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Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology

Section edited by Prof. Jose Joaquin Ceron

The Clinical Pathology, Physiology and Immunology considers all sound science research study types in which laboratory analysis and the use of biomarkers have a major role in enhancing our understanding of animal health. This section is open to any animal species and comparative studies are also considered. Studies must be scientifically valid; for research articles this includes a scientifically sound research question, the use of suitable methods and analysis, and following community-agreed standards relevant to the research field.

 The main topics covered in this section include:

  •   Laboratory assays and methods validation
  •   Laboratory methods applied to study pathophysological changes in disease
  •   Hematology
  •   Clinical Biochemistry
  •   Endocrinology Tests
  •   Immunological Assays
  •   Cytology
  •   Development and validation of new biomarkers including proteomic studies

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  1. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CL), a chronic disease that affects goats and sheep. CL is characterized by the formation of granulo...

    Authors: Vera Lúcia Costa Vale, Marcos da Costa Silva, Andréia Pacheco de Souza, Soraya Castro Trindade, Lília Ferreira de Moura-Costa, Ellen Karla Nobre dos Santos-Lima, Ivana Lucia de Oliveira Nascimento, Hugo Saba Pereira Cardoso, Edson de Jesus Marques, Bruno Jean Adrien Paule and Roberto José Meyer Nascimento

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:195

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is a common chronic and pruritic skin disease in dogs. The development of cAD involves complex interactions between environmental antigens, genetic predisposition and a number of...

    Authors: Alicja Majewska, Małgorzata Gajewska, Kourou Dembele, Henryk Maciejewski, Adam Prostek and Michał Jank

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:174

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Hereditary bisalbuminemia is a relatively rare anomaly characterized by the occurrence of two albumin fractions on serum protein separation by electrophoresis. In human medicine, it is usually revealed by chan...

    Authors: Claudia Gili, Federico Bonsembiante, Renzo Bonanni, Alessia Giordano, Sabina Ledda, Giorgia Beffagna, Saverio Paltrinieri, Matteo Sommer and Maria Elena Gelain

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:172

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The aim of this review is to study the main spectrophotometric methods used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum samples of dogs. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is an analyte frequently used...

    Authors: Camila Peres Rubio, Josefa Hernández-Ruiz, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Asta Tvarijonaviciute and José Joaquin Ceron

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:166

    Content type: Review

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  5. The anatomy of the adrenal glands has been widely studied in many species of domestic and wild mammals. However, there are no available literature reports describing the morphology and morphometry of the adren...

    Authors: Karolina Barszcz, Helena Przespolewska, Katarzyna Olbrych, Michał Czopowicz, Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot, Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk and Marta Kupczyńska

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:161

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The artificial colloid, hydroxyethyl starch (HES), is recommended for intravascular volume expansion and colloid-osmotic pressure enhancement in dogs and cats. A well-known side effect of HES solutions in huma...

    Authors: Nathalie A. Albrecht, Judith Howard, Alan Kovacevic and Katja N. Adamik

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:155

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Samples for diagnostic procedures often require some form of pre-analytical preparation for preservation or safe handling during transportation prior to analysis in the laboratory. This is particularly importa...

    Authors: Funmilola C. Thomas, Andre M. Santana, Mary Waterston, Hayley Haining and Peter David Eckersall

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:151

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Canine reticulated platelets (r-PLTs) i.e., juvenile PLTs reflecting thrombopoiesis can be measured automatically with the hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV using manual gating options. However, the impact ...

    Authors: Dana E. Oellers, Natali Bauer, Melanie Ginder, Sigrid Johannes, Iris Pernecker and Andreas Moritz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:148

    Content type: Methodology article

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  9. The objective of the present study was to optimize and validate an automated method to assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum of dogs using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) metho...

    Authors: Camila Peres Rubio, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Josefa Hernández-Ruiz and José Joaquin Cerón

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:137

    Content type: Methodology article

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  10. Long-term high-concentrate diet (HCD) feeding can cause subacute ruminal acidosis in cows and subsequently trigger systemic inflammatory and immune responses. Therefore, we conducted the present study in which...

    Authors: Di Jin, Guangjun Chang, Kai Zhang, Junfei Guo, Tianle Xu and Xiangzhen Shen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:128

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the most economically valuable commercial farming fish species in China, is often infected by a variety of viruses. As the first line of defence against microbial pathogen...

    Authors: Yaoyao Zhu, Chenchen Qi, Shijuan Shan, Fumiao Zhang, Hua Li, Liguo An and Guiwen Yang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:127

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Horses are much predisposed and susceptible to excessive and acute inflammatory responses that cause the recruitment and stimulation of polymorphnuclear granulocytes (PMN) together with peripheral blood mononu...

    Authors: Simon Rütten, Gerald F. Schusser, Getu Abraham and Wieland Schrödl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:117

    Content type: Research article

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  13. In humans, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is frequently found in immune thrombocytopenia. The present study investigated whether aPL and any aPL subtypes are associated with canine thrombocy...

    Authors: Yu-Chen Chen, Lang-Ming Chi, Kuan-Chih Chow, Shiow-Her Chiou, Yi-Hsin Fan, Shu-Peng Ho, Yu-Chen Hsu, Yu-Chyi Hwang, Meng-Xing Wu, Wei-Ming Lee, Shiun-Long Lin, Chau-Loong Tsang and Frank Chiahung Mao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:106

    Content type: Research article

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  14. This study assessed the effects of sedation using a combination of fentanyl, midazolam and medetomidine in comparison to ketamine. Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), (n = 16, 5 males and 3 females randomly allocat...

    Authors: Henri G. M. J. Bertrand, Yvette C. Ellen, Stevie O’Keefe and Paul A. Flecknell

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:93

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Local inflammation may progress into systemic inflammation. To increase our understanding of the basic immunological processes during transition of equine local inflammation into a systemic state, investigatio...

    Authors: Anne Mette L. Vinther, Peter M. H. Heegaard, Kerstin Skovgaard, Rikke Buhl, Stine M. Andreassen and Pia H. Andersen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:83

    Content type: Research article

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  16. This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical protection, the level of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) viremia and the immune response (antibodies and IFN-γ secreting cells (SC)) in piglets derived from PCV2 v...

    Authors: Paolo Martelli, Roberta Saleri, Giulia Ferrarini, Elena De Angelis, Valeria Cavalli, Michele Benetti, Luca Ferrari, Elena Canelli, Paolo Bonilauri, Elena Arioli, Antonio Caleffi, Heiko Nathues and Paolo Borghetti

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:77

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Ketogenesis is a secondary metabolic pathway to provide energy to dairy cows during early lactation; however when the production of ketone bodies (acetoacetate, acetone, ß- hydroxybutyrate) is above certain le...

    Authors: Pedro Melendez, Pablo Pinedo, José Bastias, Maria Paz Marin, Carolina Rios, Consuelo Bustamante, Natalia Adaro and Mario Duchens

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:50

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Goat caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. However, there is paucity of data about goat’s acute phase response during the course of CLA. This study was con...

    Authors: Z. K. H. Jeber, Z. MohdJin, F. F. Jesse, A. A. Saharee, J. Sabri, R. Yusoff and H. Wahid

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:48

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are involved in proinflammatory processes in cattle, including in the increased expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these...

    Authors: Anitsi Loaiza, María D. Carretta, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla, María A. Hidalgo and Rafael A. Burgos

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:38

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal healt...

    Authors: B. Mair, M. Drillich, D. Klein-Jöbstl, P. Kanz, S. Borchardt, L. Meyer, I. Schwendenwein and M. Iwersen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:34

    Content type: Methodology article

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  21. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in humans and animals, which is caused by the lack of production, malfunction or dysfunction of the distal nephron to the antidiuretic effect of the antidiuretic hormo...

    Authors: Alexander Grahofer, Natalie Wiedemar, Corinne Gurtner, Cord Drögemüller and Heiko Nathues

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:22

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Although a metabolic profile represents a valid tool utilized in dairy herds to determine abnormalities in blood chemistry related to an increased risk of production diseases, there are no studies on applicati...

    Authors: Luigi Calamari, Annarita Ferrari, Andrea Minuti and Erminio Trevisi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:4

    Content type: Methodology article

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  23. Free-ranging brown bears exhibit highly contrasting physiological states throughout the year. They hibernate 6 months of the year, experiencing a decrease in body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and ...

    Authors: Anne Randi Græsli, Alina L. Evans, Åsa Fahlman, Mads F. Bertelsen, Stéphane Blanc and Jon M. Arnemo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:301

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Clinical appearance and evolution of Canine Leishmaniosis (CL) are the consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and the genetic and immunological backgrounds. We investigated the effect of an i...

    Authors: Laura Cortese, Mariangela Annunziatella, Anna Teresa Palatucci, Sarah Lanzilli, Valentina Rubino, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Sara Centenaro, Gianandrea Guidetti, Sergio Canello and Giuseppe Terrazzano

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:295

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of different thermal manipulation (TM) protocols during embryogenesis on thermotolerance acquisition parameters during subsequent thermal challenge (TC) ...

    Authors: Mohammad-Borhan Al-Zghoul, Sabry M. El-Bahr, Raida K. Al-Rukibat, Abd Elhafeed S. Dalab, Thnaian A. Althnaian and Saeed Y. Al-ramadan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:292

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common cholestatic disease affecting cats of any breed, age and sex. Both choline deficiency and low hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) activity are...

    Authors: Chiara Valtolina, Arie B. Vaandrager, Robert P. Favier, Joris H. Robben, Maidina Tuohetahuntila, Anne Kummeling, Isabelle Jeusette and Jan Rothuizen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:280

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Feline platelets are prone to clumping after blood collection, rendering the determination of accurate platelet counts difficult for clinical laboratories and resulting in a high incidence of pseudothrombocyto...

    Authors: Barbara Riond, Andrea Katharina Waßmuth, Sonja Hartnack, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann and Hans Lutz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:276

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Previous work showed that weaning stress causes gut barrier dysfunction partly by triggering the release of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and thereby inducing the degranulation of intestinal mast cell (...

    Authors: Alessandro Mereu, Gemma Tedó, Adam J. Moeser, Gerald Rimbach and Ignacio R. Ipharraguerre

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:274

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Negative energy balance (NEB) is a common pathological foundation of ketosis and fatty liver. Liver and fat tissue are the major organs of lipid metabolism and take part in modulating lipid oxidative capacity ...

    Authors: Chuang Xu, Qiushi Xu, Yuanyuan Chen, Wei Yang, Cheng Xia, Hongjiang Yu, Kuilin Zhu, Taiyu Shen and Ziyang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:271

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Prenatally stressed offspring exhibit increased susceptibility to inflammatory disorders due to in utero programming. Research into the effects of n-3 PUFAs shows promising results for the treatment and preventio...

    Authors: Rebecca E. Fisher-Heffernan, Mamun M. Or’Rashid, Ousama AlZahal, Margaret Quinton, Herman J. Boermans, Brian W. McBride, Timothy R. H. Regnault and Niel A. Karrow

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:266

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The transition period of dairy cows, around parturition and the onset of lactation, involves endocrine and metabolic changes to compensate for an increased energy requirement aggravated by reduced feed intake....

    Authors: S. Imhasly, C. Bieli, H. Naegeli, L. Nyström, M. Ruetten and C. Gerspach

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:252

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Following the recent development of a new approach to quantitative analysis of IgG concentrations in bovine serum using transmission infrared spectroscopy, the potential to measure IgG levels using technology ...

    Authors: Ibrahim Elsohaby, Siyuan Hou, J. Trenton McClure, Christopher B. Riley, R. Anthony Shaw and Gregory P. Keefe

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:218

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Milk acute phase proteins (APP) have been identified and show promise as biomarkers of mastitis. However analysis of their profile in dairy cows from a production herd is necessary in order to confirm their be...

    Authors: Funmilola Clara Thomas, Mary Waterston, Peter Hastie, Timothy Parkin, Hayley Haining and Peter David Eckersall

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:207

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In vitro platelet aggregation in feline blood samples is a well-known phenomenon in veterinary clinical laboratories resulting in high numbers of pseudothrombocytopenia. Several attempts have been made to prev...

    Authors: Barbara Riond, Andrea Katharina Waßmuth, Sonja Hartnack, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann and Hans Lutz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11:183

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Serum haptoglobin (Hp) and haptoglobin matrix metalloproteinase 9 complexes (Hp-MMP 9) have been identified as biomarkers with diagnostic potential in cattle with conditions resulting in an acute inflammatory ...

    Authors: Christy J Hanthorn, Grant A Dewell, Renee D Dewell, Vickie L Cooper, Chong Wang, Paul J Plummer and Jeffrey Lakritz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:285

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of two feed additives, a fumarate-malate (FM) and a polyphenol-essential oil mixture (PM), in attenuating the drop of ruminal pH and the metabolic and immune ...

    Authors: Roberta De Nardi, Giorgio Marchesini, Jan C Plaizier, Shucong Li, Ehsan Khafipour, Rebecca Ricci, Igino Andrighetto and Severino Segato

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:277

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Stoned olive pomace (SOP), which represents approximately 50% of the conversion process of olive in oil, is largely not-utilized and creates costs for its disposal and problems related to environmental impact. In...

    Authors: Grazia Pallara, Arianna Buccioni, Roberta Pastorelli, Sara Minieri, Marcello Mele, Stefano Rapaccini, Anna Messini, Mariano Pauselli, Maurizio Servili, Luciana Giovannetti and Carlo Viti

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:271

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a costly feature of modern cattle production. Early and accurate detection of BRD may prove useful in the successful management of this disease. The primary objective of the...

    Authors: Charles A Hinds, Andrew J Niehaus, Christopher Premanandan, Paivi J Rajala-Schultz, Donald M Rings and Jeffrey Lakritz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:261

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In order to characterize the functional properties of canine protein C (CnPC), the zymogen needs to be purified from plasma. The goals of this study were (1) to purify protein C from fresh frozen canine plasma...

    Authors: Valerie M Wong, Dorothee Bienzle, M Anthony Hayes, Paul Taylor and R Darren Wood

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:251

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Following infection and initial multiplication in the gut lumen, Salmonella Typhimurium crosses the intestinal epithelial barrier and comes into contact with cells of the host immune system. Mononuclear phagocyte...

    Authors: Kamila Kyrova, Hana Stepanova, Ivan Rychlik, Ondrej Polansky, Lenka Leva, Zuzana Sekelova, Martin Faldyna and Jiri Volf

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:244

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In ruminants, lower ruminal pH causes massive disruption of ruminal epithelial structure during periods of feeding high-concentrate diets. However, the influence of excessive organic fatty acids in the lumen o...

    Authors: Shiyu Tao, Yongqian Duanmu, Haibo Dong, Jing Tian, Yingdong Ni and Ruqian Zhao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:235

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. The supplementation of fat to lactating dairy cows has long been used as a management tool to increase dietary energy density for improving cow production, reproduction and to alleviate negative energy balance...

    Authors: John R Otto, Bunmi S Malau-Aduli, Razaq O Balogun, Peter Nish and Aduli E O Malau-Aduli

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:224

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Endocardiosis is the most common heart disease in Dachshunds and is therefore an important cause of cardiac morbidity and death. In recent years we have observed an increasing interest in the development of ne...

    Authors: Magdalena Hulanicka, Magdalena Garncarz, Marta Parzeniecka-Jaworska and Michał Jank

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:205

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. The snatch-farrowed porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pig model, in which neonates are raised on commercially available bovine colostrum, is an alternative model for porcine infectious disease research. It i...

    Authors: Yanyun Huang, Andrea Ladinig, Carolyn Ashley, Deborah M Haines and John CS Harding

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:219

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. The weaning period is critical for stress-related diseases and infections. Currently, large amounts of therapeutic antimicrobials are used to treat infections in the livestock production, especially in piglets...

    Authors: Tobias Gräber, Holger Kluge, Sebastian Granica, Gert Horn, Corinna Brandsch and Gabriele I Stangl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:210

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Nasal secretion (NS) was investigated as a source of information regarding the mucosal and systemic immune status of cattle challenged by respiratory disease. A method for the collection of substantial volumes...

    Authors: M Faizal Ghazali, HH Caline Koh-Tan, Mark McLaughlin, Paul Montague, Nicholas N Jonsson and P David Eckersall

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:204

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Feeding polyphenol-rich plant products has been shown to increase the gain:feed ratio in growing pigs. The reason for this finding has not yet been elucidated. In order to find the reasons for an increase of t...

    Authors: Anja Fiesel, Denise K Gessner, Erika Most and Klaus Eder

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:196

    Content type: Research article

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  48. This study investigated effects on cardiovascular parameters during anaesthesia with isoflurane (ISO, 2-3 Vol%), ketamine-xylazine (KX, 100 mg kg-1 + 5 mg kg-1) or a combination of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl...

    Authors: Maike Albrecht, Julia Henke, Sabine Tacke, Michael Markert and Brian Guth

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:198

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  49. Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical var...

    Authors: Anne Randi Græsli, Åsa Fahlman, Alina L Evans, Mads Frost Bertelsen, Jon Martin Arnemo and Søren Saxmose Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:183

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  50. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE exp...

    Authors: Dingyue Wang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Zhengfeng Fang, Lianqiang Che, Bai Xue and De Wu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2014 10:171

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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