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Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology

Section edited by Prof. Jose Joaquin Ceron

The Clinical Pathology, Physiology and Immunology considers all sound science research study types in which laboratory analysis and the use of biomarkers have a major role in enhancing our understanding of animal health. This section is open to any animal species and comparative studies are also considered. Studies must be scientifically valid; for research articles this includes a scientifically sound research question, the use of suitable methods and analysis, and following community-agreed standards relevant to the research field.

 The main topics covered in this section include:

  •   Laboratory assays and methods validation
  •   Laboratory methods applied to study pathophysological changes in disease
  •   Hematology
  •   Clinical Biochemistry
  •   Endocrinology Tests
  •   Immunological Assays
  •   Cytology
  •   Development and validation of new biomarkers including proteomic studies

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  1. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that...

    Authors: Harrison O. Lutta, David Odongo, Arshad Mather, Jose Perez-Casal, Andrew Potter, Volker Gerdts, Emil M. Berberov, Tracy Prysliak, Martina Kyallo, Alexander Kipronoh, Moses Olum, Roger Pelle and Jan Naessens

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:236

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Emergence of both viral zoonoses from bats and diseases that threaten bat populations has highlighted the necessity for greater insights into the functioning of the bat immune system. Particularly when conside...

    Authors: Jiri Pikula, Tomas Heger, Hana Bandouchova, Veronika Kovacova, Monika Nemcova, Ivana Papezikova, Vladimir Piacek, Renata Zajíčková and Jan Zukal

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:232

    Content type: Research article

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  3. In the poultry industry, quantitative analysis of chicken T cell proliferation is important in many biological applications such as drug screening, vaccine production, and cytotoxicity assessment. Several assa...

    Authors: Karla Lucía F. Alvarez, Astrid Poma-Acevedo, Manolo Fernández-Sánchez and Manolo Fernández-Díaz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:230

    Content type: Methodology article

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  4. The aim of the study has been to compare the effect of dietary supplementation of β-1,3/1,6-glucan, Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria or their mixture on the growth performance, selected parameters of the immune s...

    Authors: Barbara Kazuń, Joanna Małaczewska, Krzysztof Kazuń, Rafał Kamiński, Dobrochna Adamek-Urbańska and Joanna Żylińska-Urban

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:216

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Using probiotics have become popular. They are considered an alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP). Probiotics are supplemented into animal feed for improving growth performance along with preventin...

    Authors: Sabreen Ezzat Fadl, Ghada Ahmed El-Gammal, Osama Atia Sakr, Aly A. B. S. Salah, Ayman Ali Atia, Abdelbary Mohammed Prince and Abdelhaleem Mohamed Hegazy

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:204

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Canine parvovirus (CPV) is now recognized as a serious threat to the dog breeding industry worldwide. Currently used CPV vaccines all have their specific drawbacks, prompting a search for alternative safe and ...

    Authors: Dao Chang, Yangkun Liu, Yangyang Chen, Xiaomin Hu, Andrey Burov, Alexey Puzyr, Vladimir Bondar and Lunguang Yao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:202

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Sepsis is a severe condition associated with high prevalence and mortality rates. Parvovirus enteritis is a predisposing factor for sepsis, as it promotes intestinal bacterial translocation and severe immunosu...

    Authors: F. Alves, S. Prata, T. Nunes, J. Gomes, S. Aguiar, F. Aires da Silva, L. Tavares, V. Almeida and S. Gil

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:199

    Content type: Research article

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  8. A greater understanding of exercise physiology and biochemistry is required for the sport horse disciplines, including show jumping. Conditioning of horses for show jumping is empirical because they are primar...

    Authors: Renaud Léguillette, Stephanie L. Bond, Kelda Lawlor, Tineke de Haan and Lauren M. Weber

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:182

    Content type: Research article

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  9. A healthy immune system plays a particularly important role in newborns, including in calves that are far more susceptible to infections (viral, bacterial and other) than adult individuals. Therefore, the pres...

    Authors: Roman Wójcik, Joanna Małaczewska, Grzegorz Zwierzchowski, Jan Miciński and Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:171

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Constitutive and inducible defenses protect the respiratory tract from bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to characterize the response to an aerosolized lysate of killed bacteria, as a basis ...

    Authors: Laura L. Bassel, Carmon Co, Alaina Macdonald, Laurel Sly, Erin E. McCandless, Joanne Hewson, Raksha Tiwari, Shayan Sharif, Laura Siracusa, Mary Ellen Clark and Jeff L. Caswell

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:168

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Penguin interaction with gillnets has been extensively reported in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and is considered a major conservation threat. Among penguin species, Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanic...

    Authors: Ana Carolina Ewbank, Carlos Sacristán, Samira Costa-Silva, Marzia Antonelli, Janaina R. Lorenço, Guilherme A. Nogueira, Mariana B. Ebert, Cristiane K. M. Kolesnikovas and José Luiz Catão-Dias

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:153

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In human medicine, extremely high CRP (C-reactive protein) concentrations > 100 mg/l are indicators of bacterial infection and the need of antibiotic treatment. Similar decision limits for septic pneumonia are...

    Authors: Sarah Hindenberg, Natali Bauer and Andreas Moritz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:147

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Mastitis is the most frequent diseases for transition cows. Identification of potential biomarkers for diagnosis of mastitis is important for its prevention. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate blood...

    Authors: Ruo-wei Guan, Di-ming Wang, Bei-bei Wang, Lu-yi Jiang and Jian-xin Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:136

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Dairy cows undergo dramatic changes in endocrine and metabolic status around parturition and in early lactation. Meeting the nutritional requirements of transition dairy cows is important for animal health, pr...

    Authors: Yasmin Gundelach, Beate Streuff, Monika Franczyk, Marta Kankofer and Martina Hoedemaker

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:134

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dal, and DEA 1, 4, 7 blood types, in a population of canine blood donors from Italy and Spain. Three hundred and twenty blood donor dogs receiving an an...

    Authors: Daniela Proverbio, George Lubas, Eva Spada, Anyela Andrea Medina Valentin, Luis Miguel Viñals Florez, Maria del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Roberta Perego, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Elisabetta Ferro, Luciana Baggiani, Alessandra Gavazza and Marie-Claude Blais

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:126

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Carprofen and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are widely used in small animal clinical practice. Separation layers have been used during blood centrifugation to increase platelet yield. The objectives of this study...

    Authors: Jutarat Apakupakul, Panpicha Sattasathuchana, Phongsak Chanloinapha and Naris Thengchaisri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:124

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Buffalo milk is rich in various nutritional components and bioactive substances that provide more essential health benefits to human body. Recently, exosome identified in the breast milk has been reported as a...

    Authors: Zujing Chen, Yueqin Xie, Junyi Luo, Ting Chen, Qianyun Xi, Yongliang Zhang and Jiajie Sun

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:123

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Hoof disease is one of the three major diseases that often occur in dairy cows. The impact of this disease on dairy farming is second only to mastitis. Laminitis is a diffuse, aseptic, serous, non-purulent inf...

    Authors: Xianhao Zhang, Jiafeng Ding, Yuepeng Li, Qiaozhi Song, Shuaichen Li, Muhammad Abid Hayat, Jiantao Zhang and Hongbin Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:119

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Supplementation programs for prepartum beef cows are usually adopted because the nutritional status of the cows upon calving is a main factor impacting reproductive performance of the next production cycle. Th...

    Authors: Matheus Fellipe de Lana Ferreira, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Edenio Detmann, Mário Fonseca Paulino, Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho, Samira Silveira Moreira, Hudson Caio Martins, Bruno Inácio Correa de Oliveira, Julia Avansi Marquez and Isabela de Paula Cidrine

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:108

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Adipose tissue may have different metabolic and endocrine functions depending on the region of the body in which it is located. While visceral or intra-abdominal fat has been found to contribute to leptin conc...

    Authors: R. B. S. Turner, D. Tyrrell, G. Hepworth, F. R. Dunshea and C. S. Mansfield

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:104

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the multiparameter analysis of leukocyte subsets on the single cell level. Recent advances have greatly increased the number of fluorochrome-labeled antibodies in flow cyt...

    Authors: Julia Hunka, John T. Riley and Gudrun F. Debes

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:83

    Content type: Methodology article

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  22. In human and different animal species, blood monocytes are classified based on their expression pattern of different monocytic markers into phenotypically and functionally different subsets. In the current stu...

    Authors: Jamal Hussen, Turke Shawaf, Abdullah I. A. Al-Mubarak, Naser Abdallah Al Humam, Faisal Almathen and Hans-Joachim Schuberth

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:62

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Necrotic enteritis, which is caused by Clostridium perfringens, has resulted in more than $2 billion losses in the poultry industry every year. Due to the ban of antibiotics in feed industry, alternatives like en...

    Authors: Tianyue Xu, Yan Chen, Longfei Yu, Jun Wang, Mingxing Huang and Nianhua Zhu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:47

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Vaccination remains the principal tool to control PCV2-associated diseases (PCVADs). Current vaccines do ...

    Authors: Xiangyu Liu, Yangkun Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Fan Zhang and Enqi Du

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:45

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Ketosis is a metabolic disorder often triggered by anorexia in animals fed on high energy diets. Although mostly described in pregnant female guinea pigs, under the name of pregnancy toxicosis; there is limite...

    Authors: Nicole S. Schmid, Marcus Clauss, Udo Hetzel, Barbara Riond, Monika Bochmann and Jean-Michel Hatt

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:41

    Content type: Research article

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  26. This study is focused on the measurement of trace elements (zinc, copper, cadmium, lead and selenium) in the saliva of pigs in order to study their levels on different porcine pathological conditions in the fi...

    Authors: Jorge Sánchez, Miguel Montilla, Cándido Gutiérrez-Panizo, Juan Sotillo, Pablo Fuentes, Ana Montes and Ana María Gutiérrez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:27

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Platelets undergo structural, biochemical and functional alterations when stored, and platelet storage lesions reduce platelet function and half-life after transfusion. The objective of this study was to evalu...

    Authors: Camila Serina Lasta, Nicole Hlavac, Natália Aydos Marcondes, Magnus Larruscaim Dalmolin, Silvia Resende Terra, Luciana de Almeida Lacerda, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira Faulhaber and Félix Hilário Díaz González

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:25

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Capacitive resistive electric transfer (CRET), a radiofrequency at 448 kHz, resulted in increased superficial and deep temperature and hemoglobin saturation, faster elimination of metabolic and inflammatory pr...

    Authors: Mireya Becero, Aritz Saitua, David Argüelles, Antonia Lucía Sánchez de Medina, Cristina Castejón-Riber, Cristina Riber and Ana Muñoz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:10

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Enterobacter hormaechei is commonly considered a causative pathogen for nosocomial infections and it does not usually cause diseases in animals. However, researchers have recently dissociated the pathogenic Enter...

    Authors: Zhicheng Wang, Lisha Duan, Fei Liu, Yun Hu, Chaoliang Leng, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao and Hongfei Shi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:1

    Content type: Case Report

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  30. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major equine acute phase protein and of great value in detection and monitoring of inflammation. A new immunoturbidometric assay based on monoclonal antibodies (VET-SAA, Eiken Chemic...

    Authors: Stine Jacobsen, Anne Mette Vinther, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen and Lise Nikolic Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:462

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a serious viral infection in cats. FeLV is found in some tissues, such as spleen, lymph nodes and epithelial tissues. However, there is controversy about the organ in which the ...

    Authors: Mehdi Abdollahi-Pirbazari, Shahram Jamshidi, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri and Mohamad Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:460

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants. Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and ...

    Authors: Z. Bamouh, F. Fakri, M. Jazouli, N. Safini, K. Omari Tadlaoui and M. Elharrak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:452

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Oral vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) has provided protection against M. bovis to badgers both experimentally and in the field. There is also evidence suggesting that the ...

    Authors: Sandrine Lesellier, Maria-Laura Boschiroli, Jacques Barrat, Christoph Wanke, Francisco J. Salguero, Waldo L. Garcia-Jimenez, Alex Nunez, Ana Godinho, John Spiropoulos, Simonette Palmer, Dipesh Dave, Paul Anderson, Jean-Marc Boucher, Krystel de Cruz, Sylvie Henault, Lorraine Michelet…

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:445

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Acute kidney injury is the most frequent complication of babesiosis in dogs and may provide a natural model for identifying early and specific markers of kidney injury in this species. There are limited data o...

    Authors: D. Winiarczyk, K. Michalak, L. Adaszek, M. Winiarczyk and S. Winiarczyk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:439

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Designing a potent recombinant vaccine, using the appropriate subunits with the greatest effect on stimulating the immune system, especially in the case of intracellular pathogens such as gram negative Brucella M...

    Authors: Narges Nazifi, Mojtaba Tahmoorespur, Mohammad Hadi Sekhavati, Alireza Haghparast and Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:402

    Content type: Research article

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  36. In horses a number of small intestinal diseases is potentially life threatening. Among them are Equine Grass Sickness (EGS), which is characterised by enteric neurodegeneration of unknown aetiology, as well as...

    Authors: Maria S. Unterköfler, Bruce C. McGorum, Elspeth M. Milne and Theresia F. Licka

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:400

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is known as an immune inhibitory receptor that is expressed on activated effector T cells and regulatory T cells. When CTLA-4 binds to CD80 or CD86, immunoinhibitory s...

    Authors: Kei Watari, Satoru Konnai, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata and Kazuhiko Ohashi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:380

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and conjugated linoleic acid in postpartum Polish Holstein-Friesian (PHF) cows. The experiment was carried o...

    Authors: Kamila Puppel, Marcin Gołębiewski, Paweł Solarczyk, Grzegorz Grodkowski, Jan Slósarz, Małgorzata Kunowska-Slósarz, Marek Balcerak, Tomasz Przysucha, Aleksandra Kalińska and Beata Kuczyńska

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:367

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Glucocorticoids, among the most widely utilized drugs in veterinary medicine, are employed to treat a wide variety of diseases; however, their use often induces adverse events in dogs. The efficacy of glucocor...

    Authors: Kosei Yamanaka, Masaru Okuda and Takuya Mizuno

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:363

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is prevalent in dairy cattle in Ethiopia. Currently used diagnostic tools such as the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT) are time consuming and labor intensive. A ...

    Authors: Aboma Zewude, Temesgen Mohammed, Lemma Terfassa, W. Garrett Hunt, Xueliang Pan, Joan Miquel Balada-Llasat, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Jordi B. Torrelles, Shu-Hua Wang and Gobena Ameni

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:359

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The oral glucose test (OGT) is a useful tool for diagnosing insulin dysregulation (ID) and is somewhat repeatable in ponies under consistent management. This study aimed to determine whether the insulin and in...

    Authors: Danielle M. Fitzgerald, Christopher C. Pollitt, Donald M. Walsh, Martin N. Sillence and Melody A. de Laat

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:345

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a trivalent vaccine mixture and compare it to the respective monovalent vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and p...

    Authors: Taehwan Oh, Kee Hwan Park, Siyeon Yang, Jiwoon Jeong, Ikjae Kang, Changhoon Park and Chanhee Chae

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:342

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Poor hygiene of housing induces a systemic inflammatory response. Because inflammation and oxidative stress are processes that can sustain each other, the ways pigs are able to activate their antioxidant defen...

    Authors: K. Sierżant, M-H. Perruchot, E. Merlot, N. Le Floc’h and F. Gondret

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:341

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a cell-mediated immune defense mechanism in which effector immune cells actively lyse antibody-coated target cells. The ADCC of tumor cells is employed in...

    Authors: Yoseop Kim, Soo-Hyeon Lee, Cheol-Jung Kim, Je-Jung Lee, Dohyeon Yu, Soomin Ahn, Dong-Jun Shin and Sang-Ki Kim

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:339

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Current guidelines recommend parvovirus revaccination of adult dogs no more frequently than every 3 years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dogs showing protective serum antibody titres...

    Authors: Ada Rota, Andrea Dogliero, Elvira Muratore, Paola Pregel, Angela Del Carro and Loretta Masoero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:335

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity are common in cats. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin and omentin are thought to have important roles in human obesity and glucose homeostasis; however, their...

    Authors: Maggie C. Williams, Chantal J. McMillan, Elisabeth R. Snead, Kanae Takada and Prasanth K. Chelikani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:332

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Dogs that have clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL), caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum, are commonly co-infected with other pathogens, especially vector-borne pathogens (VBP). A recent PCR-based study found th...

    Authors: Charalampos Attipa, Laia Solano-Gallego, Christian M. Leutenegger, Kostas Papasouliotis, Francesca Soutter, Jörg Balzer, Scott Carver, Jesse S. Buch and Séverine Tasker

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:331

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Non-specific immunotherapeutics have been evaluated previously in dogs, primarily for cancer treatment. However, there remains a need for a more broadly targeted, general purpose immunotherapeutic capable of a...

    Authors: William Wheat, Lyndah Chow, Alana Kuzmik, Sirikul Soontararak, Jade Kurihara, Michael Lappin and Steven Dow

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2019 15:330

    Content type: Research article

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