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Table 2 Stress related parameters before and after surgery

From: Assessment of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol as a pain related stress biomarker in dogs pre-and post-operation

Variables High pain (n = 15) Low pain (n = 20)
Before Surgery
 CMPS-SF 14.27 ± 2.19 3.05 ± 2.5
 Heart rate (beats/min) 125.29 ± 24.75 123.58 ± 17.02
 Blood pressure (mmHg) 125.36 ± 22.91 120.26 ± 20.24
 Salivary α-amylase (ng/ml) 14.87 ± 5.85 9.80 ± 4.33
 Serum α-amylase (ng/ml) 49.57 ± 43.42 50.82 ± 70.85
 Salivary cortisol (mcg/dl) 0.82 ± 0.61 0.99 ± 0.81
 Serum cortisol (mcg/dl) 2.85 ± 0.56 3.13 ± 1.16
After surgery
 CMPS-SF 6.20 ± 3.21 *** 1.11 ± 1.15 **
 Heart rate (beats/min) 122.43 ± 21.53 122.84 ± 16.59
 Blood pressure (mmHg) 122.14 ± 23.51 123.42 ± 8.83
 Salivary α-amylase (ng/ml) 11.35 ± 6.83 * 10.16 ± 6.85
 Serum α-amylase (ng/ml) 42.98 ± 40.34 * 50.21 ± 76.84
 Salivary cortisol (mcg/dl) 0.66 ± 0.39 0.717 ± 0.534
 Serum cortisol (mcg/dl) 2.15 ± 1.04 * 2.28 ± 1.07 **
  1. Data are mean ± SD
  2. High pain score group: pre-operative CMPS-SF > 9; Low pain score group: pre-operative CMPS-SF ≤9 pain score
  3. CMPS-SF; short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale
  4. * Significance of differences in stress parameters before and after surgery. *P < 0.05 **P < 0.001 ***P < 0.0001