Skip to main content


Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology

Section edited by Prof. Jose Joaquin Ceron

The clinical pathology, physiology and immunology section considers a broad range of submissions discussing the physiological processes that occur in healthy animals and underlie stress and disease. This includes, but not limited to, studies on biomarkers, biochemistry, cytopathology, endocrinology, pathophysiology, proteomics, hematopathology, immunology, and molecular diagnostics. Comparative medicine studies are also considered. 

Page 1 of 6

  1. Content type: Research article

    Non-specific immunotherapeutics have been evaluated previously in dogs, primarily for cancer treatment. However, there remains a need for a more broadly targeted, general purpose immunotherapeutic capable of a...

    Authors: William Wheat, Lyndah Chow, Alana Kuzmik, Sirikul Soontararak, Jade Kurihara, Michael Lappin and Steven Dow

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:330

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research article

    Dietary structure in ruminants is closely connected with the composition of gastrointestinal microbiota. Merging study has shown that dietary induced SARA causes the alteration of microbial community in the ce...

    Authors: Guangjun Chang, Huanmin Zhang, Yan Wang, Nana Ma, Roy Animesh Chandra, Gengping Ye, Su Zhuang, Weiyun Zhu and Xiangzhen Shen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:298

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a therapeutic biologic that is used for treatment of musculoskeletal pathologies in equine athletes. Due to the expense of PRP kits, and the volumes obtained, freezing aliquots fo...

    Authors: Andrew K. McClain and Taralyn M. McCarrel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:292

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research article

    Capillary electrophoresis of plasma proteins has shown great potential as a complementary diagnostic tool for avian species. However, reference intervals for plasma proteins are sparse or lacking for several f...

    Authors: Jørgen Flo, Mari Engvig Løseth, Christian Sonne, Veerle L. B. Jaspers and Hege Brun-Hansen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:290

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    Bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is extremely difficult to control and new methods for its prevention and management are required. Nasal vaccines may prevent initial bovine mastitis inf...

    Authors: Yuya Nagasawa, Yoshio Kiku, Kazue Sugawara, Aya Hirose, Chiaki Kai, Nana Kitano, Toshihiko Takahashi, Tomonori Nochi, Hisashi Aso, Shin-ichi Sawada, Kazunari Akiyoshi and Tomohito Hayashi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:286

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    Functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized in human and murine platelets indicating that platelets play a role in inflammation and hemostasis during sepsis. It is unclear whether canine plat...

    Authors: Ronald H. L. Li, Nghi Nguyen and Fern Tablin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:245

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Methodology article

    Vascular access port (VAP) systems are widely used in human medicine to provide long-term venous access. However, in veterinary medicine the use of VAP systems is not common practice and publications on their ...

    Authors: Kiona S. de Nies, Hedwig S. Kruitwagen, Giora van Straten, Leonie W. L. van Bruggen, Joris H. Robben, Baukje A. Schotanus, Ies Akkerdaas and Anne Kummeling

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:240

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    Recently, serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) has spread widely and caused huge economic loss to poultry industry. However, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of FAdV-4. Fiber protein is thought ...

    Authors: Hongxia Shao, Yanan Lu, Weikang Wang, Tuofan Li, Jianjun Zhang, Zhimin Wan, Guangchen Liang, Wei Gao, Aijian Qin and Jianqiang Ye

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:232

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    Acute ruminal acidosis (ARA) is a metabolic disease of cattle characterized by an aseptic synovitis. ARA is the result of an increased intake of highly fermentable carbohydrates that frequently occurs in dairy...

    Authors: Alejandra I. Hidalgo, María D. Carretta, Pablo Alarcón, Carolina Manosalva, Ananda Müller, Max Navarro, María A. Hidalgo, Thilo Kaehne, Anja Taubert, Carlos R. Hermosilla and Rafael A. Burgos

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:225

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    The role played by the humoral immune response in animals vaccinated against a mycobacterial disease such as paratuberculosis, is not well understood. Sheep vaccinated against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuber...

    Authors: Hannah B. Pooley, Douglas J. Begg, Karren M. Plain, Richard J. Whittington, Auriol C. Purdie and Kumudika de Silva

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:223

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease of dogs and has been associated with systemic disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of periodontal disease in a population of...

    Authors: Corrin Wallis, Ilaria Pesci, Alison Colyer, Lisa Milella, Peter Southerden, Lucy J. Holcombe and Neil Desforges

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:207

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is one of the most common non-neoplastic splenic lesions in dogs, especially in old ones, showing a splenic enlargement. More recent studies have been focused on Contrast Enh...

    Authors: Cyndi Mangano, Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Michela Pugliese, Silvia Santoro, Nicola M. Iannelli, Giuseppe Mazzullo, Rosalia Crupi and Massimo De Majo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:196

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    Perinatal mortality may vary between herds, but the cost of deaths are always higher than value of the calf. When diagnosing the cause of a calf’s death it is important to determine when it occurred, before or...

    Authors: Paulina Jawor, Adam Ząbek, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Dawid Król, Tadeusz Stefaniak and Piotr Młynarz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:189

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research article

    Melanosis of lymph nodes in black pigs has generally been related to regression of congenital melanoma and, occasionally, to ingestion of acorns. The aim of this manuscript is to confirm the hypothesis of a po...

    Authors: Giovanni Lanteri, Jessica Maria Abbate, Carmelo Iaria, Daniele Macrì, Vincenzo Ferrantelli and Fabio Marino

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:186

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Case Report

    Intracranial abscess formation is an extremely rare and sporadically documented disease in South American Camelids (SACs). Herein we report the first case of otogenic brain abscess formation in this species.

    Authors: Sonja Franz, Sandra Högler, Michaela Gumpenberger and Agnes Dadak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:183

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) are involved in uric acid excretion in humans and mice. Despite evidence suggesting that renal proximal tubular epithelial cell...

    Authors: Xuedong Ding, Manman Li, Chenglu Peng, Zhi Wang, Shoufa Qian, Yuying Ma, Tianyi Fang, Shibin Feng, Yu Li, Xichun Wang, Jinchun Li and Jinjie Wu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:180

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    Dogs with various medical diseases are usually treated at hospitals; however, the prognostic markers in dogs remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of serum cortisol concentration...

    Authors: Masashi Yuki, Reina Aoyama, Takashi Hirano, Reina Tawada, Mizuho Ogawa, Eiji Naitoh, Daiki Kainuma and Noriyuki Nagata

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:170

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    In broilers chickens, the molecular bases for promoting muscle development and growth requires further investigation. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effects of daily thermal manipulation...

    Authors: Mohamed Borhan Al-Zghoul and Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:166

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    Biomarkers of oxidative stress in pigs have been measured in serum/plasma samples. However, blood collection in pigs can be highly stressful to the animals. Saliva is a biological fluid with several advantages...

    Authors: Camila Peres Rubio, Eva Mainau, José Joaquín Cerón, Maria Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Elena Navarro, Fernando Tecles, Xavier Manteca and Damian Escribano

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:144

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    Feline hyperthyroidism, the most common endocrinopathy in older cats, provides a spontaneous model for human thyrotoxicosis. Human thyrotoxicosis is associated with redox unbalance, which may result in organ d...

    Authors: Alessia Candellone, Paola Gianella, Lara Ceccarelli, Graziella Raviri, Paola Badino, Silvia Roncone, Hans S. Kooistra and Giorgia Meineri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:136

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research article

    Laminitis is considered as one of the most important causes of hoof lameness in dairy cows, which can lead to enormous economic losses. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of laminitis have not been clarifi...

    Authors: Meng-Yue Tian, Jing-Hui Fan, Zhi-Wei Zhuang, Fei Dai, Cheng-Yu Wang, Hai-Ting Hou and Yu-Zhong Ma

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:127

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Research article

    In order to characterize the complete range of lesions, especially minimal, affecting mammary gland and viral antigen distribution and target cells using immunohistochemistry in naturally Visna/maedi (VM) 84 i...

    Authors: E. Gayo, L. Polledo, A. Magalde, A. Balseiro, M. J. García Iglesias, C. Pérez Martínez, S. Preziuso, G. Rossi and J. F. García Marín

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:109

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    A previous study showed that prebiotics and synbiotics administered in ovo into the egg air cell on the 12th day of incubation enhance the growth and development of chickens. However, the influence of this proced...

    Authors: Tadeusz Stefaniak, Jan P. Madej, Stanisław Graczyk, Maria Siwek, Ewa Łukaszewicz, Artur Kowalczyk, Marcin Sieńczyk and Marek Bednarczyk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:105

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    To conduct a hematological analysis of avian blood samples, standard automated cell counting is unreliable because all avian blood cells are nucleated. Therefore, quantitative white blood cell counting in bird...

    Authors: Lea Carisch, Martina Stirn, Jean Michel Hatt, Karin Federer, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann and Barbara Riond

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:93

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Limited data are available about the kinetics of mRNA expressions of Heat shock proteins (HSPs) and heat shock factors (HSFs) in the thermally manipulated (TM) broiler chicks during acute heat stress. Therefor...

    Authors: Mohamed Borhan Al-Zghoul and Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:83

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research article

    The sustainability of farming and animal welfare requires the reconsideration of current selection schemes. In particular, implementation of new selection criteria related to animal health and welfare should h...

    Authors: Julie Hervé, Elena Terenina, Karine Haurogné, Elodie Bacou, Elizaveta Kulikova, Marie Allard, Yvon Billon, Jean-Marie Bach, Pierre Mormède and Blandine Lieubeau

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:71

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    Refractory diseases, including bacterial infections, are causing huge economic losses in dairy farming. Despite efforts to prevent and treat those diseases in cattle, including the use of antimicrobials, it is...

    Authors: Sotaro Fujisawa, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Akina Tanaka, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata and Kazuhiko Ohashi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:68

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    Premilking udder preparation is essential for harvesting high-quality milk as gently, completely, and quickly as possible. The associations between characteristics such as teat-end shape and premilking stimula...

    Authors: Matthias Wieland, Jaclyn M. Melvin, Daryl V. Nydam and Paul D. Virkler

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:58

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation of rodent macrophages in vitro induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, whereas interleukin-4 stimulation results in increased activit...

    Authors: Heather Imrie and Diana J. L. Williams

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:45

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Caspases are a family of conserved intracellular cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play important roles in regulating cell death and inflammation. Our previous study revealed the im...

    Authors: Shuo Li, Jiafang Li, Weijiao Peng, Gaixiang Hao and Jinsheng Sun

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:20

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, causes severe mastitis and/or chronic persistent infections with detrimental effects on the cows’ wellbeing, lifespan and milk production. Despi...

    Authors: Lindert Benedictus, Lars Ravesloot, Kim Poppe, Ineke Daemen, Eveline Boerhout, Jos van Strijp, Femke Broere, Victor Rutten, Ad Koets and Susanne Eisenberg

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:15

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research article

    Although teleost fish developed acquired immunity firstly in evolution, innate immunity is still very important for them. Innate immunity depends on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to distinguish “self” a...

    Authors: Fumiao Zhang, Shijuan Shan, Xiaoyang Xu, Yao Wang, Yonghuan Zhang, Miao Yin and Guiwen Yang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:10

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research article

    The ideal method for monitoring trilostane therapy in dogs with hypercortisolism is still open to debate. Recently, determination of the pre-trilostane (prepill) cortisol concentration has been proposed to be ...

    Authors: Felicitas Boretti, Caterina Musella, Wanda Burkhardt, Claudia Kuemmerle-Fraune, Barbara Riond, Claudia Reusch and Nadja Sieber-Ruckstuhl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:417

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    The immune response against tuberculosis in lions is still poorly defined and our understanding is hampered by the lack of lion specific reagents. The process for producing antibodies against a specific antige...

    Authors: Tashnica Taime Sylvester, Sven David Charles Parsons, Paul David van Helden, Michele Ann Miller and Andre Gareth Loxton

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:410

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be controlled by either stamping out or vaccination, a choice which depends on both the economic importance of the livestock sector as well as the disease status. In FMD-free c...

    Authors: Yeong-Lim Kang, Ji-Yun Jeong, Hwi-Yeon Choi, Yanhong Zhang, Yumei Liu, Ho-Jong Lee, Jong-Chul Choi, So-Hyun Lee, Beom-Joo Lee, Sang-Won Lee, Joong-Bok Lee, Ki-hyun Cho and Seung-Yong Park

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:371

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    Pre-weaning milk replacer (MR) feeding program is a key factor affecting the health and welfare of lambs during their weaning. Weaning stress is well known as an inducement that negatively impacts the immune s...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Chong Li, Xiaolin Niu, Zhian Zhang, Fadi Li and Fei Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:366

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    Chicken erythrocytes are involved in immunity through binding of toll-like receptors (TLRs) with their ligands to activate downstream signaling and lead to cytokine production in erythrocytes. Some avian β-def...

    Authors: Sheng Niu, Ali Raza Jahejo, Fa-jie Jia, Xin Li, Guan-bao Ning, Ding Zhang, Hai-li Ma, Wei-fang Hao, Wen-wei Gao, Yu-jun Zhao, Shi-min Gao, Gui-lan Li, Jian-hui Li, Fang Yan, Rong-kun Gao, Yu-hai Bi…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:363

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Case Report

    Listeria (L.) monocytogenes as the causative agent of listeriosis in humans and different animal species, has its reservoir in the environment. It can be found in the gut and faeces of healthy pigs, but under cer...

    Authors: Heiko Stein, Beatrix Stessl, Rene Brunthaler, Igor Loncaric, Herbert Weissenböck, Ursula Ruczizka, Andrea Ladinig and Lukas Schwarz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:362

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research article

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has previously been diagnosed in warthogs and infection can be highly prevalent (> 30%) in endemic areas. Thus, warthogs could potentially be an important s...

    Authors: Eduard O. Roos, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Peter Buss, Guy A. Hausler, Robin Warren, Paul D. van Helden, Sven D. C. Parsons, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist and Michele A. Miller

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:360

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) and Canine Parvovirus (CPV) lead to infections with high mortality rates in dogs. These viruses affect unvaccinated dogs or dogs with incomplete vaccination protocols. Vaccination ...

    Authors: Beatriz Vila Nova, Eva Cunha, Nuno Sepúlveda, Manuela Oliveira, Berta São Braz, Luis Tavares, Virgílio Almeida and Solange Gil

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:348

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    Because antibiotic use in livestock is assumed to contribute to the emerging public health crisis of antibiotic resistance, alternatives are required. Phytogenic additives are extensively studied due to their ...

    Authors: Tobias Gräber, Holger Kluge, Sebastian Granica, Gert Horn, Jutta Kalbitz, Corinna Brandsch, Antje Breitenstein, Christine Brütting and Gabriele I. Stangl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:346

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    Avoidance of antigenic stimuli was found to significantly reverse airway obstruction of horses with severe equine asthma (sEA). To date, no published study investigated the influence of steaming hay on lower a...

    Authors: Marie Orard, Erika Hue, Anne Couroucé, Céline Bizon-Mercier, Marie-Pierre Toquet, Meriel Moore-Colyer, Laurent Couëtil, Stéphane Pronost, Romain Paillot, Magali Demoor and Eric A. Richard

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:345

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) in sows is difficult to diagnose and the pathogenesis is obscure. Hormonal changes related to the disease are often difficult to distinguish from those found in the normal...

    Authors: Marianne Kaiser, Stine Jacobsen, Pia Haubro Andersen, Poul Bækbo, José Joaquin Cerón, Jan Dahl, Damián Escribano, Peter Kappel Theil and Magdalena Jacobson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:334

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research article

    In this work, we report an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies against the swine virus H1N1 present in mice sera immunized with mixture of His6-H1 HA in monomeric and olig...

    Authors: Edyta Mikuła, Cristiane Erdmann Silva, Edyta Kopera, Konrad Zdanowski, Jerzy Radecki and Hanna Radecka

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:328

    Published on:

  45. Content type: Research article

    Cleft palate is a birth defect characterized by a lack of fusion between structures forming the palate. Causes include a multitude of factors, both genetic and environmental. Computed tomography (CT) is widely...

    Authors: Filip Pankowski, Sławomir Paśko, Andrzej Max, Bartłomiej Szal, Małgorzata Dzierzęcka, Joanna Gruszczyńska, Paweł Szaro, Marek Gołębiowski and Bartłomiej Jan Bartyzel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:316

    Published on:

  46. Content type: Case Report

    Ovarian cancer is diagnosed clinically by detecting ovarian cancer-related factors and markers. Here, we report a case of giant panda ovarian tumor metastasis with a combination of clinical and histopathologic...

    Authors: Qi Gao, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Linhua Deng, Caiwu Li and Zhengli Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:311

    Published on:

  47. Content type: Research article

    In the host immune system, perforin is a cytotoxic effector molecule that eliminate virus-infected and malignant cells. Moreover, some recent studies also imply the involvement of perforin in antibacterial imm...

    Authors: Ting Li, Lei Wang, Yonghuan Zhang, Xinyi Guo, Xinze Chen, Fumiao Zhang, Guiwen Yang, Wujun Wen and Hua Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:299

    Published on: