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Table 1 Reference intervals by age

From: Effect of age, sex, and body size on the blood biochemistry and physiological constants of dogs from 4 wk. to > 52 wk. of age

Variables Distribution (I) 4–8 wk.
(n = 35)
(II) 9–24 wk.
(n = 48)
(III) 25–52 wk.
(n = 21)
(IV) > 52 wk.
(n = 71)
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
LL (90% CI)
UL (90% CI)
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
LL (90% CI)
UL (90% CI)
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
LL (90% CI)
UL (90% CI)
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
LL (90% CI)
UL (90% CI)
AST (U/L) G 39 (9.9) a 18 (13–23) 40 (8.6) a 21 (21–27) 38 (10.2) a 16 (11–23) 38 (9.1) a 21 (20–24)
40 (16) 60 (55–64) 40 (11) 57 (54–57) 38 (15.5) 60 (53–66) 37 (16) 54 (52–54)
ALT (U/L) NG 26 (8.8) a 8 (4–12) 32 (9.1) b 15 (14–20) 37 (7.6) b, c 25 (24–27) 44 (12.6) c 22 (21–26)
26 (11) 45 (40–49) 31 (15.7) 54 (46–55) 36 (14.5) 60 (52–80) 41 (19) 70 (65–70)
LDH (U/L) NG 244 (164.6) a 43 (43–48) 73 (32.4) b 25 (24–34) 63 (32) b 6 (6–13) 67 (42) b 9 (8–17)
166 (228) 695 (526–861) 74 (55.5) 139 (131–140) 62 (51.5) 131 (112–150) 56 (39) 185 (143–187)
ALP (U/L) NG 215 (71.6) a 101 (91–115) 193 (39.2) a 111 (110–123) 85 (36.7) b 18 (10–36) 52 (23.3) c 15 (15–23)
186 (96) 394 (332–456) 187.5 (58) 281 (253–286) 90 (72) 179 (150–202) 47 (36) 112 (92–113)
GGT (U/L) NG 5 (1.7) a 2 (2–3) 5 (1.3) a 2 (2–3) 5 (1.9) a 2 (0.3–3) 6 (2.1) a 2 (2–3)
5 (2) 10 (9–12) 5 (2) 8 (7–8) 6 (2) 9 (8–10) 6 (4) 10 (9–10)
Total protein (g/dL) NG 4.6 (0.6) a 3.5 (3.3–3.7) 5.1 (0.7) b 4.0 (4.0–4.0) 5.7 (0.8) b 4.3 (4.1–4.6) 6.2 (0.9) c 4.4 (4.2–4.8)
4.4 (1.2) 6.4 (5.8–6.9) 5.1 (1.1) 7.1 (6.3–7.3) 5.5 (1.4) 7.9 (6.9–8.8) 6.3 (1.3) 8.2 (7.7–8.2)
Albumin (g/dL) NG 2.5 (0.3) a 1.9 (1.9–2.0) 2.7 (0.3) b 2.1 (2.1–2.2) 3.1 (0.3) b, c 2.2 (2.0–2.5) 3.1 (0.4) c 2.4 (2.3–2.5)
2.4 (0.4) 3.5 (3.2–3.9) 2.7 (0.6) 3.7 (3.4–3.8) 3.1 (0.5) 3.9 (3.7–4.2) 3.1 (0.6) 4.2 (3.9–4.4)
Globulins (g/dL) NG 2.1 (0.6) a 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 2.3 (0.6) a 1.0 (1.0–1.4) 2.6 (0.6) a, b 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 3.0 (0.7) b 1.7 (1.6–1.9)
2.1 (0.7) 3.5 (3.1–4.0) 2.3 (0.8) 3.9 (3.6–3.9) 2.7 (1.1) 4.0 (3.6–4.4) 3.0 (1.3) 4.3 (4.1–4.6)
Cholesterol (mg/dL) G 169 (86.3) a 62 (60–68) 199 (60.9) a 92 (88–113) 185 (41.1) a 97 (73–123) 186 (51) a 80 (76–90)
124 (144) 418 (309–493) 199 (105) 317 (306–318) 179 (54) 272 (245–299) 185 (55) 288 (283–291)
Triglycerides (mg/dL) G 37 (18) a 14 (13–16) 41 (13) a 20 (20–23) 43 (14) a (12 (4–21) 45 (14) a 14 (14–25)
28 (22) 91 (65–114) 40 (18) 76 (67–76) 43 (16) 73 (64–82) 44 (18) 79 (66–80)
Glucose (mg/dL) G 89 (21) a 47 (38–56) 90 (18) a 49 (47–61) 81 (21) a, b 43 (37–53) 77 (21) b 36 (31–50)
89 (26) 132 (122–142) 92 (23) 135 (121–137) 78 (33) 131 (114–148) 74 (32) 122 (114–128)
Urea (mg/dL) NG 23 (7) a 12 (11–13) 27 (8.7) b 9 (8–14) 36 (9.5) b, c 15 (10–21) 34 (10) c 14 (11–18)
20 (12) 42 (35–48) 27 (10) 47 (43–48) 35 (15) 56 (50–62) 34 (15) 55 (49–56)
Creatinine (mg/dL) NG 0.45 (0.09) a 0.3 (0.3–0.3) 0.59 (0.16) b 0.4 (0.4–0.4) 1.00 (0.30) c 0.3 (0.0–0.5) 1.03 (0.25) c 0.6 (0.5–0.6)
0.45 (0.15) 0.7 (0.6–0.8) 0.54 (0.26) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.99 (0.50) 1.6 (1.4–1.7) 1.05 (0.43) 1.6 (1.4–1.7)
Temperature (°C) NG 37.9 (0.5) a 36.7 (36.3–37) 38.5 (0.6) b 37.3 (37.3–37.6) 38.7 (0.4) b, c 37.7 (37.5–38) 38.8 (0.4) c 37.9 (37.9–38.1)
38.0 (0.7) 39 (38.8–39.2) 38.5 (0.8) 39.6 (39.4–39.6) 38.7 (0.7) 39.6 (39.3–39.7) 38.9 (0.7) 39.7 (39.5–39.7)
Heart rate (bpm) NG 155 (28.4)a 86 (64–107) 145 (33)a 85 (84–92) 129 (26)a, b 74 (58–90) 125 (27)b 80 (80–89)
160 (44) 207 (196–216) 140 (38.5) 200 (200–200) 132 (28) 185 (168–202) 120 (40) 180 (180–180)
Breathing frequency (bpm) NG 30 (6.6)a 15 (13–19) 33 (5.9)a 22 (22–24) 34 (6.6)a 20 (16–24) 32 (7)a 15 (15–20)
30 (12) 44 (41–46) 31 (8) 44 (40–44) 36 (12) 44 (44–44) 32 (16) 44 (44–46)
  1. CI confidence interval; °C degrees Celsius G gaussian; IQR inter quartile range; LL low limit; NG not gaussian; SD standard deviation; UL upper limit. Groups that do not share a letter are significantly different (a, b, c) p < 0.05