Skip to content


Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology

Section edited by Jose Joaquin Ceron

The clinical pathology, physiology and immunology section covers a broad range of studies regarding the physiological processes that occur in healthy animals and the animals’ response to stress and different diseases such as infectious diseases. This section considers research articles on biomarkers; biochemistry; cytopathology; endocrinology; pathophysiology; proteomics; hematopathology; immunology amd molecular diagnostics

Page 1 of 6

  1. Content type: Research article

    Dogs with various medical diseases are usually treated at hospitals; however, the prognostic markers in dogs remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of serum cortisol concentration...

    Authors: Masashi Yuki, Reina Aoyama, Takashi Hirano, Reina Tawada, Mizuho Ogawa, Eiji Naitoh, Daiki Kainuma and Noriyuki Nagata

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:170

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research article

    In broilers chickens, the molecular bases for promoting muscle development and growth requires further investigation. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effects of daily thermal manipulation...

    Authors: Mohamed Borhan Al-Zghoul and Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:166

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    Biomarkers of oxidative stress in pigs have been measured in serum/plasma samples. However, blood collection in pigs can be highly stressful to the animals. Saliva is a biological fluid with several advantages...

    Authors: Camila Peres Rubio, Eva Mainau, José Joaquín Cerón, Maria Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Elena Navarro, Fernando Tecles, Xavier Manteca and Damian Escribano

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:144

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research article

    Feline hyperthyroidism, the most common endocrinopathy in older cats, provides a spontaneous model for human thyrotoxicosis. Human thyrotoxicosis is associated with redox unbalance, which may result in organ d...

    Authors: Alessia Candellone, Paola Gianella, Lara Ceccarelli, Graziella Raviri, Paola Badino, Silvia Roncone, Hans S. Kooistra and Giorgia Meineri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:136

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    Laminitis is considered as one of the most important causes of hoof lameness in dairy cows, which can lead to enormous economic losses. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of laminitis have not been clarifi...

    Authors: Meng-Yue Tian, Jing-Hui Fan, Zhi-Wei Zhuang, Fei Dai, Cheng-Yu Wang, Hai-Ting Hou and Yu-Zhong Ma

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:127

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    In order to characterize the complete range of lesions, especially minimal, affecting mammary gland and viral antigen distribution and target cells using immunohistochemistry in naturally Visna/maedi (VM) 84 i...

    Authors: E. Gayo, L. Polledo, A. Magalde, A. Balseiro, M. J. García Iglesias, C. Pérez Martínez, S. Preziuso, G. Rossi and J. F. García Marín

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:109

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Research article

    A previous study showed that prebiotics and synbiotics administered in ovo into the egg air cell on the 12th day of incubation enhance the growth and development of chickens. However, the influence of this proced...

    Authors: Tadeusz Stefaniak, Jan P. Madej, Stanisław Graczyk, Maria Siwek, Ewa Łukaszewicz, Artur Kowalczyk, Marcin Sieńczyk and Marek Bednarczyk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:105

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    To conduct a hematological analysis of avian blood samples, standard automated cell counting is unreliable because all avian blood cells are nucleated. Therefore, quantitative white blood cell counting in bird...

    Authors: Lea Carisch, Martina Stirn, Jean Michel Hatt, Karin Federer, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann and Barbara Riond

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:93

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    Limited data are available about the kinetics of mRNA expressions of Heat shock proteins (HSPs) and heat shock factors (HSFs) in the thermally manipulated (TM) broiler chicks during acute heat stress. Therefor...

    Authors: Mohamed Borhan Al-Zghoul and Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:83

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    The sustainability of farming and animal welfare requires the reconsideration of current selection schemes. In particular, implementation of new selection criteria related to animal health and welfare should h...

    Authors: Julie Hervé, Elena Terenina, Karine Haurogné, Elodie Bacou, Elizaveta Kulikova, Marie Allard, Yvon Billon, Jean-Marie Bach, Pierre Mormède and Blandine Lieubeau

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:71

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    Refractory diseases, including bacterial infections, are causing huge economic losses in dairy farming. Despite efforts to prevent and treat those diseases in cattle, including the use of antimicrobials, it is...

    Authors: Sotaro Fujisawa, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Akina Tanaka, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata and Kazuhiko Ohashi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:68

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    Premilking udder preparation is essential for harvesting high-quality milk as gently, completely, and quickly as possible. The associations between characteristics such as teat-end shape and premilking stimula...

    Authors: Matthias Wieland, Jaclyn M. Melvin, Daryl V. Nydam and Paul D. Virkler

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:58

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation of rodent macrophages in vitro induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, whereas interleukin-4 stimulation results in increased activit...

    Authors: Heather Imrie and Diana J. L. Williams

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:45

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research article

    Caspases are a family of conserved intracellular cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play important roles in regulating cell death and inflammation. Our previous study revealed the im...

    Authors: Shuo Li, Jiafang Li, Weijiao Peng, Gaixiang Hao and Jinsheng Sun

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:20

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, causes severe mastitis and/or chronic persistent infections with detrimental effects on the cows’ wellbeing, lifespan and milk production. Despi...

    Authors: Lindert Benedictus, Lars Ravesloot, Kim Poppe, Ineke Daemen, Eveline Boerhout, Jos van Strijp, Femke Broere, Victor Rutten, Ad Koets and Susanne Eisenberg

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:15

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    Although teleost fish developed acquired immunity firstly in evolution, innate immunity is still very important for them. Innate immunity depends on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to distinguish “self” a...

    Authors: Fumiao Zhang, Shijuan Shan, Xiaoyang Xu, Yao Wang, Yonghuan Zhang, Miao Yin and Guiwen Yang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:10

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    The ideal method for monitoring trilostane therapy in dogs with hypercortisolism is still open to debate. Recently, determination of the pre-trilostane (prepill) cortisol concentration has been proposed to be ...

    Authors: Felicitas Boretti, Caterina Musella, Wanda Burkhardt, Claudia Kuemmerle-Fraune, Barbara Riond, Claudia Reusch and Nadja Sieber-Ruckstuhl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:417

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    The immune response against tuberculosis in lions is still poorly defined and our understanding is hampered by the lack of lion specific reagents. The process for producing antibodies against a specific antige...

    Authors: Tashnica Taime Sylvester, Sven David Charles Parsons, Paul David van Helden, Michele Ann Miller and Andre Gareth Loxton

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:410

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be controlled by either stamping out or vaccination, a choice which depends on both the economic importance of the livestock sector as well as the disease status. In FMD-free c...

    Authors: Yeong-Lim Kang, Ji-Yun Jeong, Hwi-Yeon Choi, Yanhong Zhang, Yumei Liu, Ho-Jong Lee, Jong-Chul Choi, So-Hyun Lee, Beom-Joo Lee, Sang-Won Lee, Joong-Bok Lee, Ki-hyun Cho and Seung-Yong Park

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:371

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    Pre-weaning milk replacer (MR) feeding program is a key factor affecting the health and welfare of lambs during their weaning. Weaning stress is well known as an inducement that negatively impacts the immune s...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Chong Li, Xiaolin Niu, Zhian Zhang, Fadi Li and Fei Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:366

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research article

    Chicken erythrocytes are involved in immunity through binding of toll-like receptors (TLRs) with their ligands to activate downstream signaling and lead to cytokine production in erythrocytes. Some avian β-def...

    Authors: Sheng Niu, Ali Raza Jahejo, Fa-jie Jia, Xin Li, Guan-bao Ning, Ding Zhang, Hai-li Ma, Wei-fang Hao, Wen-wei Gao, Yu-jun Zhao, Shi-min Gao, Gui-lan Li, Jian-hui Li, Fang Yan, Rong-kun Gao, Yu-hai Bi…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:363

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Case Report

    Listeria (L.) monocytogenes as the causative agent of listeriosis in humans and different animal species, has its reservoir in the environment. It can be found in the gut and faeces of healthy pigs, but under cer...

    Authors: Heiko Stein, Beatrix Stessl, Rene Brunthaler, Igor Loncaric, Herbert Weissenböck, Ursula Ruczizka, Andrea Ladinig and Lukas Schwarz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:362

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has previously been diagnosed in warthogs and infection can be highly prevalent (> 30%) in endemic areas. Thus, warthogs could potentially be an important s...

    Authors: Eduard O. Roos, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Peter Buss, Guy A. Hausler, Robin Warren, Paul D. van Helden, Sven D. C. Parsons, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist and Michele A. Miller

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:360

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) and Canine Parvovirus (CPV) lead to infections with high mortality rates in dogs. These viruses affect unvaccinated dogs or dogs with incomplete vaccination protocols. Vaccination ...

    Authors: Beatriz Vila Nova, Eva Cunha, Nuno Sepúlveda, Manuela Oliveira, Berta São Braz, Luis Tavares, Virgílio Almeida and Solange Gil

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:348

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Because antibiotic use in livestock is assumed to contribute to the emerging public health crisis of antibiotic resistance, alternatives are required. Phytogenic additives are extensively studied due to their ...

    Authors: Tobias Gräber, Holger Kluge, Sebastian Granica, Gert Horn, Jutta Kalbitz, Corinna Brandsch, Antje Breitenstein, Christine Brütting and Gabriele I. Stangl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:346

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research article

    Avoidance of antigenic stimuli was found to significantly reverse airway obstruction of horses with severe equine asthma (sEA). To date, no published study investigated the influence of steaming hay on lower a...

    Authors: Marie Orard, Erika Hue, Anne Couroucé, Céline Bizon-Mercier, Marie-Pierre Toquet, Meriel Moore-Colyer, Laurent Couëtil, Stéphane Pronost, Romain Paillot, Magali Demoor and Eric A. Richard

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:345

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) in sows is difficult to diagnose and the pathogenesis is obscure. Hormonal changes related to the disease are often difficult to distinguish from those found in the normal...

    Authors: Marianne Kaiser, Stine Jacobsen, Pia Haubro Andersen, Poul Bækbo, José Joaquin Cerón, Jan Dahl, Damián Escribano, Peter Kappel Theil and Magdalena Jacobson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:334

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    In this work, we report an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies against the swine virus H1N1 present in mice sera immunized with mixture of His6-H1 HA in monomeric and olig...

    Authors: Edyta Mikuła, Cristiane Erdmann Silva, Edyta Kopera, Konrad Zdanowski, Jerzy Radecki and Hanna Radecka

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:328

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    Cleft palate is a birth defect characterized by a lack of fusion between structures forming the palate. Causes include a multitude of factors, both genetic and environmental. Computed tomography (CT) is widely...

    Authors: Filip Pankowski, Sławomir Paśko, Andrzej Max, Bartłomiej Szal, Małgorzata Dzierzęcka, Joanna Gruszczyńska, Paweł Szaro, Marek Gołębiowski and Bartłomiej Jan Bartyzel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:316

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Case Report

    Ovarian cancer is diagnosed clinically by detecting ovarian cancer-related factors and markers. Here, we report a case of giant panda ovarian tumor metastasis with a combination of clinical and histopathologic...

    Authors: Qi Gao, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Linhua Deng, Caiwu Li and Zhengli Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:311

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    In the host immune system, perforin is a cytotoxic effector molecule that eliminate virus-infected and malignant cells. Moreover, some recent studies also imply the involvement of perforin in antibacterial imm...

    Authors: Ting Li, Lei Wang, Yonghuan Zhang, Xinyi Guo, Xinze Chen, Fumiao Zhang, Guiwen Yang, Wujun Wen and Hua Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:299

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Methodology article

    In the postpartum cow, early diagnosis of uterine disease is currently problematic due to the lack of reliable, non-invasive diagnostic methods. Cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) is an easy to collect potentially in...

    Authors: Mounir Adnane, Paul Kelly, Aspinas Chapwanya, Kieran G. Meade and Cliona O’Farrelly

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:297

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research article

    Currently, little is known about the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on oxidative stress following grain-induced sub-acute ruminal acidosis in dairy goats. In the present study, 18 lactating dairy goats implan...

    Authors: Nana Ma, Juma Ahamed Abaker, Muhammad Shahid Bilal, Hongyu Dai and Xiangzhen Shen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:275

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    The generation of recombinant proteins for commercialisation must be cost-effective. Despite the cost-effective production of recombinant feline interferon (rFeIFN) by a baculovirus expression system, this rFe...

    Authors: Sachi Minagawa, Yuzuru Nakaso, Masahiro Tomita, Takenori Igarashi, Yoshio Miura, Hideyo Yasuda and Satoshi Sekiguchi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:260

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    During peripartum period, dairy cows are highly susceptible to energy metabolism disorders such as fatty liver and ketosis. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), known ...

    Authors: Jianguo Wang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Guanghui She, Yezi Kong, Yazhou Guo, Zhe Wang, Guowen Liu and Baoyu Zhao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:236

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    Urea and creatinine in saliva have been reported to be possible markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. The aim of this study was to assess if urea and creatinine could be measured in canine saliva,...

    Authors: Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Luis Pardo-Marin, Fernando Tecles, Juana Dolores Carrillo, Juan Diego Garcia-Martinez, Luis Bernal, Josep Pastor, José J. Cerón and Silvia Martinez-Subiela

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:223

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    Oxidative stress (OS) associated with an intense exercise may have a negative influence on equine health. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of endurance races on oxidative and antioxidative st...

    Authors: Nika Brkljača Bottegaro, Jelena Gotić, Jelena Šuran, Diana Brozić, Karla Klobučar, Krunoslav Bojanić and Zoran Vrbanac

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:216

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is considered an important pathogenic mechanism for the establishment of mastitis. Given the interesting link between...

    Authors: Heng Wang, Chongliang Bi, Yinjie Wang, Jun Sun, Xia Meng and Jianji Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:197

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Review

    Dogs with canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum can show a wide spectrum of clinical and clinicopathological findings at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to describe the possible a...

    Authors: J. J. Ceron, L. Pardo-Marin, M. Caldin, T. Furlanello, L. Solano-Gallego, F. Tecles, L. Bernal, G. Baneth and S. Martinez-Subiela

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:196

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) is a zoonotic pathogen responsible for severe intestinal pathology in young chickens. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) fami...

    Authors: Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Raashid Ahmed, Uneeb Urwat, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Pervaiz Ahmad Dar, Zahid Amin Kushoo, Tanveer Ali Dar, Peerzada Tajamul Mumtaz, Shakil Ahmad Bhat, Umar Amin, Nadeem Shabir, Hina Fayaz Bhat, Riaz Ahmad Shah, Nazir Ahmad Ganai and Mohammad Heidari

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:180

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Review

    Marine and aquaculture industries are important sectors of the food production and global trade. Unfortunately, the fish food industry is challenged with a plethora of infectious pathogens. The freshwater and ...

    Authors: Michael Gotesman, Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Mona Saleh, Sven M. Bergmann and Mansour El-Matbouli

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:178

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    Mounting evidences observed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induced by high concentration (HC) diet increases the translocation of histamine from digestive tract into circulation causing a diverse of dis...

    Authors: Guangjun Chang, Lailai Wang, Nana Ma, Wenwen Zhang, Huanmin Zhang, Hongyu Dai and Xiangzhen Shen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:168

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), considered a non-invasive biomarker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, and salivary cortisol as possible pain-induced stress biom...

    Authors: María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Damián Escribano, María Martín-Cuervo, Fernando Tecles and Jose Joaquín Cerón

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:156

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research article

    Sheep have been traditionally considered as less susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (Mbovis) infection than other domestic ruminants such as cattle and goats. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of...

    Authors: Raquel Vallejo, Juan Francisco García Marín, Ramón Antonio Juste, Marta Muñoz-Mendoza, Francisco Javier Salguero and Ana Balseiro

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:154

    Published on:

  45. Content type: Research article

    In the host innate immune system, various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and represent an efficient first line of defense against invadi...

    Authors: Hua Li, Ting Li, Yujie Guo, Yujun Li, Yan Zhang, Na Teng, Fumiao Zhang and Guiwen Yang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:153

    Published on:

  46. Content type: Research article

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of herbal extracts on selected immunity mechanisms in clinically healthy pigeons and pigeons inoculated with the pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1). For the fi...

    Authors: Daria Dziewulska, Tomasz Stenzel, Marcin Śmiałek, Bartłomiej Tykałowski and Andrzej Koncicki

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:148

    Published on:

  47. Content type: Research article

    Insulin dysregulation in horses is a metabolic condition defined by high insulin concentrations in the blood and peripheral insulin resistance. This hyperinsulinemia is often associated with severe damage in t...

    Authors: Ákos Kenéz, Tobias Warnken, Karsten Feige and Korinna Huber

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:146

    Published on:

  48. Content type: Research article

    Friesian horses are known for their high inbreeding rate resulting in several genetic diseases such as hydrocephaly and dwarfism. This last decade, several studies focused on two other presumed hereditary trai...

    Authors: Veronique Saey, Jonathan Tang, Richard Ducatelle, Siska Croubels, Siegrid De Baere, Stijn Schauvliege, Gunther van Loon and Koen Chiers

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:139

    Published on:

  49. Content type: Research article

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a metabolic disease in high-producing dairy cattle, and is accompanied by rumenitis. However, the mechanism of rumenitis remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study wa...

    Authors: Chenxu Zhao, Guowen Liu, Xiaobing Li, Yuan Guan, Yazhou Wang, Xue Yuan, Guoquan Sun, Zhe Wang and Xinwei Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:135

    Published on: