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Table 4 Mean values ± standard deviation of the pharmacokinetic parameters of ketamine and fentanyl in plasma samples of dogs treated with ketamine (GK: bolus 0.5 mg kg−1; CRI 20 µg kg−1 min−1 in intra- and postoperative periods), fentanyl (GF: bolus 5 µg kg−1; intraoperative CRI 5 µg kg−1 h−1 and postoperative CRI 2 µg kg−1 h−1), or combination of ketamine-fentanyl (GKF: aforementioned doses)

From: Plasma concentration, cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects of ketamine-fentanyl infusion in dogs submitted to mastectomy

  Group AUC Cmax (ng mL−1) Cl (mL minute−1 kg−1)
KET GK 3854.55 ± 1698.62 2894.62 ± 2860.39 0.034 ± 0.034
GKF 8686.15 ± 7290.39 2217.34 ± 1927.83 0.024 ± 0.018
FENT GKF 7.84 ± 2.53 3.9 ± 0.81 0.041 ± 0.026
GF 7.45 ± 4.12 5.3 ± 1.77 0.063 ± 0.048
  1. Area under the curve (AUC); clearance (Cl); maximum plasma concentration (Cmax)