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Table 3 Results of logistic regression analysis of seroprevalence of Leishmania spp. infection and potential risk factors in selected districts of West Shewa zone, Ethiopia

From: Prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. infections in apparently healthy dogs in west Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

Variable Categories No. tested No. pos. (% prevalence) Univariable Multivariable
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Town/location Gojo 68 61 (89.74) 1.0    
Ambo 169 157 (92.90) 1.50 (0.56–3.99) 0.415   
Bako 148 138 (93.24) 1.58 (0.58–4.36) 0.373   
Altitude Highland 237 218 (92.0) 1.0    
Midland 148 138 (93.2) 1.20 (0.54–2.66) 0.649   
Age Adolescent 77 70 (90.91) 1.0    
Geriatrics 51 47 (92.16) 1.18 (0.33–4.24) 0.805   
Adult 230 213 (92.61) 1.25 (0.50–3.15) 0.631   
Juvenile 27 26 (96.30) 2.6 (0.30–22.17) 0.382   
Sex Female 92 85 (92.39) 1.0    
Male 293 271 (92.49) 1.01 (0.42–2.46) 0.975   
Breed Cross 74 68 (91.89) 1.0    
Indigenous 296 274 (92.57) 1.10 (0.43–2.82) 0.844   
Exotic 15 14 (93.33) 1.24 (0.14–11.08) 0.850   
Housing Outdoor 106 95 (89.62) 1.0   1.0  
Indoor 119 110 (92.44) 1.42 (0.56–3.56) 0.461 1.19 (0.46–3.07) 0.719
Mixed 160 151 (94.38) 1.94 (0.78–4.86) 0.156 1.74 (0.69–4.41) 0.243
PODAHH Yes 204 187 (91.67) 1.0   1.0  
No 181 169 (93.37) 1.28 (0.59–2.76) 0.528   
Education of HHH Secondary 125 113 (90.40) 1.0   1.0  
Primary 98 90 (91.84) 1.19 (0.47–3.05) 0.710   
Tertiary 115 108 (93.91) 1.64 (0.62–4.32) 0.318   
Illiterate 47 45 (95.74) 2.39 (0.51–11.10) 0.266   
Living area/residence Peri-urban 44 38 (96.36) 1.0   1.0  
Urban 341 318 (93.26) 2.18 (0.84–5.70) 0.111 2.05 (0.77–5.47) 0.152
Presence of cats No 214 194 (90.65) 1.0   1.0  
Yes 171 162 (94.74) 1.86 (0.82–4.19) 0.137 1.72 (0.75–3.93) 0.197