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Fig. 3 | BMC Veterinary Research

Fig. 3

From: Metformin activated AMPK signaling contributes to the alleviation of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells

Fig. 3

Expression of genes related to inflammation in bovine mammary epithelial cells receiving LPS (2 μg/mL) or pretreatment with metformin (3 mmol/L). Expression of genes was normalized by the geometric mean of the internal control genes (GAPDH, RPS9, and UXT). The expression of genes in Con. group was set as 1.0. The error bars indicate the standard deviation (SD). All results are expressed as the means ± SD. Con, control; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; Metf, metformin; ML, LPS with metformin pretreatment. The letters in superscript indicate that the difference between groups was significant (P < 0.05)

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