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Table 2 Results of logistic regression analysis of T. gondii prevalence and potential risk factors in selected districts of West Shewa zone, Ethiopia

From: Prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. infections in apparently healthy dogs in west Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

Variable Categories No. tested No. pos. (% prevalence) Univariable Multivariable
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Town Ambo 169 127 (75.15) 1.0   1.0  
Gojo 68 59 (86.76) 2.17 (0.99–4.75) 0.053   
Bako 148 133 (89.86) 2.93 (1.55–5.55) 0.001*   
Altitude Highland (≥2100 masl) 237 186 (78.48) 1.0   1.0  
Midland (1600–2100 masl) 148 133 (89.86) 2.43 (1.31–4.51) 0.005* 2.36 (1.23–4.50) 0.009*
Age Juvenile 27 19 (70.37) 1.0   1.0  
Adolescent 77 63 (81.82) 1.89 (0.69–5.20) 0.214 2.42 (0.83–7.03) 0.105
Geriatrics 51 43 (84.31) 2.26 (0.74–6.93) 0.153 2.77 (0.85–8.97) 0.090
Adult 230 194 (84.35) 2.27 (0.92–5.59) 0.074 2.85 (1.09–7.43) 0.032*
Sex Male 293 239 (81.57) 1.0   1.0  
Female 92 80 (86.96) 1.51 (0.77–2.96) 0.234 1.62 (0.79–3.32) 0.186
Breed Exotic 15 11 (73.33) 1.0   1.0  
Cross 74 61 (82.43) 1.71 (0.47–6.21) 0.417   
Indigenous 296 247 (83.45) 1.83 (0.56–5.99) 0.316   
Feeding Cooked 103 83 (80.58) 1.0   
Raw animal products 282 236 (83.69) 1.24 (0.69–2.21) 0.475   
Housing Indoor 119 93 (78.15) 1.0   1.0  
Outdoor 106 87 (82.08) 1.28 (0.66–2.48) 0.463 1.44 (0.71–2.90) 0.309
Mixed 160 139 (86.88) 1.85 (0.98–3.48) 0.056 1.55 (0.79–3.03) 0.203
PODAHH No 181 142 (78.45) 1.0   1.0  
Yes 204 177 (86.76) 1.80 (1.05–3.08) 0.032* 1.94 (1.10–3.42) 0.022*
Education of HHH Secondary 125 100 (80.00) 1.0   1.0  
Illiterate 47 38 (80.85) 1.06 (0.45–2.47) 0.901 1.02 (0.42–2.48) 0.957
Tertiary 115 96 (83.48) 1.26 (0.65–2.44) 0.487 1.33 (0.65–2.70) 0.435
Primary 98 85 (86.73) 1.63 (0.79–3.39) 0.187 1.50 (0.70–3.19) 0.298
Living area/residence Urban 341 280 (82.11) 1.0    
Peri-urban 44 39 (88.64) 1.70 (0.64–4.49) 0.285   
Presence of cats in the household No 214 170 (79.44) 1.0   1.0  
Yes 171 149 (87.13) 1.75 (1.00–3.06) 0.048* 1.65 (0.92–2.95) 0.094
Family size of a dog-owning household ≤ 4 114 93 (81.58) 1.0    
≥ 5 271 226 (83.39) 1.13 (0.64–2.01) 0.666   
HHH Protestant 248 199 (80.24) 1.0    
Orthodox 118 102 (86.44) 1.57 (0.85–2.90) 0.149   
Waqefeta 8 7 (87.50) 1.72 (0.21–14.34) 0.614   
Muslim 11 11 (100.00)   
Marital status of dog-owning HHH Divorce 25 20 (80.00) 1.0    
Married 343 283 (82.51) 1.18 (0.43–3.27) 0.751   
Single 17 16 (94.12) 4.00 (0.42–37.78) 0.226   
  1. * Statistically significant
  2. PODAHH = presence of other domestic animals in the household, HHH = head of the household, RHHH = religion of the head of the household
  3. Full model = HLX2 = 7.70, P-Value = 0.4632, Se = 99.37, Sp = 1.52, PPV = 82.98, NPV, 33.33, ROC = 0.6993
  4. Best fitting model = HLX2 = 5.89, P-Value = 0.6594, Se = 99.37, Sp = 3.03, PPV = 83.20, NPV, 50.0, ROC = 0.6741