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Table 2 Effect of experimental diets on plasma metabolites of broilers

From: Impact of dietary Chlorella vulgaris and carbohydrate-active enzymes incorporation on plasma metabolites and liver lipid composition of broilers

Item Control CH CHR CHM SEM p-value
Plasma metabolites
Total lipids (mg/L)1 3578a 3500a 3941b 3932b 60.26 < 0.001
TAG (mg/L) 358a 402b 475bc 526c 23.68 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/L) 860a 799a 983c 953b 23.36 < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mg/L) 641b 566a 641b 672b 18.78 0.002
LDL-cholesterol (mg/L) 125a 150b 240d 178c 4.63 < 0.001
VLDL-cholesterol (mg/L)2 71.6a 80.4ab 95.0bc 105c 4.73 < 0.001
Total cholesterol/HDL-C 1.34a 1.41b 1.54c 1.42b 0.017 < 0.001
Glucose (mg/L) 2571b 2463ab 2452ab 2357a 33.78 0.001
Urea (mg/L) 10.80ab 15.80c 13.70bc 9.60a 0.83 < 0.001
Creatinine (mg/L) 0.15 0.13 0.09 0.16 0.02 0.160
Total protein (g/L) 25.87a 28.93b 28.97b 28.85b 0.68 0.005
Plasma hepatic markers
ALT (U/L) 3.70 4.60 5.50 5.30 0.589 0.146
AST (U/L) 235.7 297.2 314.0 241.4 23.7 0.056
ALP (U/L) 3552b 2820ab 2149a 5040c 198.6 < 0.001
GGT (U/L) 21.2b 19.4b 20.5b 15.3a 0.920 < 0.001
  1. The broilers were fed: (1) a corn-soybean based diet (Control); (2) the based diet plus 10% C. vulgaris (CH); (3) diet 2 supplemented with 0.005% Rovabio® Excel AP; and (4) diet 2 supplemented with 0.01% of a pre-selected four-CAZyme mixture (CHM)
  2. SEM - standard error of the mean; TAG - triacylglycerols; HDL - high-density lipoproteins; LDL - low-density lipoproteins; VLDL - very low-density lipoproteins; ALT - alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2); AST - aspartate aminotransferase (E.C. 2.6.1.1); ALP - alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1); GGT - gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.13)
  3. 1 Total lipids = [total cholesterol] × 1.12 + [TAG] × 1.33 + 148, as described by Covaci et al. [21]
  4. 2 VLDL-cholesterol = 1/5 [TAG], as described by Friedewald et al. [22]
  5. a.b,c Different superscripts within a row indicate a significant difference (p < 0.05)