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Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology

Section edited by Prof. Jose Joaquin Ceron

The Clinical Pathology, Physiology and Immunology considers all sound science research study types in which laboratory analysis and the use of biomarkers have a major role in enhancing our understanding of animal health. This section is open to any animal species and comparative studies are also considered. Studies must be scientifically valid; for research articles this includes a scientifically sound research question, the use of suitable methods and analysis, and following community-agreed standards relevant to the research field.

 The main topics covered in this section include:

  •   Laboratory assays and methods validation
  •   Laboratory methods applied to study pathophysological changes in disease
  •   Hematology
  •   Clinical Biochemistry
  •   Endocrinology Tests
  •   Immunological Assays
  •   Cytology
  •   Development and validation of new biomarkers including proteomic studies

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  1. Glucocorticoids influence the synthesis and metabolism of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and metanephrines (metanephrine and normetanephrine). The aim of this study was to measure urinary cate...

    Authors: Nadja Sieber-Ruckstuhl, Elena Salesov, Saskia Quante, Barbara Riond, Katharina Rentsch, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Claudia Reusch and Felicitas Boretti

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:279

    Content type: Research article

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  2. A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 199...

    Authors: Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley and Rami A. Dalloul

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:276

    Content type: Methodology article

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  3. Blood profiles have been used to monitor herd health status, diagnose disorders, and predict the risk of diseases in cattle and calves. Characterizing plasma metabolites in dairy calves could provide further i...

    Authors: Morteza H. Ghaffari, Jayden A. R. MacPherson, Harma Berends and Michael A. Steele

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:271

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is considered a biomarker of sympathetic activation in humans, but there is controversy regarding the existence of sAA in dogs. The hypothesis of this study was that sAA exists in ...

    Authors: María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Fernando Tecles, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Damián Escribano, Luis Jesús Bernal and José Joaquín Cerón

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:266

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The increasing trend of ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) across the globe in the poultry industry has led to a growing need for alternatives to AGPs. Prebiotic, probiotic and their combinat...

    Authors: Shirley Gee Hoon Tang, Chin Chin Sieo, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Wan Zuhainis Saad, Hee Kum Wong and Yin Wan Ho

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:248

    Content type: Research article

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  6. A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism i...

    Authors: Chiara Valtolina, Arie B. Vaandrager, Robert P. Favier, Maidina Tuohetahuntila, Anne Kummeling, Isabelle Jeusette, Jan Rothuizen and Joris H. Robben

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:231

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Infection with Goose Reovirus (GRV) can cause serious economic losses in the goose breeding industry. In this study, the GRV allantoic fluid was concentrated and used as an antigen in a formalin-inactivated oi...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Niu, Bingqian Zhang, Xianglong Yu, Xin Zhang, Yanguo Dou, Yi Tang and Youxiang Diao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:214

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a highly adaptive pathogen in both humans and animals. As a Salmonella Type III secretion system (T3SS) effector, Salmonella

    Authors: Zhijie Lin, Peipei Tang, Yang Jiao, Xilong Kang, Qiuchun Li, Xiulong Xu, Jun Sun, Zhiming Pan and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:194

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or pote...

    Authors: Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan and Xinan Jiao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:190

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Hyperosmolar therapy with either mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS) is commonly used in the treatment of intracranial hypertension (ICH). In vitro data indicate that both mannitol and HTS affect coagulation a...

    Authors: Ivayla D. Yozova, Judith Howard, Diana Henke, Daniel Dirkmann and Katja N. Adamik

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:185

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Among coagulation disorders, primary fibrinogen deficiency is very rare in dogs. It is divided into hypofibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia and dysfibrinogenemia. Afibrinogenemia has been described in three dogs. ...

    Authors: Franck Jolivet, Armelle Diquélou, Catherine Trumel, Simon Privat and Olivier Dossin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:183

    Content type: Case Report

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  12. Muscle enzymes in saliva have been reported to be possible markers of heart and muscle damage in humans. The aim of this study was to assess if Creatine kinase (CK) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activit...

    Authors: Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Tomas Barranco, Monica Rubio, Jose Maria Carrillo, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Fernando Tecles, Juana Dolores Carrillo and José J. Cerón

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:168

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was reported to cause rapid depletion of chicken bursa of Fabricius. Severe pathological condition of the organ is commonly associated with high levels of virus replicati...

    Authors: Y. W. Kristeen-Teo, S. K. Yeap, S. W. Tan, A. R. Omar, A. Ideris, S. G. Tan and N. B. Alitheen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:151

    Content type: Research article

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  14. A canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay, Gentian Canine CRP Immunoassay) with species-specific controls and calibrators was introduced and recently evaluated on the clinical chemistry analyzer Abbott A...

    Authors: Sarah Hindenberg, Stefanie Klenner-Gastreich, Nicole Kneier, Sabine Zielinsky, Kris Gommeren, Natali Bauer and Andreas Moritz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:146

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Injuries penetrating synovial structures are common in equine practice and often result in septic synovitis. Significantly increased plasma levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) have been found in various infectious...

    Authors: Eva Haltmayer, Ilse Schwendenwein and Theresia F. Licka

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:137

    Content type: Research article

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  16. To understand and reduce the concomitant effects of trapping and handling procedures in wildlife species, it is essential to measure their physiological impact. Here, we examined individual variation in stress...

    Authors: Nikolaus Huber, Sebastian G. Vetter, Alina L. Evans, Petter Kjellander, Susanne Küker, Ulrika A. Bergvall and Jon M. Arnemo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:127

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway involves in the pathogen recognition and defense against infection in mammals. Considering that avian and mammalian TLR are differentially mediated, the action of a natu...

    Authors: Ruili Zhang, Qun Yu, Guangliang Shi, Rui Liu, Weiqian Zhang, Xia Zhao, Guangxing Li and Ming Ge

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:119

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:129

  18. Canine babesiosis is caused by species of the Babesia genus and has become an emerging disease worldwide. To the authors’ knowledge there are no reports in which antioxidants have been analyzed in different prese...

    Authors: Martina Crnogaj, José Joaquin Cerón, Iva Šmit, Ivana Kiš, Jelena Gotić, Mirna Brkljačić, Vesna Matijatko, Camila Peres Rubio, Nada Kučer and Vladimir Mrljak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:114

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Onset of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma (PCA) is usually insidious with dogs presenting at an advanced stage of the disease. A biomarker that can facilitate early detection of...

    Authors: Romy M. Heilmann, Elizabeth A. McNiel, Niels Grützner, David J. Lanerie, Jan S. Suchodolski and Jörg M. Steiner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:112

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Milk is a complex liquid that provides nutrition to newborns. Recent reports demonstrated that milk is enriched in maternal-derived exosomes that are involved in fetal physiological and pathological conditions...

    Authors: Ting Chen, Qian-Yun Xi, Jia-Jie Sun, Rui-Song Ye, Xiao Cheng, Rui-Ping Sun, Song-Bo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qing-Yan Jiang and Yong-Liang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:101

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The assessment of a liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing and staging fatty liver in dairy cows, which is often necessary for diagnostic and research purposes. Accuracy of the diagnosis relays ...

    Authors: C. Gerspach, S. Imhasly, R. Klingler, M. Hilbe, S. Hartnack and M. Ruetten

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:98

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Synovitis is an inflammation-related disease linked to rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, infections and trauma. This inflammation is accompanied by immune cells infiltration which initiates an inflammatory...

    Authors: Francisco-Javier Vela, Francisco-Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Rebeca Blázquez, Verónica Álvarez, Raquel Tarazona, M. Teresa Mangas-Ballester, Alejandro Cristo and Javier G. Casado

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:93

    Content type: Research article

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  23. There are two biotypes of feline coronavirus (FCoV): the self-limiting feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), which causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a ...

    Authors: Nikoo Safi, Amin Haghani, Shing Wei Ng, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Farina Mustaffa-Kamal and Abdul Rahman Omar

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:92

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Dyslipidemia, dysregulated adipokine secretion and alteration in glucagon and adropin concentrations are important obesity-related factors in the pathophysiology of human Type 2 diabetes; however, their roles ...

    Authors: Rizaldy C. Zapata, Melissa D. Meachem, Natalia Cavalca Cardoso, Susan O. Mehain, Chantal J. McMillan, Elisabeth R. Snead and Prasanth K. Chelikani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:85

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. The disease can be clinically classified into uncomplicated and complicated forms. The aim of this study was to as...

    Authors: Josipa Kuleš, Jelena Gotić, Vladimir Mrljak and Renata Barić Rafaj

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:82

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Studies suggest that free-ranging bottlenose dolphins exhibit a suppressed immune system because of exposure to contaminants or microorganisms. However, due to a lack of commercially available antibodies speci...

    Authors: Mahyar Nouri-Shirazi, Brittany F. Bible, Menghua Zeng, Saba Tamjidi and Gregory D. Bossart

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:78

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and causes significant losses in the pig industry worldwide. Early host immune response is crucia...

    Authors: Elena L. Sassu, Janna Frömbling, J. Catharina Duvigneau, Ingrid Miller, Andrea Müllebner, Ana M. Gutiérrez, Tom Grunert, Martina Patzl, Armin Saalmüller, Alexandra von Altrock, Anne Menzel, Martin Ganter, Joachim Spergser, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Jutta Verspohl, Monika Ehling-Schulz…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:64

    Content type: Research article

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  28. One of the most commonly applied protectotype vaccination protocol against infectious bronchitis (IB) in broiler chickens in the EU is simultaneous or alternate use of Ma5 and 4/91 vaccine strains. After IB va...

    Authors: Marcin Smialek, Bartlomiej Tykalowski, Daria Dziewulska, Tomasz Stenzel and Andrzej Koncicki

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:44

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MVD) is the most common acquired heart disease in dogs, and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) is the most studied breed because of the high prevalence, early onset and h...

    Authors: Chiara Locatelli, Cristian Piras, Giulia Riscazzi, Isabella Alloggio, Ilaria Spalla, Alessio Soggiu, Viviana Greco, Luigi Bonizzi, Paola Roncada and Paola G. Brambilla

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:43

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the evolution of the profile currently recommended by the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) (sCr, UPC and sSDMA) with a panel of other differen...

    Authors: Luis Pardo-Marín, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Josep Pastor, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Juan Diego Garcia-Martinez, Sergi Segarra and José Joaquín Cerón

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:31

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherap...

    Authors: E. Maina, M. Pelst, M. Hesta and E. Cox

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:25

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The similarities between swine and humans in physiological and genomic patterns, and the great correlation in size and anatomy, make pigs extremely useful in preclinical studies. New-born piglets can represent...

    Authors: Domenico Ventrella, Francesco Dondi, Francesca Barone, Federica Serafini, Alberto Elmi, Massimo Giunti, Noemi Romagnoli, Monica Forni and Maria L. Bacci

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:23

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes arthritis, meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death in pigs and is also an zoonotic agent for humans. The present study demonstrated that immunizati...

    Authors: Kai-Jen Hsueh, Li-Ting Cheng, Jai-Wei Lee, Yao-Chi Chung, Wen-Bin Chung and Chun-Yen Chu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:15

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Obesity is one of the most prevalent health problems in the canine population. While haemostatic parameters and markers of endothelial function have been evaluated in various disease conditions in dogs, there ...

    Authors: R. Barić Rafaj, J. Kuleš, A. Marinculić, A. Tvarijonaviciute, J. Ceron, Ž. Mihaljević, A. Tumpa and V. Mrljak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2017 13:13

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Two mammary lymphatic cannulation models in sheep have been described with minimal use in the past 50 years. The purpose of this study was to investigate a new surgical technique to allow long term monitoring ...

    Authors: Hung-Hsun Yen, Elizabeth Washington, Wayne Kimpton, Evan Hallein, Joanne Allen, Silk Yu Lin and Stuart Barber

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:285

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the inflammatory response in cow uterus and to explore the molecular mechanism triggered by high concentrate-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in mid-lacta...

    Authors: Muhammad Shahid Bilal, Juma Ahamed Abaker, Zain ul Aabdin, Tianle Xu, Hongyu Dai, Kai Zhang, Xinxin Liu and Xiangzhen Shen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:284

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Gonadectomy is one of the most common procedures performed on dogs in the United States. Neutering has been shown to reduce the risk for some diseases although recent reports suggest increased prevalence for s...

    Authors: Crystal R. Sundburg, Janelle M. Belanger, Danika L. Bannasch, Thomas R. Famula and Anita M. Oberbauer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:278

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The objective assessment of animal stress and welfare requires proper laboratory biomarkers. In this work, we have analyzed the changes in serum composition in gilts after switching their housing, from pen to ...

    Authors: Anna Marco-Ramell, Laura Arroyo, Raquel Peña, Raquel Pato, Yolanda Saco, Lorenzo Fraile, Emøke Bendixen and Anna Bassols

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:265

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Lactoferrin (LF) is an 80 kDa glycoprotein which is known for its effects against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. It also has a high potential in nutrition therapy and welfare of people and a variety of...

    Authors: Nada Zemankova, Katarina Chlebova, Jan Matiasovic, Jana Prodelalova, Jan Gebauer and Martin Faldyna

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:251

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The match play patterns in equestrian polo are unique and require specific training programs to ensure sport performance. The effect of commonly used exercise training regimens on the adaptation of skeletal mu...

    Authors: Metha Chanda, Ratchakrit Srikuea, Worakij Cherdchutam, Arthit Chairoungdua and Pawinee Piyachaturawat

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:245

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Leptin has been measured in human in saliva samples. However, the low leptin concentration found in this biological fluid makes necessary the use of high sensitive methods. To the authors’ knowledge, leptin ha...

    Authors: Elizabeth M. S. Schmidt, Damián Escribano, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Silvia Martinez-Miró, Fuensanta Hernández, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, José J. Cerón and Fernando Tecles

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:242

    Content type: Methodology article

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  42. Sepsis is a serious health problem associated with a range of infectious diseases in animals and humans. Early events of this syndrome can be mimicked by experimental administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS...

    Authors: Øyvind Salvesen, Malin R. Reiten, Peter M. H. Heegaard, Michael A. Tranulis, Arild Espenes, Kerstin Skovgaard and Cecilie Ersdal

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:241

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In a dog with joint pain, it is important to determine whether it has suppurative joint disease, characterized by exudation of neutrophils in the synovial fluid, or not, as this affects choice of diagnostic te...

    Authors: Anna Hillström, Jonas Bylin, Ragnvi Hagman, Karin Björhall, Harold Tvedten, Kristian Königsson, Tove Fall and Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:240

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our ...

    Authors: Cairo H S De Oliveira, José D Barbosa, Karine A Damasceno, Geovanni D Cassali, Carlos MC Oliveira, Rômulo C Leite and Jenner K P Reis

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:238

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays a crucial role in transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers in mucosal immunity. However, it was not clear that FcRn expression in aggr...

    Authors: Wang-Dong Zhang, Wen-Hui Wang, Shu-Xian Li, Shuai Jia, Xue-Feng Zhang and Ting-Ting Cao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:237

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Host defence peptides are a diverse group of small, cationic peptides and are important elements of the first line of defense against pathogens in animals. Expression and functional analysis of host defense pe...

    Authors: Mi Ok Lee, Hyun-Jun Jang, Deivendran Rengaraj, Seo-Yeong Yang, Jae Yong Han, Susan J. Lamont and James E. Womack

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:231

    Content type: Research article

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  47. We previously identified two phenotypes of CD4+ cells with and without reactions to anti-pig CD4 monoclonal antibodies by flow cytometry in a herd of Microminipigs. In this study, we analyzed the coding sequen...

    Authors: Tatsuya Matsubara, Naohito Nishii, Satoshi Takashima, Masaki Takasu, Noriaki Imaeda, Kayo Aiki-Oshimo, Kazuaki Yamazoe, Michinori Kakisaka, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Yoko Aida, Yoshie Kametani, Jerzy K. Kulski, Asako Ando and Hitoshi Kitagawa

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:222

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Approximately 20 % of obese dogs have metabolic disturbances similar to those observed in human metabolic syndrome, a condition known as obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. This condition is associated with...

    Authors: Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Jose J. Ceron, Carlos de Torre, Blanka B. Ljubić, Shelley L. Holden, Yann Queau, Penelope J. Morris, Josep Pastor and Alexander J. German

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:211

    Content type: Research article

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  49. This study aimed to investigate the possible serum protein changes after endotoxin administration in healthy and choline-treated calves using proteomics. These results are expected to contribute to the underst...

    Authors: Z. Yilmaz, O. Eralp Inan, M. Kocaturk, A. T. Baykal, O. Hacariz, I. Hatipoglu, A. Tvarijonaviciute, M. Cansev, J. Ceron and I. H. Ulus

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:210

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Ancylostoma spp. is one of the most prevalent canine intestinal nematode infections which usually causes subclinical disease in adult dogs and has zoonotic implications. Therefore, the...

    Authors: Elizabeth M. S. Schmidt, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, José J. Cerón and Peter D. Eckersall

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12:203

    Content type: Research article

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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