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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics of the 17 studies on exotic species

From: Antibacterial treatment for exotic species, backyard ruminants and small flocks: a narrative review highlighting barriers to effective and appropriate antimicrobial treatment

Species (Subspecies, if provided, as stated by study authors) Syndrome/System Bacterial Pathogen Treatment (active ingredient) First Author Country
Turtles (Chinese striped neck, Chinese box) Keratitis/Ocular Aeromonas hydrophila Ofloxacin Musgrave [10] United States
Turtles (Aquatic) Swollen eye syndrome/Ocular Opportunistic gram negative and gram-positive organisms Enrofloxacin, eye drops consisting of gentamicin and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Varshney [11] India
Rabbits Orbital abscesses/Ocular Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp. Enrofloxacin, azithromycin, fusidic acid eye ointment Thomas [12] Greece
Rabbits Odontogenic abscesses/Intra-oral Pathogens usually associated are: Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp. Fusobacterium, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium pyogenes and Klebsiellas spp.
Metronidazole, enrofloxacin Lord [13] Scotland
Rabbits Dental abscesses/Intra-oral Various combinations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria: Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella melaninogenicus, Proteus vulgaris, Pasteurella spp., Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces spp., Escherichia coli Wound packing
Ampicillin most commonly used for the first packing procedure.
Other antimicrobials used to pack wounds were: cefazolin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, amikacin
Systemic treatment
Initial combination used for systemic treatment was trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with metronidazole.
Azithromycin and
enrofloxacin were also used.
Taylor [14] Canada
Rabbits Dental disease/Intra-oral Pasteurella spp. or Staphylococcus spp. most common pathogens. Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus milleri group, Actinomyces israelii and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum have also been found. Enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, amikacin, metronidazole Papadimitriou [15] Greece
(Lion-head, New Zealand White, Mongrel, Giant, Dutch, Dwarf, Rex and Lop ear)
Rabbit syphilis/Other Treponema paraluiscuniculi (T. cuniculi) Penicillin G Kweon [16] South Korea
Rat Respiratory diseases/Respiratory Caused primarily by pathogens such as: Mycoplasma pulmonis, Streptococcus
pneumoniae, Corynebacterium kutscheri, cilia associated respiratory (CAR) bacillus
Enrofloxacin, doxycycline, azithromycin, oxytetracycline Benato [17] Scotland
(African Giant)
1. Leptospirosis and Rickettsia/Other
1. Leptospira, rickettsia
2. Coagulase-positive Staphylococci
1. Doxycycline
2. Amoxicillin trihydrate
Cooper [18] United Kingdom
Guinea pig & Chinchilla Facial abscesses associated with dental disease/Intra-oral Can be caused by anaerobic and aerobic pathogens – susceptibility testing required. Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, doxycycline, metronidazole, chloramphenicol Osofsky [19] United States
Chinchilla Bacterial conjunctivitis/Ocular Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp. (most common) Systemic antimicrobials
Enrofloxacin, penicillin G,
doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulphonamides
Topical antibiotics:
Chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, fusidic acid, oxytetracycline
Ozawa [20] United States
Guinea pig Otitis media interna and externa/Aural Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Streptococcus spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica Enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol Volait-Rosset [21] France
Uromastyx acanthinura
Skin disease – scaly lesions/Skin Devriesea agamarum Ceftazidime Lukac [22] Croatia
Psittacine birds
(African grey parrots,
Peach-faced lovebird,
Galah, Goffin’s cockatoo, Moluccan cockatoo,
Senegal parrot)
Superficial chronic ulcerative dermatitis (SCUD)/Skin Enterobacter cloacae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii Trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole), enrofloxacin,
amoxicillin clavulanate
Abou-Zahr [23] United Kingdom
Psittacine birds
(Grey-cheeked parakeet,
Canary-winged parakeet,
Orange-chinned parakeet,
Spectacled Amazon,
Lilac-crowned Amazon,
Double yellow-headed Amazon,
Blue-head pionus,
White-capped pionus,
Dusky pionus,
Eleonora cockatoo,
Mycobacterium avium, M. genevense Drug combinations used:
1. Isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin
2. Clofazimine, ethambutol, rifampin
3. Ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, rifampin
4. Amikacin, enrofloxacin
5. Enrofloxacin, ethambutol, rifampin
6. Clarithromycin, rifabutin, ethambutol, enrofloxacin
7. Clarithromycin, rifabutin, ethambutol
Lennox [24] United States
Avian species Renal disease – bacterial nephritis/Other Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. Amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin Pollock [25] United States
Lories and Lorikeets Clostridial enteritis/
Clostridium spp. Lories - Oral metronidazole
Lorikeets - clindamycin
Karunakaran [26] India