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Table 2 Least square means and standard errors of clinical parameters before and 5 and 120 min. after castration/sham castration by treatment group

From: S-ketamine and intranasal application: alternatives for the castration of male suckling piglets?

Clinical parameter Time point in relation to castration/sham castration Total Group  
A B C D E F P (group)
Serum cortisol (IU/ml) Before 129 ± 4.3 125 ± 10.7 119 ± 10.7 132 ± 10.7 140 ± 10.7 135 ± 10.7 121 ± 10.7 n.s.
5 min. after 186 ± 5.7 215 ± 14.0 205 ± 14.0 229 ± 14.0 205 ± 14.0 137 ± 14.0 123 ± 14.0 <0.001
120 min. after 158 ± 7.8 283 ± 19.1 201 ± 19.1 193 ± 19.1 129 ± 19.1 110 ± 19.1 29 ± 19.1 <0.001
P <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.017 n.s. <0.001  
Hearth rate (/min) Before 150 ± 3.0 150 ± 7.3 148 ± 7.3 152 ± 7.3 145 ± 7.3 150 ± 7.3 154 ± 7.3 n.s.
5 min. after 140 ± 4.4 128 ± 10.9 125 ± 10.9 137 ± 10.9 132 ± 10.9 153 ± 10.9 164 ± 10.9 n.s.
120 min. after 157 ± 4.1 150 ± 10.1 172 ± 10.1 153 ± 10.1 138 ± 10.1 157 ± 10.1 171 ± 10.1 n.s.
P 0.012 n.s. 0.021 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.  
Breaths per min. Before 75 ± 2.1 76 ± 5.2 76 ± 5.2 70 ± 5.2 72 ± 5.2 83 ± 5.2 70 ± 5.2 n.s.
5 min. after 72 ± 1.8 66 ± 4.4 72 ± 4.4 64 ± 4.4 81 ± 4.4 73 ± 4.4 71 ± 4.4 n.s.
120 min. after 74 ± 3.1 72 ± 7.7 81 ± 7.7 66 ± 7.7 78 ± 7.7 70 ± 7.7 74 ± 7.7 n.s.
P n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.  
Rectal temperature (°C) Before 39.4 ± 0.51 39.7 ± 0.12 39.5 ± 0.12 39.0 ± 0.12 39.3 ± 0.12 39.5 ± 0.12 39.2 ± 0.12 n.s.
5 min. after 38.2 ± 0.93 37.7 ± 0.23 37.9 ± 0.23 38.1 ± 0.23 37.7 ± 0.23 39.0 ± 0.23 38.9 ± 0.23 <0.001
120 min. after 39.2 ± 0.12 39.0 ± 0.29 39.6 ± 0.29 38.7 ± 0.29 39.2 ± 0.29 39.1 ± 0.29 39.1 ± 0.29 n.s.
P <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.008 <0.001 n.s. n.s.  
  1. A: S-ketamine, i.m., surgical castration; B: R/S-ketamine, i.m., surgical castration; C: S-ketamine; i.n., surgical castration; D: R/S-ketamine, i.m., sham castration; E: no anaesthesia, surgical castration; F: no anaesthesia, sham castration; i.m.: intra muscular application; i.n. intra nasal application; ketamine always administered together with azaperone; all piglets received the NSAID Flunixine
  2. n.s. not significant