Zhao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:217

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In human medicine, adverse outcomes associated with switching between bioequivalent brand name and generic antiepileptic drug products is a subject of concern among clinicians. In veterinary medicine, epilepsy...

    Authors: Marion Bankstahl, Jens P Bankstahl and Wolfgang Löscher

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:202

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  15. Content type: Research article

    This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine during xylazine and ketamine anesthesia in horses and aimed to correlate these effects with cardiorespiratory ...

    Authors: Pedro I Nóbrega Neto, Stelio PL Luna, Patricia Queiroz-Williams, Khursheed R Mama, Eugene P Steffey and Adriano B Carregaro

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:199

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  16. Content type: Research article

    After addressing fundamental questions in preclinical models in vitro or in small animals in vivo, the translation into large animal models has become a prerequisite before transferring new findings to human medi...

    Authors: Annika Weigand, Anja M Boos, Jürgen Ringwald, Maren Mieth, Ulrich Kneser, Andreas Arkudas, Oliver Bleiziffer, Dorothee Klumpp, Raymund E Horch and Justus P Beier

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:192

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  17. Content type: Research article

    A randomized, unmasked, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the rate of pruritus reduction and improvement in clinical scoring by cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg orally, once daily for 28 days) either alone (n...

    Authors: Ramiro Dip, James Carmichael, Ingrid Letellier, Guenther Strehlau, Elizabeth Roberts, Emmanuel Bensignor and Wayne Rosenkrantz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:173

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to determine intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) FM PK in mature swine. Appropriate pain management for lameness in swine is a critical control point for veterinari...

    Authors: Monique D Pairis-Garcia, Locke A Karriker, Anna K Johnson, Butch Kukanich, Larry Wulf, Suzanne Sander, Suzanne T Millman, Kenneth J Stalder and Johann F Coetzee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:165

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  19. Content type: Research article

    To test the efficacy of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) alteplase in horses, the thrombolytic effect was tested in in vitro generated equine thrombi. The extent of lysis was determined b...

    Authors: Wolfgang Bäumer, Gudrun M Herrling and Karsten Feige

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:158

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Premedication is rarely used in avian species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of premedication on the quality of sevoflurane induction and anaesthesia in parrots. We hypothesised that premedi...

    Authors: Valéria Veras Paula, Denise Aya Otsuki, José Otávio Costa Auler Júnior, Talyta Lins Nunes, Aline Magalhães Ambrósio and Denise Tabacchi Fantoni

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:142

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The TSH stimulation test to confirm canine hypothyroidism is commonly performed using a recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), as up to date, canine TSH is not yet commercially available. Limiting factors for the use ...

    Authors: Sandra Schaefer, Paul O Hassa, Nadja S Sieber-Ruckstuhl, Marion Piechotta, Claudia E Reusch, Bernd Roschitzki and Felicitas S Boretti

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:141

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Aim of the study was to compare the effect of neuroleptic sedation with acepromazine and neuroleptanalgesia with acepromazine and buprenorphine on thermal thresholds (TT) obtained at the nostrils and at the wi...

    Authors: Christin Poller, Klaus Hopster, Karl Rohn and Sabine BR Kästner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:135

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global problem and is steadily increasing worldwide in almost every bacterial species treated with antibiotics. In aquaculture, the therapeutic options for the treatm...

    Authors: Lijuan Xu, Hao Wang, Xianle Yang and Liqun Lu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:126

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medeto...

    Authors: José Angel Barasona, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Beatriz Beltrán-Beck, Christian Gortázar and Joaquín Vicente

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:107

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used routinely to control pain and inflammation after surgery in dogs. Robenacoxib is a new NSAID with high selectivity for the cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 isofor...

    Authors: Philippe Gruet, Wolfgang Seewald and Jonathan N King

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:92

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  26. Content type: Research article

    An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic c...

    Authors: Jessica Stahl, Stefanie Mielke, Wolf-Rüdiger Pankow and Manfred Kietzmann

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:70

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease that causes disabilities in elderly adults. However, few long-lasting pharmacotherapeutic agents with low side effects have been developed to treat OA. We evaluate...

    Authors: Hsien-Tsung Lu, Ming-Thau Sheu, Yung-Feng Lin, Jai Lan, Yi-Ping Chin, Ming-Shium Hsieh, Chao-Wen Cheng and Chien-Ho Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:68

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  28. Content type: Research article

    This study investigated synovial concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) in the equine fetlock joint following systemic administration of ASA. Salicylates were chose...

    Authors: Maren Friebe, Stephan Schumacher, Jessica Stahl and Manfred Kietzmann

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:56

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The illegal administration of hormones, steroids, β-agonists and other anabolic agents to productive livestock in the European Union continues, despite the long-term ban on their use and despite the measures p...

    Authors: Antonio Borrelli, Claudio Bellino, Elena Bozzetta, Barbara Bruno, Sara Falco, Cristiana Maurella, Paola Gianella, Marzia Pezzolato, Aurelio Cagnasso and Antonio D’Angelo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:55

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Medetomidine-ketamine (MK) and dexmedetomidine-ketamine (DK) are widely used to provide general anaesthesia in laboratory animals, but have not been compared directly in many of these species, including rodent...

    Authors: Wesley M Burnside, Paul A Flecknell, Angus I Cameron and Aurélie A Thomas

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:48

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Pradofloxacin, a newly developed 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone, show enhanced activity against Gram-positive organisms and anaerobes to treat canine and feline bacterial infections. The purpose of this cross-over st...

    Authors: Gregor Hauschild, Karl Rohn, Eva Engelhardt, Martin Sager, Jendrik Hardes and Georg Gosheger

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:32

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Several oral ivermectin (IVM) formulations for use in sheep are available in the pharmaceutical veterinary market in different countries. All of them are indicated at the same dose rate to treat the gastrointe...

    Authors: Gonzalo Suárez, Luis Alvarez, Daniel Castells, Oscar Correa, Pietro Fagiolino and Carlos Lanusse

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:27

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Having considered how bioavailable aluminium (Al) may affect ecological systems and animals living there, especially cattle, and in search for a preventive dietary treatment against Al toxicity, we aimed to te...

    Authors: Yosra Belaïd-Nouira, Hayfa Bakhta, Zohra Haouas, Imen Flehi-Slim, Fadoua Neffati, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar and Hassen Ben Cheikh

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:22

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypi...

    Authors: Jiri Pikula, Pavlina Hajkova, Hana Bandouchova, Ivana Bednarova, Vojtech Adam, Miroslava Beklova, Jiri Kral, Karel Ondracek, Jitka Osickova, Miroslav Pohanka, Jana Sedlackova, Hana Skochova, Jakub Sobotka, Frantisek Treml and Rene Kizek

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:11

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Massive industrial production of engineered nanoparticles poses questions about health risks to living beings. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms, we studied the effects of TiO2 and ZnO agglomerated...

    Authors: Metka Šimundić, Barbara Drašler, Vid Šuštar, Jernej Zupanc, Roman Štukelj, Darko Makovec, Deniz Erdogmus, Henry Hägerstrand, Damjana Drobne and Veronika Kralj-Iglič

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2013 9:7

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  36. Content type: Research article

    There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic heal...

    Authors: Rozemarijn J van der Vijver, Cees JHM van Laarhoven, Roger MLM Lomme and Thijs Hendriks

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:247

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The gastrointestinal tract is the first target for the potentially harmful effects of mycotoxins after intake of mycotoxin contaminated food or feed. With deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), fumonisin B1 (F...

    Authors: Joline Goossens, Frank Pasmans, Elin Verbrugghe, Virginie Vandenbroucke, Siegrid De Baere, Evelyne Meyer, Freddy Haesebrouck, Patrick De Backer and Siska Croubels

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:245

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Adelmidrol is a semisynthetic derivative of azelaic acid and analogue of the anti-inflammatory compound palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). Based upon its physicochemical properties, adelmidrol is suitable for topica...

    Authors: Santiago Cerrato, Pilar Brazis, Maria Federica della Valle, Alda Miolo and Anna Puigdemont

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:230

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The use of growth-promoters in beef cattle, despite the EU ban, remains a frequent practice. The use of transcriptomic markers has already proposed to identify indirect evidence of anabolic hormone treatment. ...

    Authors: Sara Pegolo, Guglielmo Gallina, Clara Montesissa, Francesca Capolongo, Serena Ferraresso, Caterina Pellizzari, Lisa Poppi, Massimo Castagnaro and Luca Bargelloni

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:205

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA) is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver place...

    Authors: Sarah Malek, Susannah J Sample, Zeev Schwartz, Brett Nemke, Peer B Jacobson, Elizabeth M Cozzi, Susan L Schaefer, Jason A Bleedorn, Gerianne Holzman and Peter Muir

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:185

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  41. Content type: Research article

    The conceptual validity of kinetic gait analysis and disability outcome assessment methods has guided their use in the assessment of pain caused by osteoarthritis (OA). No consensus on the best clinical method...

    Authors: Pascale Rialland, Sylvain Bichot, Maxim Moreau, Martin Guillot, Bertrand Lussier, Dominique Gauvin, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier and Eric Troncy

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:162

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  42. Content type: Research article

    An un-commissioned randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical study was planned using a deep sea fish oil product for pets. Seventy-seven client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis were randomly assign...

    Authors: Anna Hielm-Björkman, Johanna Roine, Kari Elo, Anu Lappalainen, Jouni Junnila and Outi Laitinen-Vapaavuori

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:157

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Dehorning is a common practice involving calves on dairy operations in the United States. However, less than 20% of producers report using analgesics or anesthetics during dehorning. Administration of a system...

    Authors: Johann F Coetzee, Ruby A Mosher, Butch KuKanich, Ronette Gehring, Brad Robert, J Brandon Reinbold and Brad J White

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:153

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Ophthalmic antibiotic therapy in large animals is often used empirically because of the lack of pharmacokinetics studies. The purpose of the study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of topical tobramycin 0....

    Authors: Sarah L Czerwinski, Andrew W Lyon, Brian Skorobohach and Renaud Léguillette

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:141

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  45. Content type: Research article

    In Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica) husks are reused in several ways due to their abundance, including as stall bedding. However, field veterinarians have reported that horses become intoxicated after ingesting th...

    Authors: Diego Jose Z Delfiol, Jose P Oliveira-Filho, Fernanda L Casalecchi, Thatiane Kievitsbosch, Carlos A Hussni, Franklin Riet-Correa, João P Araujo-Jr and Alexandre S Borges

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:4

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