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Table 3 Experimental design and treatments

From: S-ketamine and intranasal application: alternatives for the castration of male suckling piglets?

Trial group A B C D E F
Treatment 15 mg kg-1 S-ketamine + 2 mg kg-1 azaperone, i.m., surgical castration 15 mg kg-1 R/S-ketamine + 2 mg kg-1 azaperone, i.m, surgical castration 30 mg kg-1 S- ketamine +2 mg kg-1 azaperone, i.n., surgical castration 15 mg kg-1 R/S-ketamine +2 mg kg-1 azaperone, i.m.; sham castrated Positive control group; no anaesthesia, surgical castrationa Negative control group; no anaesthesia, sham castrated
  1. i.m. intramuscular application, i.n. intranasal application of the anaesthetic
  2. apiglets of trial group E were castrated according to the legal requirements in Germany at the time of the study. This procedure was necessary to fulfil the specifications of the local Animal Welfare Authorities. Piglets of all groups received an NSAID as presented below