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Table 1 Use of antimicrobials in poultry, pig, and beef cattle production systems on Guadeloupe

From: Antimicrobial use and resistance in Escherichia coli from healthy food-producing animals in Guadeloupe

  Farms
Poultry Pig Beef cattle Total P
(n = 15) (n = 14) (n = 16) (n = 45)
Herd size
 mean ± sd 12,301 (18,983.0) 611 (799.0) 106 (197.0) 4327.8 (12,141.0)  
 median (iqr) 1500 (19,340.0) 445 (603.0) 36 (50.0) 400.0 (948.0) < 0.001
Use of food supplementsa n, (%)
Never 1 (6.7) 5 (35.7) 6 (35.7) 12 (26.7)  
Occasionally 5 (33.3) 6 (42.9) 2 (12.5) 13 (28.9) NS
Systematically 9 (60.0) 3 (21.4) 8 (50.0) 20 (44.4)  
Use of antimicrobial agent
Never 9 (60.0) 3 (21.4) 4 (25.0) 16 (35.6)  
Occasionally 4 (26.7) 10 (71.4) 12 (75.0) 26 (57.7) 0.046
Systematically 2 (13.3) 1 (7.1) 0 (0.0) 3 (6.7)  
Veterinarian is the drug supplierd
yes 6 (100.0) 8 (72.7) 8 (66.7) 22 (75.9) NS
Unknown 0 (0.0) 3 (27.3) 4 (33.3) 7 (24.1)  
Nature of antimicrobial treatment
Preventive 3 (50.0) 5 (45.5) 1 (8.3) 9 (31.0) 0.027
Curative 3 (50.0) 6 (54.5) 11 (91.7) 20 (69.0)  
Reasons for treatmentb
Skin disease 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 4 (33.3) 5 (17.2)  
Respiratory pathology 1 (16.7) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 2 (6.9)  
Skin disease and otherc 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 1 (8.3) 2 (6.9)  
Respiratory and digestive pathologies 1 (16.7) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 2 (6.9)  
Respiratory, digestive pathologies and otherc 1 (16.7) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 2 (6.9) NS
Digestive pathology 1 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4)  
Skin disease and respiratory pathology 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4)  
Skin disease, respiratory and digestive pathologies 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4)  
Digestive pathology and otherc 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (8.3) 1 (3.4)  
Otherc 1 (16.7) 4 (36.3) 5 (41.8) 10 (34.5)  
Unknown 1 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (8.3) 2 (6.9)  
Antimicrobials used
Tetracyclines 1 (16.7) 4 (36.3) 9 (75.1) 14 (48.4) 0.001
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 4 (66.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (13.9)
β-lactams + streptomycin + tetracyclines 0 (0.0) 2 (18.2) 1 (8.3) 3 (10.4)
β-lactams + streptomycin 0 (0.0) 2 (18.2) 0 (0.0) 2 (6.9)
Tetracyclines + trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 1 (16.7) 0 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4)
β-lactams 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4)
β-lactams + tetracyclines 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (8.3) 1 (3.4)
β-lactams + phenicols + colistin + macrolides 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4)
Streptomycin + tetracyclines 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (8.3) 1 (3.4)
Streptomycin + phenicols + macrolides 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4)
  > 1 antimicrobial molecule
  no 5 (33.3) 5 (45.5) 9 (75.0) 19 (65.5) NS
  yes 1 (6.7) 6 (54.5) 3 (25.0) 10 (34.5)
Route of administrationd
Parenteral 0 (0.0) 8 (72.7) 11 (91.7) 19 (65.5) < 0.0001
Feed 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 7 (24.2)
Oral 6 (100.0) 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4)
Unknown 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 1 (8.3) 2 (6.9)
One molecule used for 2 distinct pathologies
yes 2 (33.3) 1 (9.1) 1 (8.3) 4 (13.8) NS
no 2 (33.3) 4 (36.4) 5 (41.7) 11 (38.0)
More than one molecule used for the same pathology
yes 1 (16.7) 2 (18.1) 2 (16.7) 5 (17.2) NS
no 0 (0.0) 4 (36.4) 1 (8.3) 5 (17.2)
Unknown 1 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 3 (25.0) 4 (13.8)  
Vaccine administration
yes 2 (13.3) 4 (28.6) 0 (0.0) 6 (13.3) NS
no 13 (86.7) 10 (71.4) 16 (100.0) 39 (86.6)
Other treatmentse
yes 2 (13.3) 5 (35.7) 4 (25.0) 11 (24.4) NS
no 13 (86.7) 9 (64.3) 12 (75.0) 34 (75.6)
Veterinary treatment cost estimation in €/100 kg/year
 mean ± sd 10.6 (18.1) 11.2 (10.1) 6.2 (5.3) 9.2 (12.2)  
 median (iqr) 1.7 (21.4) 7.1 (16.0) 6.4 (8.0) 6.1 (12.7) NS
  1. Quantitative variables are summarized as median and interquartile range (IQR) or as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Qualitative variables are given as numbers and percentages. Intergroup differences were assessed in the Mann-Whitney test or chi-square test, as appropriate. Significant P values are shown in bold
  2. NS not significant
  3. aTrace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids
  4. bTreatments could be applied for more than one reason
  5. cInfectious diseases, reproductive diseases, ticks, leg lesions
  6. dPercentages were calculated with the number of farmers who declared use of antimicrobials as the denominator
  7. eAntiparasitic, antihistaminic, hepatic, medicinal plants