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Table 1 Ingredients, and chemical and mineral composition of a total mixed ration (TMR)

From: Mineral status and enteric methane production in dairy cows during different stages of lactation

  Lactation stage1
Item Early Middle Late
Ingredients, g/kg of DM
 Maize silage 249 288 334
 Alfalfa silage 198 229 266
 Wet distillers’ grains 71 82 95
 Brewery 43 50 59
 Beet pulp 50 58 68
 Carrot 10 12 13
 Rape seed meal 61 70 81
 Wheat meal 50 58 68
 Mineral supplements 16 16 16
 Commercial concentrate2 237 137 0
Energize3 15 0 0
Forage: concentrate ratio 62:38 72:28 84:16
Chemical composition,4 g/kg of DM
 OM 912 916 912
 Ash 88 87 88
 CP 179 185 188
 EE 51 41 41
 CF 162 180 200
 aNDF 344 368 391
 ADF 208 230 253
Macro mineral composition, g/kg DM
 Ca 8.1 7.1 7.1
 Na 4.8 4.5 4.7
 K 11.4 12.3 13.5
 Mg 3.3 3.1 2.9
Micro mineral composition, mg/kg DM
 Fe 287 327 375
 Mn 62 64 64
 Zn 75 77 77
 Cu 29 29 29
  1. 1Early = early-stage lactation (1–100 days); Middle = middle-stage lactation (101–250 days); Late = late-stage lactation (> 250 days)
  2. 2Stated to contain (as g/kg of DM in concentrate) OM (900), VEM (1021), aNDFom (250), CP (21.5), EE (29)
  3. 3Stated to contain (as g/kg of DM in concentrate) OM (980), VEM (2067), EE (850)
  4. 4Chemical composition: OM = organic matter; CP = crude protein; EE = ether extract; CF = crude fiber; aNDF = neutral detergent fiber; ADF = acid detergent fiber; VEM = net energy