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Table 2 The mean ± standard deviation of HR (beat/ min), RR (breath/ min) and RT (°C) measured at different times 10 minutes prior- and 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes post- the epidural analgesia in rabbits. Group A: lidocaine epidural, group B: tramadol epidural, and group C: lidocaine-tramadol epidural

From: Antinociceptive effect of lidocaine, tramadol, and their combination for lumbosacral epidural analgesia in rabbits undergoing experimental knee surgery

Variables Groups Monitoring time (minutes)
−10 10 20 30 45 60 75 90
HR (beat/min) A 144.0 ± 0.4 a 142.0 ± 0.5 a 134.6 ± 0.5 b 132.0 ± 0.6 b 124.5 ± 0.8 b 124.0 ± 0.6 *b 127.5 ± 0.8 *b 137.5 ± 0.8 b
B 144.0 ± 0.4 a 143.0 ± 0.6 a 140.8 ± 0.8 a 131.0 ± 0.8 a 127.7 ± 0.5 a 123.0 ± 0.8 *b 127.3 ± 0.8 *b 135.5 ± 0.8 a
C 145.0 ± 1.5 a 128.0 ± 0.9 *b 115.3 ± 0.8 *c 108.0 ± 1.1 *b 107.0 ± 1.4 c 103.7 ± 0.5 *c 122.7 ± 0.8 *b 131.3 ± 0.8 c
RR (breath/min) A 60.0 ± 0.6 a 55.7 ± 0.8 a 51.5 ± 0.5 a 48.2 ± 0.7 a 47.3 ± 0.8 a 49.7 ± 0.7 *b 53.2 ± 0.8 *b 59.7 ± 1.0 a
B 60.2 ± 0.9 a 57.0 ± 0.6a 54.3 ± 0.8 *b 45.8 ± 0.7 *b 44.3 ± 0.8 a,b 44.3 ± 0.8 *c 48.0 ± 0.6 *c 59.8 ± 1.4 a
C 59.5 ± 0.8 a 52.0 ± 1.9 *b 46.0 ± 0.9 *c 43.3 ± 0.8 *c 41.0 ± 0.9 b 37.0 ± 0.6 *d 34.3 ± 0.8 *d 43.3 ± 0.8 *b
RT °C A 39.4 ± 0.08 a 39.3 ± 0.05 a 39.2 ± 0.09 a 38.4 ± 0.08 * b 38.4 ± 0.06 b 38.3 ± 0.05 *b 39.0 ± 0.05 a,b 39.2 ± 0.05 a, b
B 39.5 ± 0.07 a 39.4 ± 0.05 b 39.2 ± 0.05 a 38.6 ± 0.08 b 38.4 ± 0.05 b 38.3 ± 0.05 b 39.0 ± 0.05 b 39.3 ± 0.04 b
C 39.5 ± 0.07 a 39.1 ± 0.05 b 38.2 ± 0.06 b 37.5 ± 0.06 *c 37.2 ± 0.06 c 37.2 ± 0.04 *c 37.7 ± 0.08 *c 38.8 ± 0.06 b
  1. Means with different superscript letters are significantly different at P < 0.05 among groups
  2. Means with an asterisk (*) differ significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline
  3. All within interaction, Wilks’ Lambda, P < 0.001; Within time, Wilks’ Lambda, P < 0.0001; Time * groups, Wilks’ Lambda, P < 0.001