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Table 4 Summary of the 13 case reports that matched inclusion criteria

From: Antibacterial treatment for exotic species, backyard ruminants and small flocks: a narrative review highlighting barriers to effective and appropriate antimicrobial treatment

Species (Subspecies, if provided, as stated by study authors) Syndrome/System Bacterial Pathogen Treatment (active ingredient)
Snake [31] (Boa constrictor imperator) Stomatitis/Gastrointestinal Enterobacter agglomerans Enrofloxacin, sulfadiazine cream
Iguana [32] (Green iguana) Oral abscess/Intra-oral Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enrofloxacin
Rabbit [33] (Dwarf) Abscesses/Skin Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Rifampicin
Rabbit [34] (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Prostatic abscess/Reproductive Pasteurella multocida Enrofloxacin
Rabbit [35] (Mixed breed) Pyometra/Reproductive Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin
Ferret [36] (Domestic ferret, Mustela putorius furo) Splenitis/Other Mycobacterium spp. Enrofloxacin, rifampicin, and azithromycin
Ferret [37] (Domestic ferret, Mustela putorius furo) Pyothorax/Respiratory Actinomyces hordeovulneris and Fusobacterium spp. Enrofloxacin, ceftazidime, clindamycin, cefpodoxime
Chinchilla [38] (Chinchilla lanigera) Mid-cervical abscess/Skin Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus Azithromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Turtle [39] (Chinese three-striped box turtle, Cuora trifasciata) Hepatic lesions/Other E. coli Ceftazidime
Turtle [40] (River cooter, Pseudemys concinna) Aural abscess/Aural Citrobacter spp. and Morganella morganii Gentamicin, ciprofloxacin
Lizard [41] (Spiny-tailed lizard, Uromastyx acanthinura) Cheilitis/Skin Devriesea agamarum Ceftazidime
Hedgehog [42] (African pygmy hedgehog) Dermatitis/Skin Group A Streptococcus Amoxicillin/clavulanate
Parrot [43] (African grey parrot) Chronic ulcerative dermatitis/Skin Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Oral doxycycline, poloxamer gel (2% doxycycline, 1% chloramphenicol, 0.5% mupirocin), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole