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Pharmacology and toxicology

Section edited by Prof. Wolfgang Bäumer and Prof. Manfred Kietzmann

The pharmacology and toxicology section covers all aspects of research involved with basic and clinical pharmacology and toxicology, including pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomics, randomized controlled clinical trials and rational pharmacology in domestic and non-domestic species, including wild animals, zoo animals, fish, and laboratory animals.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to assess validation evidence for a sedation scale for dogs. We hypothesized that the chosen sedation scale would be unreliable when used by different raters and show poor discriminat...

    Authors: Marika C. Wagner, Kent G. Hecker and Daniel S. J. Pang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:110

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care and American Veterinary Medical Association classify intraperitoneal (IP) pentobarbital as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. However, national guidelines do not exist...

    Authors: Katie K Zatroch, Cameron G. Knight, Julie N. Reimer and Daniel S. J. Pang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:60

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  3. Content type: Research article

    This study focused on utilizing pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) modeling to optimize therapeutic dosage regimens of sarafloxacin against avian pathogenic Escherichia. coli O78 strain in Muscovy ducks. T...

    Authors: Yang Yu, Yu Feng Zhou, Jian Sun, Wei Shi, Xiao Ping Liao and Ya Hong Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:47

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Imepitoin was tested as a combination treatment with phenobarbital in an open-label mono-centre cohort study in dogs with drug-resistant epilepsy. Diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy was based on clinical finding...

    Authors: Jasmin Neßler, Chris Rundfeldt, Wolfgang Löscher, Draginja Kostic, Thomas Keefe and Andrea Tipold

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:33

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Although acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is not frequently used as a therapeutic agent in horses, its metabolite SA is of special interest in equestrianism since it is a natural component of many plants used as hor...

    Authors: Kathrin Buntenkötter, Maren Osmers, Ina Schenk, Wilhelm Schänzer, Marc Machnik, Michael Düe and Manfred Kietzmann

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:28

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Cibotium barometz is a medical herb used traditionally in the Malaysian peninsula for several ailments, including gastric ulcer. The aim of this study was assessment the anti-ulcer eff...

    Authors: Nahla Saeed AL-Wajeeh, Maryam Hajerezaie, Suzita Mohd Noor, Mohammed Farouq Halabi, Nawal Al-Henhena, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah Azizan, Sareh Kamran, Pouya Hassandarvish, Abdrabuh N. Shwter, Hamed karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali and Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:27

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Dipyrone (MET, metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used both in human and in veterinary medicine. After oral administration, is broken down rapidly to metabolites which largely retai...

    Authors: Artur Burmańczuk, Andrzej Milczak, Tomasz Grabowski, Monika Osypiuk and Cezary Kowalski

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:263

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to e...

    Authors: Zhoumeng Lin, Matthew Cuneo, Joan D. Rowe, Mengjie Li, Lisa A. Tell, Shayna Allison, Jan Carlson, Jim E. Riviere and Ronette Gehring

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:258

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Mutant prevention concentration (MPC) is an alternative pharmacodynamic parameter that has been used to measure antimicrobial activity and represents the propensities of antimicrobial agents to select resistan...

    Authors: Yafei Li, Yanan Zhang, Huanzhong Ding, Xian Mei, Wei Liu, Jiaxiong Zeng and Zhenling Zeng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:250

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial pneumonia in goats is usually caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Another important infection disease in lactating goats is intramammary infection producing mastitis, usually ass...

    Authors: Emilio Fernández-Varón, Carlos Cárceles-García, Juan Manuel Serrano-Rodríguez and Carlos M. Cárceles-Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:232

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Few pharmaceuticals are registered in cats for the management of post-operative pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the field efficacy and safety of an injectable formulation of th...

    Authors: Stephen King, Elizabeth S. Roberts and Jonathan N. King

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:215

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Cross-contamination of feed with low concentrations of antimicrobials can occur at production, transport and/or farm level. Concerns are rising about possible effects of this contaminated feed on resistance se...

    Authors: Laura E. J. Peeters, Els Daeseleire, Mathias Devreese, Geertrui Rasschaert, Annemieke Smet, Jeroen Dewulf, Marc Heyndrickx, Hein Imberechts, Freddy Haesebrouck, Patrick Butaye and Siska Croubels

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:209

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Central sensitization is a potential severe consequence of invasive surgical procedures. It results in postoperative and potentially chronic pain enhancement. It results in postoperative pain enhancement; clin...

    Authors: Ubedullah Kaka, Bullo Saifullah, Adamu Abdul Abubakar, Yong Meng Goh, Sharida Fakurazi, Asmatullah Kaka, Atique Ahmed Behan, Mahdi Ebrahimi and Hui Cheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:198

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects on tendinopathies have been attributed to blood-derived biologicals. To date the evidence for the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of natur...

    Authors: Florian Geburek, Moritz Gaus, Hans T. M. van Schie, Karl Rohn and Peter M. Stadler

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:191

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) were known as potent antibacterial agents. For the purpose of evaluating the bioactivity of existing animal-used QdNOs drugs against representative pathogenic microorganism...

    Authors: Yan Zhao, Guyue Cheng, Haihong Hao, Yuanhu Pan, Zhenli Liu, Menghong Dai and Zonghui Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:186

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  16. Content type: Research article

    To optimize antimicrobial dosing in different animal species, pharmacokinetic information is necessary. Due to the plethora of cephalosporin antimicrobials and animal species in which they are used, assessment...

    Authors: Femke J. Taverne, Ingeborg M. van Geijlswijk, Dick J. J. Heederik, Jaap A. Wagenaar and Johan W. Mouton

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:185

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Local anesthetics are an important component of perioperative pain management, but the duration of action of available products is limited. We hypothesized that a single local infiltration of a novel bupivacai...

    Authors: B. Duncan X. Lascelles, Lesley C. Rausch-Derra, Jessica A. Wofford and Margie Huebner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:168

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Perioperative lidocaine treatment is commonly used in horses that undergo surgical treatment of colic, to prevent or treat postoperative ileus and reduce the effects of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury....

    Authors: Shebl E. Salem, Chris J. Proudman and Debra C. Archer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:157

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Expanding lead-based bullets, commonly used for hunting of big game, produce a scattering of lead particles in the carcass around the wound channel. Trimmings around this channel, which are sometimes fed to do...

    Authors: Helga R. Høgåsen, Robin Ørnsrud, Helle K. Knutsen and Aksel Bernhoft

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:152

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Combined use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may induce acute kidney injury in humans, especially when combined with diuretics. The objective of this invest...

    Authors: Jonathan N. King, Alessandro Panteri, Melanie Graille, Wolfgang Seewald, Gabriele Friton and Cyril Desevaux

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:124

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ketoprofen on acute phase protein (APPs) concentrations in goats undergoing castration. A total of 16 clinically healthy, male and 12 months old goats...

    Authors: Umit Karademir, Ibrahim Akin, Hasan Erdogan, Kerem Ural and Gamze Sevri Ekren Asici

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:123

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin and eugenol, as starting precursors, were esterified to synthesize aspirin eugenol ester (AEE). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antithrombotic effect of...

    Authors: Ning Ma, Xi-Wang Liu, Ya-Jun Yang, Dong-Shuai Shen, Xiao-Le Zhao, Isam Mohamed, Xiao-Jun Kong and Jian-Yong Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:108

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Castration is one of the most common procedures performed on beef and dairy cattle. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of meloxicam oral suspension in reducing pain and inflammation in ca...

    Authors: M. E. Olson, Brenda Ralston, Les Burwash, Heather Matheson-Bird and Nick D. Allan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:102

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in dogs is analogous to that in humans. Romiplostim, a novel thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) agonist, is currently used for the treatment of refractory ITP in humans, but not in d...

    Authors: Barbara Kohn, Gürkan Bal, Aleksandra Chirek, Sina Rehbein and Abdulgabar Salama

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:96

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:290

  25. Content type: Research article

    Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets lead to significant economic losses in livestock husbandry. A high morbidity has been reported for diarrhea (calves ≤ 35 %; piglets ≤ 50 %) and f...

    Authors: Hannah Ayrle, Meike Mevissen, Martin Kaske, Heiko Nathues, Niels Gruetzner, Matthias Melzig and Michael Walkenhorst

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:89

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Compared to blood or urine, drugs can be detected for much longer periods in the long hair of horses. The aim of this study was to establish and validate a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass sp...

    Authors: Milena M. Madry, Barbara S. Spycher, Jacqueline Kupper, Anton Fuerst, Markus R. Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer and Hanspeter Naegeli

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:84

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:122

  27. Content type: Research article

    Due to antibiotic treatment of humans and animals, the prevalence of bacterial resistances increases worldwide. Especially in livestock farming, large quantities of faeces contaminated with antibiotics pose a ...

    Authors: Jessica Stahl, Katrin Zessel, Jochen Schulz, Jan Henrik Finke, Christel Charlotte Müller-Goymann and Manfred Kietzmann

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:68

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the relief of postoperative pain for human and veterinary medicine. This study was designed to investigate the effect of surgery on the plasma d...

    Authors: Umit Karademir, Dilek Aksit, Cavit Kum, Hasan Erdogan, Eyup Hakan Ucar, Cevdet Peker and Cengiz Gokbulut

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:33

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The commercial pet-food industry and the market value of the pet industry have increased. Most owners are concerned about their pets’ health, and prefer commercial pet foods as their regular diet. This study t...

    Authors: Tanyalak Khuntamoon, Apanchanid Thepouyporn, Sarunya Kaewprasert, Pattaneeya Prangthip, Somchai Pooudoung, Urai Chaisri, Phudit Maneesai and Karunee Kwanbunjan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:17

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The role of cyclooxygenase(COX)-1 and COX-2 in the saluretic and renin-angiotensin responses to loop diuretics in the cat is unknown. We propose in vivo characterisation of isoform roles in a furosemide model ...

    Authors: L. Pelligand, N. Suemanotham, J. N. King, W. Seewald, H. Syme, K. Smith, P. Lees and J. Elliott

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:296

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Marbofloxacin is a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed solely for veterinary medicine with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and most Gram-negative bacteria, includin...

    Authors: Ying Qu, Zhenzhen Qiu, Changfu Cao, Yan Lu, Meizhen Sun, Chaoping Liang and Zhenling Zeng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:294

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) can invade the body and cause systemic infection under stress conditions. Marbofloxacin has been recommended for the treatment of swine infections. H...

    Authors: Jian Sun, Xia Xiao, Rui-Juan Huang, Tao Yang, Yi Chen, Xi Fang, Ting Huang, Yu-Feng Zhou and Ya-Hong Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:293

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Ivermectin is widely used in veterinary practice for the treatment of ecto- and endo-parasites. In wildlife, an extra-label use this parasiticide is sometimes associated with toxicity. Different treatment regi...

    Authors: Muhammad Saqib, Ghazanfar Abbas and Mudassar Niaz Mughal

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:287

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Healthy farm animals have been found to act as a reservoir of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli). Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the input of antimic...

    Authors: Anne Beyer, Sven Baumann, Gesine Scherz, Jessica Stahl, Martin von Bergen, Anika Friese, Uwe Roesler, Manfred Kietzmann and Walther Honscha

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:265

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Definitive post mortem confirmation of intoxication by the neurotoxic rodenticide bromethalin can be challenging. Brain lesions are not specific and detection of bromethalin and its metabolites are unpredictab...

    Authors: Maria C. Bates, Patrick Roady, Andreas F. Lehner, John P. Buchweitz, B. Heggem-Perry and Stephane Lezmi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:244

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are the main pathogens infectious to poultry, and their resistances against antibiotics have become troublesome currently. Biofilm formation ...

    Authors: Yong Ye, Qian Yang, Fei Fang and Yue Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:214

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  37. Content type: Case report

    Lyme borreliosis is a disease transmitted by ticks to mammals, especially in horses and humans. Caused by a spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, it can result in lameness, arthritis, carditis, dermatitis and neurolog...

    Authors: Roberta Carvalho Basile, Gabriela Gomes Rivera, Lara Antoniassi Del Rio, Talissa Camargo Mantovani de Bonis, Gabriel Paiva Domingues do Amaral, Edson Giangrecco, Guilherme Ferraz, Natalino Hajime Yoshinari, Paulo Aléscio Canola and Antonio Queiroz Neto

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:197

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can result in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) which is a common condition worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer properties of (1-(4-hydroxy-ph...

    Authors: Summaya M Dhiyaaldeen, Zahra A Amin, Pouya H Darvish, Iman Fahmi Mustafa, Mazen M Jamil, Elham Rouhollahi and Mahmood A Abdulla

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:961

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  39. Content type: Research article

    This study evaluated the influence of repeated anaesthesia using isoflurane (ISO, 2–3 Vol%), ketamine-xylazine (KX, 100 mg·kg−1 + 5 mg·kg−1, i.m.) or a combination of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF, 0.15 mg...

    Authors: Maike Albrecht, Julia Henke, Sabine Tacke, Michael Markert and Brian Guth

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:310

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Continuous-rate infusion (CRI) of drugs results in more stable plasma drug concentrations than administration of intermittent boluses, thus providing greater stability of physiological parameters. The aim of t...

    Authors: Adriano B Carregaro, Gabrielle C Freitas, Martina H Ribeiro, Nathalia V Xavier and Renata GS Dória

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:966

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  41. Content type: Research article

    The resistance of cephalosporins is significantly serious in veterinary clinic. In order to inhibit the bacterial resistance production, the mutant selection window (MSW) hypothesis with Escherichia coli (E. coli

    Authors: Bingxu Zhang, Xiaoyan Gu, Yafei Li, Xiaohong Li, Mengxiao Gu, Nan Zhang, Xiangguang Shen and Huanzhong Ding

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:297

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  42. Content type: Methodology article

    The present preliminary study describes concentration time courses of the NSAID carprofen in the plasma and synovial fluid in a microfrature sheep model after transcutaneous treatments with a novel application...

    Authors: Michèle Sidler, Nathalie Fouché, Ingmar Meth, Friedrich von Hahn, Brigitte von Rechenberg and Peter W Kronen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:268

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The (mis)use of fluoroquinolones in the fowl industry has led to an alarming incidence of fluoroquinolone resistance in pathogenic as well as commensal bacteria. Next to simply reducing antimicrobial consumpti...

    Authors: Mathias Devreese, Gunther Antonissen, Siegrid De Baere, Patrick De Backer and Siska Croubels

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:289

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Pasteurella multocida causes numerous economically relevant diseases in livestock including rabbits. Immunisation is only variably effective. Prophylactic antibiotics are used in some species but are contra-indic...

    Authors: Orsolya Palócz, János Gál, Paul Clayton, Zoltán Dinya, Zoltán Somogyi, Csaba Juhász and György Csikó

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:276

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  45. Content type: Research article

    In the first phase of life, in which the immune system is primed and the bacterial colonization of epithelial surfaces takes place, foals are highly susceptible to bacterial infections. Next to strategies to o...

    Authors: Johannes Cornelis Vendrig, Luc Edgar Coffeng and Johanna Fink-Gremmels

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:278

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of the new oral phosphate binder Lenziaren® (SBR759) were evaluated in a randomized parallel-group design study in 36 healthy cats (n = 6 per group). Five groups we...

    Authors: Jonathan N King, Heidi L Erasmus, Peet C Delport, Ina CJ Bester and Wolfgang Seewald

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:258

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Opioid-induced immobilization is associated with severe respiratory depression in the white rhinoceros. We evaluated the efficacy of butorphanol and oxygen insufflation in alleviating opioid-induced respirator...

    Authors: Anna Haw, Markus Hofmeyr, Andrea Fuller, Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Gregory Fleming and Leith Meyer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:253

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  48. Content type: Research article

    A variety of analgesic agents are available, and which one can be used in dogs and cats is a highly controversial issue, existing however a fear in the use of opiates due to possible adverse effects that these...

    Authors: Marina C Evangelista, Rodrigo A Silva, Larissa B Cardozo, Marcia A P Kahvegian, Thais C Rossetto, Julia M Matera and Denise T Fantoni

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:252

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