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Table 3 Cerebrospinal fluid and serum reference biochemical findings in donkeys; (Equus asinus) (n = 40)

From: Collection of cerebrospinal fluid in 50 adult healthy donkeys (Equus asinus): clinical complications, and cytological and biochemical constituents

Variables Cerebrospinal fluid P-value Serum
Atlanto-occipital Lumbosacral
mean ± SE Range 95% CI* mean ± SE Range 95% CI* mean ± SE Range 95% CI*
Glucose (mmol/L) 2.8 ± 0.3 1.2–5.3 2.3–3.4 2.7 ± 0.2 1.4–4.6 2.2–3.2 0.364 3.9 ± 0.3 1.9–5.1 3.3–4.6
Sodium (mEq/L) 136 ± 2 123–150 132–140 138 ± 4.4 125–160 128–147 0.740 140 ± 2 120–150 136–144
Potassium (mEq/L) 2.2 ± 0.1 1.5–3 1.9–2.5 2 ± 0.1 1.5–3 1.8–2.2 0.199 4.1 ± 0.2 3–5 3.8–4.4
Chloride (mEq/L) 122 ± 0.8 117–126 120–124 121 ± 1 115–126 119–123 0.421 105 ± 0.8 100–110 103–106
Calcium (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.03 1.3–1.6 1.2–1.4 1.4 ± 0.04 1.1–1.7 1.3–1.4 0.746 2.9 ± 0.05 2.6–3.2 2.7–3.0
Phosphorus (mmol/L) 0.8 ± 0.04 0.6–1.1 0.7–0.9 0.8 ± 0.03 0.5–1.0 0.7–0.9 0.870 1.7 ± 0.05 1.5–2.0 1.6–1.8
Magnesium (mmol/L) 0.7 ± 0.03 0.5–0.9 0.6–0.7 0.6 ± 0.02 0.5–0.8 0.6–0.7 0.675 1.2 ± 0.05 0.8–1.2 1.1–1.4
Urea (mmol/L) 2.0 ± 0.1 1.3–2.9 1.6–2.1 1.9 ± 0.1 1.1–2.9 1.5–2.1 0.962 16 ± 0.4 14–19 16–17
Specific gravity 1004 ± 0.3 1003–1007 1004–1005 1005 ± 0.5 1003–1010 1004–1006 0.787 NA NA NA
  1. *CI, Confidence interval