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Table 1 The mean ± standard deviation of onset time (OT) (sec), duration of flaccid paresis (DFP) (min), duration of analgesia (DA) (min), sensory blockade onset (min), time to maximum sensory blockade (min), duration of sensory blockade (min), motor blockade onset (min), and time to maximum motor blockade (min) in rabbits. Group A: lidocaine epidural, Group B: tramadol epidural, and Group C: lidocaine- tramadol epidural

From: Antinociceptive effect of lidocaine, tramadol, and their combination for lumbosacral epidural analgesia in rabbits undergoing experimental knee surgery

Parameters Group A
(Lidocaine)
Group B
(Tramadol)
Group C
(Lidocaine and Tramadol)
Onset time (OT) (sec) 62.8 ± 3.3 a 54.5 ± 3.5 b,* 46.5 ± 1.4 c,*
Duration of flaccid paresis (DFP) (min) 17.6 ± 1.4 a 21.8 ± 3.6 b,* 35.5 ± 2.9 c,*
Duration of analgesia (DA) (min) 23.3 ± 1.1 a 31.5 ± 2.3 b,* 45.8 ± 3.3 c,*
Sensory blockade onset (min) 1.5 ± 0.4 a 1.6 ± 0.3 a 1.0 ± 0.1 b,*
Time to maximum sensory blockade (min) 3.6 ± 0.6 a 3.7 ± 0.3 a 3.1 ± 0.3 a
Duration of sensory blockade (min) 54.2 ± 1.2 a 54.1 ± 1.2 a 57.8 ± 1.7 b,*
Motor blockade onset (min) 1.8 ± 0.3 a 1.6 ± 0.2 a 1.1 ± 0.1 b,*
Time to maximum motor blockade (min) 3.5 ± 0.4 a 3.5 ± 0.5 a 2.6 ± 0.2 b,*
Duration of motor blockade (min) 31.7 ± 1.6 a 30.5 ± 2.9 a 37.0 ± 1.8 b,*
  1. Means with different superscript litters are significantly different at P < 0.05
  2. All within interaction, Wilks’ Lambda, P < 0.0001; Within time, Wilks’ Lambda, P < 0.0001; Time * groups, Wilks’ Lambda, P < 0.0001