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Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology

The Clinical Pathology, Physiology and Immunology considers all sound science research study types in which laboratory analysis and the use of biomarkers have a major role in enhancing our understanding of animal health. This section is open to any animal species and comparative studies are also considered. Studies must be scientifically valid; for research articles this includes a scientifically sound research question, the use of suitable methods and analysis, and following community-agreed standards relevant to the research field.

 The main topics covered in this section include:

  •   Laboratory assays and methods validation
  •   Laboratory methods applied to study pathophysological changes in disease
  •   Hematology
  •   Clinical Biochemistry
  •   Endocrinology Tests
  •   Immunological Assays
  •   Cytology
  •   Development and validation of new biomarkers including proteomic studies

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  1. Dehydration has deleterious effects in many species, but camels tolerate long periods of water deprivation without serious health compromise. The kidney plays crucial role in water conservation, however, some ...

    Authors: Mahmoud A. Ali, Hassan Abu Damir, Osman M. Ali, Naheed Amir, Saeed Tariq, Michael P. Greenwood, Panjiao Lin, Benjamin Gillard, David Murphy and Abdu Adem

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:458

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs), as transcriptional regulatory factors, play important roles in regulating the expression of type I IFN and IFN- stimulated genes (ISGs) in innate immune responses. I...

    Authors: Yaoyao Zhu, Shijuan Shan, Huaping Zhao, Rongrong Liu, Hui Wang, Xinping Chen, Guiwen Yang and Hua Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:450

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The problem of transmission of intestinal microorganisms to tissues occurs when intestinal epithelial cells do not adhere tightly (tight junction), which is caused by improper nutrition, usually associated wit...

    Authors: Łukasz Wlazło, Wojciech Łopuszyński, Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek, Mateusz Ossowski and Hanna Bis-Wencel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:434

    Content type: Case Report

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  4. H9N2 Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) raises public health concerns and its eradication in poultry becomes even more important in preventing influenza. AJSAF is a purified active saponin fraction f...

    Authors: Hongxiang Sun, Liyan Fei, Binnian Zhu and Minghua Shi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:427

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is an antioxidant enzyme, whose activity decreases during the acute phase response in many species. Little is known about PON-1 and its role as a negative acute phase protein during septi...

    Authors: Donatella Scavone, Micaela Sgorbini, Alexandre S. Borges, José P. Oliveira-Filho, Valentina Vitale and Saverio Paltrinieri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:422

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Congenital goiter is a common thyroid metabolic disorder characterized by low levels of thyroid hormone, subsequent secretion of excess thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland, and compensat...

    Authors: Jinling Wang, Yulin Ding, Jirintai Sulijid, Li Zhao, Shoufeng Lu, Xiaoyu Wang and Yonghong Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:414

    Content type: Case Report

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  7. Meckel’s diverticula are a rare cause of small intestinal strangulation, diagnosed at laparotomy or necropsy. This congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract originates from a remnant of the vitelline du...

    Authors: E. Stas, L. Kranenburg, P. Witt, J. de Grauw, J. van den Brand, J. Ensink and H. Brommer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:409

    Content type: Case Report

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  8. Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a multifactorial immune-mediated disease that can lead to chronic pain, anorexia, and weight loss and has substantial health and welfare effects. Currently, the recom...

    Authors: Lisa A. Mestrinho, Rita Rosa, Patrícia Ramalho, Vasco Branco, Leonor Iglésias, Hugo Pissarra, Ana Duarte and Maria Niza

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:390

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Measurement of adenosine deaminase (ADA) can provide information about cell-mediated immunity. This report’s objective was to study the enzymatic activity of total ADA (tADA) and its isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2 i...

    Authors: María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Ingrida Monkeviciene, María Martín-Cuervo, Luis Guillermo González-Arostegui, Lorena Franco-Martínez, José Joaquín Cerón, Fernando Tecles and Damián Escribano

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:384

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) develops slowly in aged horses as degeneration of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons leads to proliferation of pars intermedia (PI) melanotropes through hyperplasia ...

    Authors: Jessica S. Fortin, Matthew J. Benskey, Keith J. Lookingland, Jon S. Patterson, Erin B. Howey, John L. Goudreau and Harold C. Schott II

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:356

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The use of zinc oxide in the form of nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) is of great benefit due to its potent effectiveness and higher bioavailability compared to zinc oxide. This study aimed to investigate the impact of...

    Authors: Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr, Saad Shousha, Ibrahim Albokhadaim, Ahmed Shehab, Wassem Khattab, Omar Ahmed-Farid, Osama El-Garhy, Abdelrahman Abdelgawad, Mehrez El-Naggar, Mahmoud Moustafa, Omnia Badr and Mohammad Shathele

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:349

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Transportation is necessary to introduce new breeds of goats to the farm and move the adult meat goat from the farm to the slaughterhouse. However, these actions may give rise to transport stress. Heat shock p...

    Authors: Wei Hu, Tian Ye, Yanzhen Yang, Ben Liu and Wenya Zheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:347

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Equine endometrosis is a chronic degenerative condition, described as endometrial fibrosis that forms in the stroma, under the basement membrane and around the endometrial glands. The role of lysophosphatidic ...

    Authors: Anna Szóstek-Mioduchowska, Natalia Leciejewska, Beata Zelmańska, Joanna Staszkiewicz-Chodor, Graça Ferreira-Dias and Dariusz Skarzynski

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:343

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are two important pathogens causing Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) and porcine circovirus diseases and porcine circovirus-associated diseas...

    Authors: Yu Tao, Rui Yang, Jianhong Shu, Wenqian Zheng, Jian Chen, Yuehong Wu and Yulong He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:342

    Content type: Research article

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  15. IgE reactivity to fish allergens in atopic dogs, which are used as models for food allergy, has not been elucidated to date. We investigated IgE reactivity to crude extracts and purified allergens derived from...

    Authors: Ichiro Imanishi, Jumpei Uchiyama, Keijiro Mizukami, Junichi Kamiie, Keigo Kurata, Keita Iyori, Masato Fujimura, Kuniyoshi Shimakura, Koji Nishifuji and Masahiro Sakaguchi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:341

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Blood profile testing is commonly used to monitor herd health status, diagnose disorders, and predict the risk of diseases in cows and calves, with subsequent optimization the production of dairy herds. By und...

    Authors: Hussein Awad Hussein, Jan-Peter Thurmann and Rudolf Staufenbiel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:327

    Content type: Research article

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  17. African horse sickness (AHS) is a serious viral disease of equids resulting in the deaths of many equids in sub-Saharan Africa that has been recognized for centuries. This has significant economic impact on th...

    Authors: Marina Rodríguez, Sunitha Joseph, Martin Pfeffer, Rekha Raghavan and Ulrich Wernery

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:322

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Portal hypertension is a severe complication caused by various chronic liver diseases. The standard methods for detecting portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient and free portal pressure) are ava...

    Authors: Jia-Yun Lin, Chi-Hao Zhang, Lei Zheng, Chen-Lu Song, Wen-Sheng Deng, Yi-Ming Zhu, Li Zheng, Li-Zhong Wu, Long-Ci Sun and Meng Luo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:308

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Dogs’ saliva is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic constituents, rich in proteins. Therefore, knowing the saliva composition of these animals is extremely important to identify the presence of proteins...

    Authors: Mayara Bringel, Paula Karine Jorge, Priscila Amanda Francisco, Cadance Lowe, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Bella Luna Colombini-Ishikiriama, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira Machado and Walter Luiz Siqueira

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:298

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Biochemical and haematological parameters have not been determined in Bactrian camels kept at high altitude. Therefore, this study was undertaken to characterise different physiological, haematological, bioche...

    Authors: Dolker Lamo, Geeta Gahlawat, Sunil Kumar, Vijay K. Bharti, Puneet Ranjan, Deepak Kumar and Om Prakash Chaurasia

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:291

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Culicoides hypersensitivity (CH) is induced in horses by salivary allergens of Culicoides midges. In Iceland, the causal Culicoides species for CH are not present. Previous epidemiological data indicated that Ice...

    Authors: Fahad Raza, Renata Ivanek, Heather Freer, Dania Reiche, Horst Rose, Sigurbjörg Torsteinsdóttir, Vilhjálmur Svansson, Sigríður Björnsdóttir and Bettina Wagner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:283

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Data on gamma-delta (γδ) T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of dogs are scant, related only to healthy pure breed dogs and limited to a restricted age range. The aim of the study was to investigate the modu...

    Authors: Cristina Marchetti, Paolo Borghetti, Antonio Cacchioli, Luca Ferrari, Federico Armando, Attilio Corradi and Anna Maria Cantoni

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:278

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is an etiologic pathogen of feline panleukopenia that infects all members of Felidae including tigers (Panthera tigris). Vaccinations against FPV among wild felid species have lon...

    Authors: Chanakan Areewong, Amarin Rittipornlertrak, Boondarika Nambooppha, Itsarapan Fhaikrue, Tawatchai Singhla, Chollada Sodarat, Worapat Prachasilchai, Preeyanat Vongchan and Nattawooti Sthitmatee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:275

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that...

    Authors: Harrison O. Lutta, David Odongo, Arshad Mather, Jose Perez-Casal, Andrew Potter, Volker Gerdts, Emil M. Berberov, Tracy Prysliak, Martina Kyallo, Alexander Kipronoh, Moses Olum, Roger Pelle and Jan Naessens

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:236

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Emergence of both viral zoonoses from bats and diseases that threaten bat populations has highlighted the necessity for greater insights into the functioning of the bat immune system. Particularly when conside...

    Authors: Jiri Pikula, Tomas Heger, Hana Bandouchova, Veronika Kovacova, Monika Nemcova, Ivana Papezikova, Vladimir Piacek, Renata Zajíčková and Jan Zukal

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:232

    Content type: Research article

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  26. In the poultry industry, quantitative analysis of chicken T cell proliferation is important in many biological applications such as drug screening, vaccine production, and cytotoxicity assessment. Several assa...

    Authors: Karla Lucía F. Alvarez, Astrid Poma-Acevedo, Manolo Fernández-Sánchez and Manolo Fernández-Díaz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:230

    Content type: Methodology article

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  27. The aim of the study has been to compare the effect of dietary supplementation of β-1,3/1,6-glucan, Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria or their mixture on the growth performance, selected parameters of the immune s...

    Authors: Barbara Kazuń, Joanna Małaczewska, Krzysztof Kazuń, Rafał Kamiński, Dobrochna Adamek-Urbańska and Joanna Żylińska-Urban

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:216

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Using probiotics have become popular. They are considered an alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP). Probiotics are supplemented into animal feed for improving growth performance along with preventin...

    Authors: Sabreen Ezzat Fadl, Ghada Ahmed El-Gammal, Osama Atia Sakr, Aly A. B. S. Salah, Ayman Ali Atia, Abdelbary Mohammed Prince and Abdelhaleem Mohamed Hegazy

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:204

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Canine parvovirus (CPV) is now recognized as a serious threat to the dog breeding industry worldwide. Currently used CPV vaccines all have their specific drawbacks, prompting a search for alternative safe and ...

    Authors: Dao Chang, Yangkun Liu, Yangyang Chen, Xiaomin Hu, Andrey Burov, Alexey Puzyr, Vladimir Bondar and Lunguang Yao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:202

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Sepsis is a severe condition associated with high prevalence and mortality rates. Parvovirus enteritis is a predisposing factor for sepsis, as it promotes intestinal bacterial translocation and severe immunosu...

    Authors: F. Alves, S. Prata, T. Nunes, J. Gomes, S. Aguiar, F. Aires da Silva, L. Tavares, V. Almeida and S. Gil

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:199

    Content type: Research article

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  31. A greater understanding of exercise physiology and biochemistry is required for the sport horse disciplines, including show jumping. Conditioning of horses for show jumping is empirical because they are primar...

    Authors: Renaud Léguillette, Stephanie L. Bond, Kelda Lawlor, Tineke de Haan and Lauren M. Weber

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:182

    Content type: Research article

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  32. A healthy immune system plays a particularly important role in newborns, including in calves that are far more susceptible to infections (viral, bacterial and other) than adult individuals. Therefore, the pres...

    Authors: Roman Wójcik, Joanna Małaczewska, Grzegorz Zwierzchowski, Jan Miciński and Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:171

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Constitutive and inducible defenses protect the respiratory tract from bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to characterize the response to an aerosolized lysate of killed bacteria, as a basis ...

    Authors: Laura L. Bassel, Carmon Co, Alaina Macdonald, Laurel Sly, Erin E. McCandless, Joanne Hewson, Raksha Tiwari, Shayan Sharif, Laura Siracusa, Mary Ellen Clark and Jeff L. Caswell

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:168

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Penguin interaction with gillnets has been extensively reported in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and is considered a major conservation threat. Among penguin species, Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanic...

    Authors: Ana Carolina Ewbank, Carlos Sacristán, Samira Costa-Silva, Marzia Antonelli, Janaina R. Lorenço, Guilherme A. Nogueira, Mariana B. Ebert, Cristiane K. M. Kolesnikovas and José Luiz Catão-Dias

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:153

    Content type: Research article

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  35. In human medicine, extremely high CRP (C-reactive protein) concentrations > 100 mg/l are indicators of bacterial infection and the need of antibiotic treatment. Similar decision limits for septic pneumonia are...

    Authors: Sarah Hindenberg, Natali Bauer and Andreas Moritz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:147

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Mastitis is the most frequent diseases for transition cows. Identification of potential biomarkers for diagnosis of mastitis is important for its prevention. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate blood...

    Authors: Ruo-wei Guan, Di-ming Wang, Bei-bei Wang, Lu-yi Jiang and Jian-xin Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:136

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Dairy cows undergo dramatic changes in endocrine and metabolic status around parturition and in early lactation. Meeting the nutritional requirements of transition dairy cows is important for animal health, pr...

    Authors: Yasmin Gundelach, Beate Streuff, Monika Franczyk, Marta Kankofer and Martina Hoedemaker

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:134

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dal, and DEA 1, 4, 7 blood types, in a population of canine blood donors from Italy and Spain. Three hundred and twenty blood donor dogs receiving an an...

    Authors: Daniela Proverbio, George Lubas, Eva Spada, Anyela Andrea Medina Valentin, Luis Miguel Viñals Florez, Maria del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Roberta Perego, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Elisabetta Ferro, Luciana Baggiani, Alessandra Gavazza and Marie-Claude Blais

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:126

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Carprofen and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are widely used in small animal clinical practice. Separation layers have been used during blood centrifugation to increase platelet yield. The objectives of this study...

    Authors: Jutarat Apakupakul, Panpicha Sattasathuchana, Phongsak Chanloinapha and Naris Thengchaisri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:124

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Buffalo milk is rich in various nutritional components and bioactive substances that provide more essential health benefits to human body. Recently, exosome identified in the breast milk has been reported as a...

    Authors: Zujing Chen, Yueqin Xie, Junyi Luo, Ting Chen, Qianyun Xi, Yongliang Zhang and Jiajie Sun

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:123

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Hoof disease is one of the three major diseases that often occur in dairy cows. The impact of this disease on dairy farming is second only to mastitis. Laminitis is a diffuse, aseptic, serous, non-purulent inf...

    Authors: Xianhao Zhang, Jiafeng Ding, Yuepeng Li, Qiaozhi Song, Shuaichen Li, Muhammad Abid Hayat, Jiantao Zhang and Hongbin Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:119

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Supplementation programs for prepartum beef cows are usually adopted because the nutritional status of the cows upon calving is a main factor impacting reproductive performance of the next production cycle. Th...

    Authors: Matheus Fellipe de Lana Ferreira, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Edenio Detmann, Mário Fonseca Paulino, Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho, Samira Silveira Moreira, Hudson Caio Martins, Bruno Inácio Correa de Oliveira, Julia Avansi Marquez and Isabela de Paula Cidrine

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:108

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Adipose tissue may have different metabolic and endocrine functions depending on the region of the body in which it is located. While visceral or intra-abdominal fat has been found to contribute to leptin conc...

    Authors: R. B. S. Turner, D. Tyrrell, G. Hepworth, F. R. Dunshea and C. S. Mansfield

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:104

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the multiparameter analysis of leukocyte subsets on the single cell level. Recent advances have greatly increased the number of fluorochrome-labeled antibodies in flow cyt...

    Authors: Julia Hunka, John T. Riley and Gudrun F. Debes

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:83

    Content type: Methodology article

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  45. In human and different animal species, blood monocytes are classified based on their expression pattern of different monocytic markers into phenotypically and functionally different subsets. In the current stu...

    Authors: Jamal Hussen, Turke Shawaf, Abdullah I. A. Al-Mubarak, Naser Abdallah Al Humam, Faisal Almathen and Hans-Joachim Schuberth

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:62

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Necrotic enteritis, which is caused by Clostridium perfringens, has resulted in more than $2 billion losses in the poultry industry every year. Due to the ban of antibiotics in feed industry, alternatives like en...

    Authors: Tianyue Xu, Yan Chen, Longfei Yu, Jun Wang, Mingxing Huang and Nianhua Zhu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:47

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Vaccination remains the principal tool to control PCV2-associated diseases (PCVADs). Current vaccines do ...

    Authors: Xiangyu Liu, Yangkun Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Fan Zhang and Enqi Du

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:45

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Ketosis is a metabolic disorder often triggered by anorexia in animals fed on high energy diets. Although mostly described in pregnant female guinea pigs, under the name of pregnancy toxicosis; there is limite...

    Authors: Nicole S. Schmid, Marcus Clauss, Udo Hetzel, Barbara Riond, Monika Bochmann and Jean-Michel Hatt

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:41

    Content type: Research article

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  49. This study is focused on the measurement of trace elements (zinc, copper, cadmium, lead and selenium) in the saliva of pigs in order to study their levels on different porcine pathological conditions in the fi...

    Authors: Jorge Sánchez, Miguel Montilla, Cándido Gutiérrez-Panizo, Juan Sotillo, Pablo Fuentes, Ana Montes and Ana María Gutiérrez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:27

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Platelets undergo structural, biochemical and functional alterations when stored, and platelet storage lesions reduce platelet function and half-life after transfusion. The objective of this study was to evalu...

    Authors: Camila Serina Lasta, Nicole Hlavac, Natália Aydos Marcondes, Magnus Larruscaim Dalmolin, Silvia Resende Terra, Luciana de Almeida Lacerda, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira Faulhaber and Félix Hilário Díaz González

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:25

    Content type: Research article

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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