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Pharmacology and toxicology

Section edited by Prof. Wolfgang Bäumer and Prof. Manfred Kietzmann

The pharmacology and toxicology section covers all aspects of research involved with basic and clinical pharmacology and toxicology, including pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomics, randomized controlled clinical trials and rational pharmacology in domestic and non-domestic species, including wild animals, zoo animals, fish, and laboratory animals.

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  1. Content type: Case Report

    Malarone® is a drug used for the treatment of malaria in humans. This drug is also particularly effective in the treatment of canine Babesia gibsoni infections. Malarone® is rarely used in dogs, and its adverse e...

    Authors: Hyeong-Il Choi, Hui-Yeon Ko, In-Sik Shin and Ha-Jung Kim

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:314

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Sub-Saharan African market is highly affected by counterfeit veterinary drugs. Though these counterfeit and non-compliance of drugs can induce adverse effects during their utilization, there is no monitoring s...

    Authors: Mohamed Moctar Mouliom Mouiche, Badou Zaki Ndouoya Njingou, Frédéric Moffo, Serge Eugene Mpouam, Jean Marc Kameni Feussom and Julius Awah-Ndukum

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:301

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  3. Content type: Case Report

    Although the new isoxazoline drug fluralaner (Bravecto®) is generally well tolerated in dogs, adverse drug reactions involving neurological dysfunction occurred in individual dogs. However, most of these cases...

    Authors: Daniela Gaens, Christoph Rummel, Martin Schmidt, Melanie Hamann and Joachim Geyer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:283

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the disposition of furosemide in Thoroughbred horses treated intravenously with 1 mg/kg of furosemide 4 and 24 h before supramaximal treadmill exercise without...

    Authors: N. F. Villarino, C. M. Lopez, R. A. Sams and W. M. Bayly

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:275

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Ceftiofur Sodium is widely used in China. Our aim was to determine Ceftiofur Sodium activity and optimize dosing regimens against the pathogen Haemophilus parasuis using an in vitro and ex vivo pharmacokinetics/p...

    Authors: Xiao-dong Li, Sheng-Qing Chi, Li-Yun Wu, Can Liu, Tong Sun, Juan Hong, Xun Chen, Xiao-Gang Chen, Guan-Song Wang and Dao-Jin Yu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:272

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Oxyclozanide is an anthelmintic drug that is widely used to treat fasciolosis. However, the pharmacokinetics of oxyclozanide in cattle are not yet clearly understood. The present study was designed to develop a s...

    Authors: Jili Zhang, Yubin Bai, Bing Li, Xuzheng Zhou, Hongfei Si and Jiyu Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:210

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  7. Content type: Research article

    While commercial poultry and captive birds are exposed to antimicrobials through direct medication, environmental pollution may result in contamination of wild birds. Fluoroquinolones are commonly used medicat...

    Authors: Hana Hruba, Ehdaa Eltayeb Eltigani Abdelsalam, Nikolay Anisimov, Hana Bandouchova, Barbora Havelkova, Tomas Heger, Miroslava Kanova, Veronika Kovacova, Monika Nemcova, Vladimir Piacek, Jana Sedlackova, Frantisek Vitula and Jiri Pikula

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:209

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is an acute disease of young ducklings with no effective veterinary drugs for treatment. Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that plays an important rol...

    Authors: Hongxu Du, Jingying Bai, Jinli Wang, Miao He, Wen Xiong, Wenjuan Yuan, Mingyu Qiao, Ke Ming, Yi Wu, Deyun Wang, Yuanliang Hu and Jiaguo Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:134

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Haemophilus parasuis (HPS) is the causative agent of Glässer’s disease, characterized by arthritis, fibrinous polyserositis and meningitis, and resulting in worldwide economic losses in the swine industry. Baical...

    Authors: Chun Ye, Ruizhi Li, Lei Xu, Yinsheng Qiu, Shulin Fu, Yu Liu, Zhongyuan Wu, Yongqing Hou and Chien-An Andy Hu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:98

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  10. Content type: Research article

    A previous six-week (wk) study demonstrated the potential of the sodium-glucose linked transport inhibitor velagliflozin as a novel treatment for equine insulin dysregulation. The present study examined the sa...

    Authors: A. Meier, M. de Laat, D. Reiche, D. Fitzgerald and M. Sillence

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:65

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Organophosphate pesticides-OP-, like malathion, can alter the normal functioning of neuro-endocrine systems (e.g., hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-HPT- axis), and to interfere on the thyroidal homeostasis. Thro...

    Authors: Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado, Victoria Funes and Carmen Sarasquete

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:57

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  12. Content type: Research article

    H1 receptor antagonists are commonly used for the treatment of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to find out, if antihistaminic compounds like mepyramine have the ability to influence the activity of ....

    Authors: G. G. Bruer, P. Hagedorn, M. Kietzmann, A. F. Tohamy, V. Filor, E. Schultz, S. Mielke-Kuschow and J. Meissner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:55

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Improper use of antimicrobials results in poor treatment and severe bacterial resistance. Breakpoints are routinely used in the clinical laboratory setting to guide clinical decision making. Therefore, the obj...

    Authors: Yuqi Yang, Yixin Zhang, Jiarui Li, Ping Cheng, Tianshi Xiao, Ishfaq Muhammad, Hongxiao Yu, Ruimeng Liu and Xiuying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:51

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Hyperlipidemia, with an increasing of prevalence, has become one of the common metabolic diseases in companion animal clinic. Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a novel compound that exhibits efficacious anti-hype...

    Authors: Ning Ma, Xi-Wang Liu, Xiao-Jun Kong, Shi-Hong Li, Zeng-Hua Jiao, Zhe Qin, Ya-Jun Yang and Jian-Yong Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:405

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Systemic Escherichia coli infections cause early mortality of commercial broiler chickens. Although enrofloxacin has long been used in poultry, the in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of ...

    Authors: Xia Xiao, Lijie Jiang, Weixuan Lan, Yongjia Jiang and Zhiqiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:374

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Plants of Allium spp., including garlic (A. sativum) and onions (A. cepa), are known to be oxidatively toxic to canine erythrocytes resulting in Heinz body hemolytic anemia in dogs. In humans, these plants have b...

    Authors: Osamu Yamato, Tadamitsu Tsuneyoshi, Mitsuyasu Ushijima, Hiroshi Jikihara and Akira Yabuki

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:373

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to optimize the dosage regimen of tylosin against S.suis in Pigs using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling. The antibacterial activity of tylosin against S.suis CVCC606 was ...

    Authors: Lingli Huang, Haiyang Zhang, Mei Li, Ijaz Ahmad, Yulian Wang and Zonghui Yuan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:319

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Buprenorphine is a potent lipophilic opioid analgesic that is largely used in the multimodal treatment of acute pain. Simbadol (buprenorphine hydrochloride) is the first and only FDA-approved high-concentratio...

    Authors: Ryota Watanabe, Beatriz P. Monteiro, Marina C. Evangelista, Amélie Castonguay, Daniel Edge and Paulo V. Steagall

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:304

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Community acquired Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CA-CDI) is a significant health problem in human and veterinary medicine. Animals are often considered as potential reservoirs for CA-CDI. In E...

    Authors: Petra Bandelj, Céline Harmanus, Rok Blagus, Marko Cotman, Ed J. Kuijper, Matjaz Ocepek and Modest Vengust

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:298

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Sildenafil citrate, a highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is used to treat pulmonary hypertension (PH) in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate pharmacokinetic pr...

    Authors: Hyuck-Joo Yang, Ye-In Oh, Jong-Woo Jeong, Kun-Ho Song, Tae-Sung Koo and Kyoung-Won Seo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:291

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Propofol is one of the most widely used injectable anaesthetic agents in veterinary practice. Cardiovascular effects related to propofol use in dogs remain less well defined. The main objective of this study w...

    Authors: Andrea Cattai, Roberto Rabozzi, Heidi Ferasin, Maurizio Isola and Paolo Franci

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:282

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Robenacoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug available for canine and feline use for the control of pain and inflammation marketed as Onsior™. The aim of this target animal safety study was to evaluat...

    Authors: Céline E. Toutain, Patrick Brossard, Stephen B. King and Rainer Helbig

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:242

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are alkaloids with analgesic effects in humans and animals. When used locally, both of them minimalise pain sensation by defunctionalising nerve endings. According to the Federat...

    Authors: A. Zak, N. Siwinska, M. Slowikowska, H. Borowicz, P. Szpot, M. Zawadzki and A. Niedzwiedz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:193

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Crepis lacera is a plant from the Asteraceae family that is common in the Mediterranean region. Farmers believe that this plant may be deadly to small ruminants in areas of southern Italy. However, scientific evi...

    Authors: Rosario Russo, Brunella Restucci, Antonio Vassallo, Laura Cortese, Massimiliano D’Ambola, Serena Montagnaro, Roberto Ciarcia, Salvatore Florio, Nunziatina De Tommasi and Lorella Severino

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:74

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone on the canine brain metabolite bioprofile, measured with single voxel short echo time proton magnetic ...

    Authors: Franz Josef Söbbeler, Inés Carrera, Kirby Pasloske, Millagahamada Gedara Ranasinghe, Patrick Kircher and Sabine Beate Rita Kästner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:69

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Rabbits are particularly sensitive to develop hypotension during sedation or anaesthesia. Values of systolic or mean non-invasive arterial blood pressure below 80 or 60 mmHg respectively are common under anaes...

    Authors: Luca Bellini, Irene A. Veladiano, Magdalena Schrank, Matteo Candaten and Antonio Mollo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:52

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Flaxseed is the most common and rich dietary source of lignans and is an acceptable supply of energy for livestock. Flaxseed lignans are precursors of enterolignans, mainly enterolactone and enterodiol, produc...

    Authors: Jon Andoni Otero, Dafne García-Mateos, Indira Alvarez-Fernández, Rocío García-Villalba, Juan Carlos Espín, Ana Isabel Álvarez and Gracia Merino

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:14

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Standing surgery, especially dental procedures, are commonly performed in horses. This leads to an increasing demand for reliable sedation protocols. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to investigate ...

    Authors: Theresa Maria Müller, Klaus Hopster, Astrid Bienert-Zeit, Karl Rohn and Sabine B.R. Kästner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:381

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), a member of the gasotransmitters family, is known to play patho-physiological role in different body systems including during pregnancy. But its involvement in myometrial spontaneity and ...

    Authors: Sooraj V. Nair, Vipin Sharma, Abhishek Sharma, Udayraj P. Nakade, Pooja Jaitley, Karikalan Mathesh, Soumen Choudhury and Satish Kumar Garg

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:379

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Robenacoxib (Onsior™) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug developed for canine and feline use for the control of pain and inflammation. It is available as both tablets and solution for injection. The obj...

    Authors: Céline E. Toutain, Mark C. Heit, Stephen B. King and Rainer Helbig

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:359

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Mycoplasma mastitis is increasingly posing significant impact on dairy industry. Although the effects of major conventional mastitis pathogens on milk components has been widely addres...

    Authors: Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha, Farhid Hemmatzadeh, Manouchehr Khazandi, Andrew Hoare and Kiro Petrovski

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:351

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Sensitivity to macrocyclic lactones, which are commonly used in veterinary clinics, was first found in Rough Collies, and was attributed in 2001 to a 4 bp deletion in the MDR1 gene. The list of affected breeds...

    Authors: Yaron Dekel, Yossy Machluf, Aviad Stoler, Arava Aderet, Daniel Baumel, Efrat Kellerman, Yoram Plotsky, Oshrat Noked Partouche, Gal Elhalal, Izhar Ben-Shlomo and Dani Bercovich

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:333

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Lyme disease in humans is predominantly treated with tetracycline, macrolides or beta lactam antibiotics that have low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Borrelia burgdorferi. Horses with Lyme diseas...

    Authors: Sanjie Caol, Thomas Divers, Mark Crisman and Yung-Fu Chang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:293

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  34. Content type: Research article

    In mammals, homeostasis and survival are dependent on effective trans-membrane movement of ions and enzyme function, which are labile to extreme acid-base changes, but operate efficiently within a narrow regul...

    Authors: Gareth E. Zeiler and Leith C. R. Meyer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:246

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Nausea is a subjective sensation which is difficult to measure in non-verbal species. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of three classes of antiemetic drugs in a novel low dose cisplatin mo...

    Authors: Hannah Kenward, Jonathan Elliott, Terry Lee and Ludovic Pelligand

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:244

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  36. Content type: Research article

    In Europe, synthetic corticosteroids are not allowed in animal breeding for growth-promoting purposes. Nevertheless, a high prevalence of non-compliant urine samples was recently reported for prednisolone, how...

    Authors: Lieven Van Meulebroek, Nathalie De Clercq, Julie Vanden Bussche, Mathias Devreese, Eric Fichant, Philippe Delahaut, Siska Croubels and Lynn Vanhaecke

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:236

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  37. Content type: Research article

    In Ethiopia, plant based remedies are still the most important and sometimes the only source of therapeutics in the management of livestock diseases. However, documentation of this indigenous knowledge of ther...

    Authors: Teka Feyera, Endalkachew Mekonnen, Befekadu Urga Wakayo and Solomon Assefa

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:232

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common progressive joint disease in dogs and cats. The goal of OA treatment is to reduce inflammation, minimize pain, and maintain joint function. Currently, non-steroidal anti-inflamm...

    Authors: Domenico Britti, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Carlo Schievano, Valeria Maria Morittu, Maurizio Evangelista, Rosanna Di Paola and Salvatore Cuzzocrea

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:229

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The objective of this study is to investigate pharmacokinetics and dose regimens of cefquinome in black swans following intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration at a single dose of 2 mg/kg. The M...

    Authors: Dong-Hao Zhao, Xu-Feng Wang, Qiang Wang and Liu-Dong Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:226

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Many reports showed that grass-endophyte symbiosis induced livestock poisoned. Yet, there is no study evaluating clinical symptoms and physiological parameters in sheep fed Epichloë gansuensis endophyte-infected ...

    Authors: Ying Liang, Hucheng Wang, Chunjie Li, Zhibiao Nan and Fadi Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:223

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial pneumonia in pigs occurs widely and requires antimicrobial therapy. It is commonly caused by the pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Marbofloxacin is an antimicrobial dr...

    Authors: Lucy Dorey, Ludovic Pelligand and Peter Lees

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:209

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been proven to be effective in controlling peri-operative pain in dogs. Robenacoxib is an NSAID with high selectivity for the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 isoform....

    Authors: Gabriele Friton, Caryn Marie Thompson, Daniela Karadzovska, Stephen King and Jonathan N. King

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:197

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Jinqing granules which are made of a mixture extract that contains Radix Tinosporae and Canarii fructus in proportions according to a longstanding formula have a good effect on the prevention and treatment of gas...

    Authors: Xuerong Zhou, Qian Rong, Min Xu, Yuanli Zhang, Qi Dong, Yuanling Xiao, Qiji Liu, Helin Chen, Xiaoyu Yang, Kaisheng Yu, Yinglun Li, Ling Zhao, Gang Ye, Fei Shi and Cheng Lv

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:179

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Marbofloxacin is a veterinary fluoroquinolone with high activity against Pasteurella multocida. We evaluated it’s in vivo activity against P. multocida based on in vivo time-kill data in swine using a tissue-cage...

    Authors: Qing Lin Zeng, Xian Mei, Jia Su, Xiao Hong Li, Wen Guang Xiong, Yan Lu and Zhen Ling Zeng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:178

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  45. Content type: Research article

    The heavy metal arsenic is widely distributed in nature and posses a serious threat to organism’s health. However, little is known about the arsenic-induced inflammatory response in the brain tissues of birds ...

    Authors: Xiao Sun, Ying He, Ying Guo, Siwen Li, Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Jingyu Zhang and Mingwei Xing

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:157

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Veterinary medicines have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of diseases, growth promotion, and to promote feeding efficacy in livestock. As the veterinary medicine industry has steadily grown, ...

    Authors: JeongWoo Kang, Hae-chul Park, Yang ho Jang, Md Akil Hossain, Kyunghun Jeong, Mi young Jeong, Seon-Jong Yun, Sung-won Park, Dae gyun Kim and Kwang-jick Lee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:136

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder observed in domestic felines; however, its etiology is largely unknown. Two classes of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs...

    Authors: Kyla M. Walter, Yan-ping Lin, Philip H. Kass and Birgit Puschner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:120

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  48. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to assess validation evidence for a sedation scale for dogs. We hypothesized that the chosen sedation scale would be unreliable when used by different raters and show poor discriminat...

    Authors: Marika C. Wagner, Kent G. Hecker and Daniel S. J. Pang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:110

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