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Table 1 Means and standard deviation (SD) from five replicates of the measurements of the cows’ saliva specimens labeled C1 (clean saliva), C2 (clean saliva after incubation during 5 min at 38 °C), F (saliva with a total mixed ration usefully offered to lactation dairy cows), H (saliva with wheat hay), and G (saliva with grass); and of the deionized water specimens labeled C2w (water after incubation during 5 min at 38 °C), Fw (water with a total mixed ration usually offered to lactation dairy cows), Hw (water with wheat hay), and Gw (water with grass)

From: Changes in salivary analytes in cows due to the in vitro presence of feed

   SALIVA DEIONIZED WATER
   C1 C2 F H G P value1 C2w Fw Hw Gw
sCor
(µg/dL)
mean 0.094 0.109 0.116 0.109 0.094 .461 0.055aa 0.050aa 0.105 0.050aa
SD 0.009 0.014 0.034 0.029 0.006   0.008 0.000 0.031 0.000
sAA
(IU/L)
mean 1.2 1.3 4.8b 2.5a 1.9a .001 0.2a 2.1a 0.9 1.1a
SD 0.5 0.6 1.1 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.5
BChE
(nmol/mL/min)
mean 15.3 14.7 21.4a 14.2 22.8a .017 0.9ba 8.8ab 2.9ab 6.4aa
SD 2.3 2.5 2.6 1.5 4.7 0.3 0.2 1.0 2.5
TEA
(IU/L)
mean 80.1 84.3 126.0c 103.8a 83.5 .006 0.0dd 13.3cb 14.8db 9.6cb
SD 0.83 3.80 7.99 15.72 3.05 0.00 2.67 0.55 1.08
Lip
(IU/L)
mean 5.7 3.9a 0.0d 2.5 3.1b .024 3.2ab 0.0d 4.0 4.5
SD 0.3 0.1 0.0 2.4 0.3 0.1 0.0 5.0 0.7
ADA
(IU/L)
mean 2.2 2.0 4.2a 1.9 1.9b .003 0.1 cc 4.7b 0.5aa 0.4ba
SD 0.0 0.1 1.2 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.3
TEAC mean 0.053 0.056 0.580c 0.591c 0.320a  < .001 0.000d 0.405b 0.410b 0.688a
(mmol/L) SD 0.001 0.002 0.078 0.127 0.165 0.000 0.025 0.047 0.238
FRAS (mmol/L) mean 0.101 0.095 0.739c 0.959a 0.572c  < .001 0.000 cc 0.512ca 0.690a 1.466b
SD 0.003 0.002 0.095 0.218 0.293 0.000 0.016 0.077 0.650
CUPRAC (mmol/L) mean 0.099 0.101 0.561d 0.635c 0.371a  < .001 0.047dc 0.407da 0.485b 0.847aa
SD 0.001 0.002 0.067 0.134 0.181 0.001 0.004 0.052 0.306
uric acid (µmol/L) mean 6.12 6.49 9.71c 3.78b 1.10a .001 5.12 2.38bb 0.00ba 0.00b
SD 0.41 0.37 0.54 1.14 2.08 0.66 0.48 0.00 0.00
AOPP (µmol/L) mean 51.3 37.2b 434.6c 401.9b 386.9a .002 5.0cb 215.4ba 229.2b 514.3a
SD 2.9 3.6 67.8 142.9 203.8 1.4 11.5 33.9 230.1
AST
(IU/L)
mean 3.5 3.1 13.8a 10.9a 78.9a .021 0.2bb 8.9a 28.7bb 322.5aa
SD 0.6 0.2 5.6 4.3 44.8 0.3 2.9 5.2 160.3
ALP
(IU/L)
mean 22.6 17.6b 22.4 33.8 19.5b .086 1.4 cc 5.9cb 16.8a 4.5bb
SD 0.7 0.4 2.0 13.5 0.9 0.2 1.5 8.3 2.1
gGT
(IU/L)
mean 23.6 19.0b 22.6 22.3 20.1a .063 1.5 cc 3.0 cc 2.5cb 2.4 cc
SD 0.7 0.5 0.7 1.6 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.2
LDH
(IU/L)
mean 24.2 23.8 60.0b 24.9 24.7 .002 4.2bb 54.3a 5.6aa 3.7bb
SD 1.8 1.9 10.4 4.9 1.7 1.9 9.8 2.8 2.6
CK
(IU/L)
mean 2.1 1.9b 2.1 3.6a 43.0c .001 0.0cb 0.4aa 2.3 55.6d
SD 0.07 0.09 0.23 0.76 8.97 0.00 0.32 0.10 0.52
creatinine (µmol/L) mean 50.93 52.17 128.92d 91.43b 71.18a  < .001 0.59 cc 77.51bb 20.63ab 25.05ca
SD 0.48 1.08 6.63 14.07 11.70 1.02 3.11 10.06 1.02
urea (mmol/L) mean 3.45 3.41c 12.53d 3.68a 3.28b .002 0.00bb 11.92c 0.13ac 0.00bb
SD 0.06 0.14 0.72 0.37 0.37 0.00 1.71 0.11 0.00
triglycerides (mmol/L) mean 0.13 0.18c 1.41d 0.68a 0.18b .002 0.06bb 1.38c 0.36 0.11a
SD 0.00 0.01 0.12 0.40 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.15 0.02
glucose (mmol/L) mean 0.02 0.03a 3.93d 0.33a 0.13  < .001 0.00a 4.18a 0.30a 0.50aa
SD 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.19 0.10 0.00 0.97 0.14 0.15
lactate (mmol/L) mean 0.28 0.35 4.57d 0.37 0.25 .001 0.03ba 4.71d 0.09ba 0.02ba
SD 0.00 0.06 0.28 0.09 0.04 0.02 0.99 0.03 0.03
total protein (g/L) mean 0.52 0.51 0.89c 0.54 0.86a .014 0.01 cc 0.12bb 0.04cb 0.80
SD 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.25 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.40
phosphorus (mmol/L) mean 7.70 7.55 6.25b 6.90c 7.64  < .001 0.00 cd 2.38bb 0.26cb 2.24bb
SD 0.13 0.08 0.34 0.31 0.13 0.00 0.20 0.13 0.51
total calcium (mmol/L) mean 0.33 0.08b 1.18d 0.53 0.19a  < .001 0.00ab 3.40ba 0.79 0.93aa
SD 0.08 0.01 0.07 0.17 0.06 0.00 0.51 0.37 0.23
  1. sCor = Salivary cortisol; sAA = salivary alpha-amylase; BChE = butyrylcholinesterase; TEA = total esterase; Lip = lipase; ADA = adenosine deaminase; TEAC = Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity; FRAS = The ferric reducing ability of saliva; CUPRAC = The cupric reducing antioxidant capacity; AOPP = Advanced oxidation protein products; AST = Aspartate aminotransferase; ALP = Alanine aminotransferase; gGT = γ-glutamyl transferase; LDH = Lactate dehydrogenase; CK = Creatine kinase
  2. 1One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) study to evaluate if there were differences in the values obtained between the saliva specimens C1 (clean control saliva), C2, F, H, and G
  3. a,b,c,d Upper letters show statistical results between the saliva specimens (C2, F, H, and G) with C1 in uncorrected Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test for multiple comparisons: a: P < .05; b: P < .01; c: P < .001; d: P < .0001
  4. a,b,c,d Down letters show statistical results between the water specimens (C2w, Fw, Hw, and Gw) with their homologous with saliva in uncorrected Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test for multiple comparisons: a: P < .05; b: P < .01; c: P < .001; d: P < .0001