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Table 2 Mean ± standard deviation values of cardiorespiratory parameters, in dogs treated with ketamine (GK: bolus 0.5 mg kg−1; CRI 20 µg kg−1 min−1 in intra- and postoperative periods), fentanyl (GF: bolus 5 µg kg−1; intraoperative CRI 5 µg kg−1 h−1 and postoperative CRI 2 µg kg−1 h−1), or combination of ketamine-fentanyl (GKF: aforementioned doses) in postoperative period

From: Plasma concentration, cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects of ketamine-fentanyl infusion in dogs submitted to mastectomy

  Postoperative period (hours)
Variable Group Baseline 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 6 8 12
HR
(beats minute−1)
GK 104 ± 13 107 ± 14a 96 ± 20 87 ± 10a# 95 ± 14a 86 ± 13 86 ± 13 98 ± 39 101 ± 14
GKF 110 ± 22 104 ± 13a 97 ± 9 89 ± 7a 87 ± 14a.b# 90 ± 13 90 ± 7 95 ± 14 94 ± 16
GF 97 ± 35 82 ± 24b 71 ± 13 70 ± 20b# 75 ± 21# 65 ± 17# 79 ± 14 83 ± 18 83 ± 17
fR
(breaths minute−1)
GK 30 ± 10 40 ± 23 36 ± 15 43 ± 12# 47 ± 11# 37 ± 18 32 ± 10 30 ± 10 43 ± 47
GKF 34 ± 14 44 ± 41 39 ± 23 45 ± 23 52 ± 39 35 ± 13 36 ± 11 29 ± 10 35 ± 15
GF 28 ± 4 54 ± 21 44 ± 25 68 ± 37 43 ± 27 29 ± 17 33 ± 20 38 ± 19 27 ± 7
SAP
mmHg
GK 136 ± 25 137 ± 9a.b 139 ± 12 136 ± 15 136 ± 24 148 ± 17 144 ± 17 140 ± 22 143 ± 16
GKF 153 ± 13 153 ± 15a 155 ± 18 151 ± 17 170 ± 28 160 ± 15 160 ± 21 151 ± 12 143 ± 21
GF 136 ± 13 132 ± 23b 163 ± 12 148 ± 8 138 ± 35 136 ± 15 141 ± 10 158 ± 7# 147 ± 3
  1. a, b, c Significant difference between group. # Significant difference in treatment with a basal time point. HR Heart rate, fR respiratory rate, SAP systolic arterial pressure