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Table 3 Frequency distribution of putative risk factors associated with anthelmintic resistance, and prevalence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs at the surveyed farms

From: Resistance of strongylid nematodes to anthelmintic drugs and driving factors at Czech goat farms

Factor Farm distribution (%) Anthelmintic resistance at farms (%)a
Benzimidazole Ivermectin Dual
Type of production   P = 0.34 P = 1 P = 1
 Conventional 58 64 57 43
 Organic 42 90 50 50
Stocking rate   P = 0.64 P = 0.04 P = 1
  ≤ 8 goats per hectare 50 67 42 42
  ≥ 9 goats per hectare 50 83 67 50
Pasture rotation   P = 0.64 P = 0.41 P = 1
 Yes 50 67 67 50
 No 50 83 42 42
Farmers’ educational level   P = 1 P = 0.39 P = 0.66
  ≤ Middle school 71 76 74 35
 University 29 71 71 57
Farming Experience   P = 0.04 P = 0.64 P = 0.31
  ≤ 5 years 16 100 75 75
 6–10 years 42 70 60 50
  > 10 years 42 70 40 30
Faecal examination   P = 1 P = 0.41 P = 0.70
 Yes 58 71 64 50
 No 42 80 40 40
Regular deworming   P = 1 P = 1 P = 1
 Yes 83 75 50 50
 As required 13 100 33 33
 No 4 0 0 0
Deworming frequency   P = 1 P = 1 P = 1
 Once a year 25 100 50 50
 Twice a year 50 58 50 50
 Other frequency 25 67 33 33
Targeted selective treatment   P = 0.54 P = 1 P = 1
 Yes 17 100 50 50
 No 83 61 48 39
Animals weighed before drug application   P = 1 P = 0.18 P = 0.48
 Yes 9 100 0 0
 No 91 70 57 48
Drug dose   P = 0.12 P = 0.38 P = 0.09
 Sheep dose 35 100 75 75
 Sheep dose × 2 65 67 47 33
  1. P (probability) values, significant association P ≤ 0.05, a AR status referred to Tables 1 and 2