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Table 2 Pharmacokinetic parameters of furosemide (2 mg/kg) based on route of administration in beagle dogs

From: Pharmacokinetics and diuretic effect of furosemide after single intravenous, oral tablet, and newly developed oral disintegrating film administration in healthy beagle dogs

Pharmacokinetic parameters IV OUT FS-ODF P
OUT vs. FS-ODF
Cmax (μg/mL) 9.65 ± 1.63 (10.35) 0.61 ± 0.31 (0.69) 0.81 ± 0.81 (0.58) 0.619
Tmax (h) 0.00 1 (0.5-1.5) 0.75 (0.25-1) 0.130
T1/2 (h) 2.07 ± 0.76 (1.63) 3.44 ± 1.79 (2.86) 2.64 ± 0.75 (2.46) 0.602
MRT (h) 0.90 ± 0.25 (0.78) 5.08 ± 1.67 (4.13) 3.47 ± 0.76 (3.55) 0.128
AUCinf (μg·h/mL) 2.74 ± 0.25 (2.60) 1.50 ± 0.73 (1.72) 1.25 ± 0.68 (1.34) 0.493
AUClast (μg·h/mL) 2.67 ± 0.26 (2.56) 1.16 ± 0.46 (1.44) 1.11 ± 0.63 (1.08) 0.734
CL (mL/h/kg) 735.7 ± 63.84 (768.98) - - -
Vss (mL/kg) 667.5 ± 222.6 (597.82) - - -
BA (%) - 54.98 ± 26.51 (62.74) 45.73 ± 25.02 (48.82) 0.493
  1. Cmax maximum plasma concentration, Cmax,IV = C0, Tmax time at the maximum concentration, T1/2 elimination half-life, MRT mean residence time, AUCinf area under the curve from time zero to time of infinity measurable concentration, AUClast area under the curve from time zero to time of last measurable concentration, BA bioavailability, CL elimination clearance, Vss volume of distribution at steady state, IV intravenous, OUT orally uncoated tablet, FS-ODF furosemide-loaded orally disintegrating film. Results are presented as mean ± SD (median). However, Tmax, a categorical variable, expressed as median and range. (*), values are significantly different (P < 0.05); (**) values are significantly different (P < 0.01)